VirtualBox 安装 CentOS 6 全记录

本文基于 VirtualBox 5.2.16、CentOS 6.10(CentOS-6.10-x86_64-minimal.iso)编写。

下载

安装

略。

网络配置

VirtualBox 配置

VirtualBox 网络配置页面
  • 连接方式:选择【桥接网卡】,此时 CentOS 相当于一台新的电脑直接接入局域网
  • 界面名称:选择当前电脑连接网络使用的网卡

CentOS 配置

修改 /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 配置文件,将 ONBOOT=no 改为 ONBOOT=yes,并重启 network 服务:

[root@localhost ~]# vi /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 
[root@localhost ~]# cat /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 
DEVICE=eth0
HWADDR=此处为马赛克
TYPE=Ethernet
UUID=9e8e00ed-1dfd-4eb7-bd83-468500b29f4e
ONBOOT=yes
NM_CONTROLLED=yes
BOOTPROTO=dhcp
[root@localhost ~]# service network restart
正在关闭接口 eth0:                                        [确定]
关闭环回接口:                                             [确定]
弹出环回接口:                                             [确定]
弹出界面 eth0: 
正在决定 eth0 的 IP 信息...完成。
                                                           [确定]

如需配置静态 IP 地址,修改 /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 配置文件,将 BOOTPROTO=dhcp 改为 BOOTPROTO=static,添加静态 IP 信息(IPADDRNETMASKGATEWAY),并重启 network 服务:

[root@localhost ~]# cat /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 
DEVICE=eth0
HWADDR=此处为马赛克
TYPE=Ethernet
UUID=9e8e00ed-1dfd-4eb7-bd83-468500b29f4e
ONBOOT=yes
NM_CONTROLLED=yes
BOOTPROTO=static
IPADDR=192.168.1.233
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
GATEWAY=192.168.1.1
DNS1=192.168.1.1

测试网络

使用 ifconfig -a 命令查询 CentOS 的 IP 地址,使用 ping 命令测试是否可以访问互联网:

[root@localhost ~]# ifconfig -a
eth0      Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 此处为马赛克
          inet addr:192.168.1.233  Bcast:192.168.1.255  Mask:255.255.255.0
          inet6 addr: 此处为马赛克 Scope:Link
          UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST  MTU:1500  Metric:1
          RX packets:893 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:565 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 
          RX bytes:85898 (83.8 KiB)  TX bytes:88679 (86.6 KiB)

lo        Link encap:Local Loopback  
          inet addr:127.0.0.1  Mask:255.0.0.0
          inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host
          UP LOOPBACK RUNNING  MTU:65536  Metric:1
          RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 
          RX bytes:0 (0.0 b)  TX bytes:0 (0.0 b)

[root@localhost ~]# ping www.baidu.com
PING www.baidu.com (180.97.33.108) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 180.97.33.108: icmp_seq=1 ttl=52 time=4.12 ms
64 bytes from 180.97.33.108: icmp_seq=2 ttl=52 time=6.76 ms
64 bytes from 180.97.33.108: icmp_seq=3 ttl=52 time=13.2 ms
64 bytes from 180.97.33.108: icmp_seq=4 ttl=52 time=13.1 ms
^C
--- www.baidu.com ping statistics ---
4 packets transmitted, 4 received, 0% packet loss, time 3172ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 4.128/9.341/13.277/4.006 ms

在本机使用 ssh 命令连接 CentOS:

[C:\~]$ ssh root@192.168.1.32


Connecting to 192.168.1.32:22...
Connection established.
To escape to local shell, press 'Ctrl+Alt+]'.

WARNING! The remote SSH server rejected X11 forwarding request.
Last login: Fri Jul 27 15:24:00 2018 from 192.168.1.14
[root@localhost ~]# 

软件安装

  1. 安装 EPEL 扩展源

    [root@localhost download]# yum install epel-release
    
  2. 安装 wget 工具

    [root@localhost download]# yum install wget
    
  3. 安装 JDK 8

    [root@localhost download]# wget --no-check-certificate --no-cookies --header "Cookie: oraclelicense=accept-securebackup-cookie" http://download.oracle.com/otn-pub/java/jdk/8u181-b13/96a7b8442fe848ef90c96a2fad6ed6d1/jdk-8u181-linux-x64.rpm
    [root@localhost download]# ll
    总用量 166040
    -rw-r--r--. 1 root root 170023183 7月   9 10:05 jdk-8u181-linux-x64.rpm
    [root@localhost download]# rpm -ivh jdk-8u181-linux-x64.rpm 
    warning: jdk-8u181-linux-x64.rpm: Header V3 RSA/SHA256 Signature, key ID ec551f03: NOKEY
    Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]
       1:jdk1.8                 ########################################### [100%]
    Unpacking JAR files...
        tools.jar...
        plugin.jar...
        javaws.jar...
        deploy.jar...
        rt.jar...
        jsse.jar...
        charsets.jar...
        localedata.jar...
    [root@localhost download]# java -version
    java version "1.8.0_181"
    Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment (build 1.8.0_181-b13)
    Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM (build 25.181-b13, mixed mode)
    
