2018年第一季度托福阅读分析

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2018年第一季度托福阅读分析

从一月到三月底,2018第一季度总共经历了11场考试,这11场考试当中,阅读和听力延续了每场多卷考试的模式。多卷考试造成了话题预测的难度,不过我们依然可以通过整体的分布情况寻找到备考的方向。首先,让我们先来看一下都考了哪些话题!

话题回顾

在这11场考试中,我们可以从整体趋势看到,动物话题还是占了最大比例,然后是历史类,地质话题。


01

鱼类及海洋生物

1. Crown of Thorn Starfish Populations

2. Increasing Jellyfish Populations

3. Air-Breathing Fishes

4. Marine Bioluminescence

5. starfish 和 coral 的关系

6. 生物从海洋到陆地

7. Evidence of Zooxanthellae in Fossilized Corals

8. The Origin of Coral Reefs

02

鸟类

1. 岛屿上退化掉飞行能力的鸟

2. Beaks of Darwin’s Finches

3. How Birds Acquire Their Songs

4. Bird Song

5. Bird Territory

6. 鹰的生物进化

03

古生物类

1. 古生物爆发

2. spontaneous generation

3. 地球上最初生命的起源

4. 恐龙是不是热血动物?

5.Cretaceous Extinctions

04

其他

1. Aquatic Desert Animals

2. Butterfly’s wing patterns and