  4. 安装 MySQL 5.7

    MySQL 最新版本为 8.0,使用 yum 安装时,可以使用 yum-config-manager 设置激活版本号。

    [root@localhost download]# wget https://dev.mysql.com/get/mysql80-community-release-el6-1.noarch.rpm
    [root@localhost download]# rpm -ivh mysql80-community-release-el6-1.noarch.rpm 
    [root@localhost download]# yum repolist all | grep mysql
    mysql-cluster-7.5-community        MySQL Cluster 7.5 Community       禁用
    mysql-cluster-7.5-community-source MySQL Cluster 7.5 Community - Sou 禁用
    mysql-cluster-7.6-community        MySQL Cluster 7.6 Community       禁用
    mysql-cluster-7.6-community-source MySQL Cluster 7.6 Community - Sou 禁用
    mysql-connectors-community         MySQL Connectors Community        启用:    59
    mysql-connectors-community-source  MySQL Connectors Community - Sour 禁用
    mysql-tools-community              MySQL Tools Community             启用:    65
    mysql-tools-community-source       MySQL Tools Community - Source    禁用
    mysql-tools-preview                MySQL Tools Preview               禁用
    mysql-tools-preview-source         MySQL Tools Preview - Source      禁用
    mysql55-community                  MySQL 5.5 Community Server        禁用
    mysql55-community-source           MySQL 5.5 Community Server - Sour 禁用
    mysql56-community                  MySQL 5.6 Community Server        禁用
    mysql56-community-source           MySQL 5.6 Community Server - Sour 禁用
    mysql57-community                  MySQL 5.7 Community Server        禁用
    mysql57-community-source           MySQL 5.7 Community Server - Sour 禁用
    mysql80-community                  MySQL 8.0 Community Server        启用:    29
    mysql80-community-source           MySQL 8.0 Community Server - Sour 禁用
    [root@localhost download]# yum install yum-utils
    [root@localhost download]# yum-config-manager --disable mysql80-community
    [root@localhost download]# yum-config-manager --enable mysql57-community
    [root@localhost download]# yum install mysql-community-server
    [root@localhost download]# service mysqld status
    mysqld 已停
    [root@localhost download]# service mysqld start
    正在启动 mysqld:                                          [确定]
    [root@localhost download]# grep 'temporary password' /var/log/mysqld.log
    2018-07-27T17:05:25.224648Z 1 [Note] A temporary password is generated for root@localhost: 5y>Xwt&dr%qM
    [root@localhost download]# mysql -uroot -p5y>Xwt&dr%qM
    mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
    Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
    Your MySQL connection id is 5
    Server version: 5.7.23 MySQL Community Server (GPL)
    
    Copyright (c) 2000, 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    
    Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
    affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
    owners.
    
    Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.
    
    mysql> ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'MyNewPass4!';
    Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
    
    mysql> CREATE USER 'user'@'%' IDENTIFIED BY 'MyNewPass4!';
    Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
    
    mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'user'@'%' WITH GRANT OPTION;
    Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
    
    mysql> quit
    Bye
    [root@localhost download]# vi /etc/sysconfig/iptables
    [root@localhost download]# cat /etc/sysconfig/iptables
    # Firewall configuration written by system-config-firewall
    # Manual customization of this file is not recommended.
    *filter
    :INPUT ACCEPT [0:0]
    :FORWARD ACCEPT [0:0]
    :OUTPUT ACCEPT [0:0]
    -A INPUT -m state --state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT
    -A INPUT -p icmp -j ACCEPT
    -A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT
    -A INPUT -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 22 -j ACCEPT
    -A INPUT -m state --state NEW,ESTABLISHED -m tcp -p tcp --dport 3306 -j ACCEPT
    -A INPUT -j REJECT --reject-with icmp-host-prohibited
    -A FORWARD -j REJECT --reject-with icmp-host-prohibited
    COMMIT
    [root@localhost download]# service iptables restart
    iptables:将链设置为政策 ACCEPT:filter                    [确定]
    iptables:清除防火墙规则:                                 [确定]
    iptables:正在卸载模块:                                   [确定]
    iptables:应用防火墙规则:                                 [确定]
    

    此时,便可以通过局域网,使用 3306 端口、用户名 user、密码 MyNewPass4! 连接该 MySQL。

  5. 安装 Redis 4.0

    [root@localhost download]# wget http://download.redis.io/releases/redis-4.0.10.tar.gz
    [root@localhost download]# cd /opt
    [root@localhost opt]# tar -xzf /home/download/redis-4.0.10.tar.gz
    [root@localhost opt]# cd redis-4.0.10/
    [root@localhost redis-4.0.10]# yum install gcc
    [root@localhost redis-4.0.10]# make
    [root@localhost redis-4.0.10]# yum install tcl
    [root@localhost redis-4.0.10]# make test
    [root@localhost redis-4.0.10]# make install
    [root@localhost redis-4.0.10]# make clean
    [root@localhost redis-4.0.10]# mkdir /var/lib/redis
    [root@localhost redis-4.0.10]# cp redis.conf /etc/redis.conf
    [root@localhost redis-4.0.10]# vi /etc/redis.conf
    

    修改如下配置信息:

    # 开启守护线程模式
    daemonize yes
    # 指定生成的日志文件
    logfile /var/log/redis.log
    # 指定持久化数据保存目录
    dir /var/lib/redis
    
    [root@localhost redis-4.0.10]# cp utils/redis_init_script /etc/init.d/redis
    [root@localhost redis-4.0.10]# vi /etc/init.d/redis
    

    修改如下配置信息:

    # 指定Redis配置文件位置
    CONF="/etc/redis.conf"
    

    现在就可以使用 service 命令启动、关闭 Redis 服务器:

    [root@localhost redis-4.0.10]# service redis start
    Starting Redis server...
    [root@localhost redis-4.0.10]# service redis stop
    Stopping ...
    Waiting for Redis to shutdown ...
    Redis stopped
    

    设置开机自启:

    [root@localhost redis-4.0.10]# chkconfig --add redis
    

    跟踪日志:

    [root@localhost redis-4.0.10]# tailf /var/log/redis.log
    
  6. 安装 RabbitMQ 3.7

    [root@localhost download]# wget https://github.com/rabbitmq/erlang-rpm/releases/download/v20.3.8.4/erlang-20.3.8.4-1.el6.x86_64.rpm
    [root@localhost download]# yum install erlang-20.3.8.4-1.el6.x86_64.rpm
    [root@localhost download]# wget https://github.com/rabbitmq/rabbitmq-server/releases/download/v3.7.7/rabbitmq-server-3.7.7-1.el6.noarch.rpm
    [root@localhost download]# yum install rabbitmq-server-3.7.7-1.el6.noarch.rpm
    [root@localhost download]# service rabbitmq-server start
    

    查看日志:

    [root@localhost download]# more /var/log/rabbitmq/rabbit\@localhost.log 
    
  7. 安装 ZooKeeper

    [root@localhost download]# wget http://mirrors.shu.edu.cn/apache/zookeeper/stable/zookeeper-3.4.12.tar.gz
    [root@localhost download]# cd /opt
    [root@localhost opt]# tar -xzf /home/download/zookeeper-3.4.12.tar.gz
    [root@localhost opt]# cd zookeeper-3.4.12
    [root@localhost zookeeper-3.4.12]# cp conf/zoo_sample.cfg conf/zoo.cfg
    [root@localhost zookeeper-3.4.12]# vi conf/zoo.cfg
    

    修改 dataDir,并增加 dataLogDir 配置:

    dataDir=/var/lib/zookeeper
    dataLogDir=/var/log/zookeeper
    
    [root@localhost zookeeper-3.4.12]# cd /etc/init.d
    [root@localhost init.d]# touch zookeeper
    [root@localhost init.d]# chmod +x zookeeper
    [root@localhost init.d]# vi zookeeper
    

    增加如下配置信息:

    #!/bin/sh
    
    # Purpose: This script starts and stops the Zookeeper daemon
    # chkconfig: - 90 10
    # description: Zookeeper daemon
    
    ZOO_LOG_DIR=/var/log/zookeeper
    ZOO_LOG4J_PROP=INFO,ROLLINGFILE
    
    export ZOO_LOG_DIR
    export ZOO_LOG4J_PROP
    
    source /etc/profile
    
    cd /opt/zookeeper-3.4.12
    bin/zkServer.sh $1
    
    [root@localhost init.d]# service zookeeper start
    ZooKeeper JMX enabled by default
    Using config: /opt/zookeeper-3.4.12/bin/../conf/zoo.cfg
    Starting zookeeper ... STARTED
    [root@localhost init.d]# service zookeeper status
    ZooKeeper JMX enabled by default
    Using config: /opt/zookeeper-3.4.12/bin/../conf/zoo.cfg
    Mode: standalone
    [root@localhost init.d]# chkconfig --add zookeeper
    [root@localhost init.d]# chkconfig zookeeper on
    [root@localhost init.d]# chkconfig|grep zookeeper
    zookeeper       0:关闭    1:关闭    2:启用    3:启用    4:启用    5:启用    6:关闭
    

附录

CentOS 常用系统目录结构

  • /bin bin 是 Binary 的缩写, 这个目录存放着最经常使用的命令。
  • /etc 这个目录用来存放所有的系统管理所需要的配置文件和子目录。
  • /home 用户的主目录,在 Linux 中,每个用户都有一个自己的目录,一般该目录名是以用户的账号命名的。
  • /opt 这是给主机额外安装软件所摆放的目录。比如你安装一个 ORACLE 数据库则就可以放到这个目录下。默认是空的。
  • /root 该目录为系统管理员,也称作超级权限者的用户主目录。
  • /sbin s 就是 Super User 的意思,这里存放的是系统管理员使用的系统管理程序。
  • /tmp 这个目录是用来存放一些临时文件的。
  • /usr 这是一个非常重要的目录,用户的很多应用程序和文件都放在这个目录下,类似于 windows 下的 program files 目录。
  • /var 这个目录中存放着在不断扩充着的东西,我们习惯将那些经常被修改的目录放在这个目录下。包括各种日志文件。

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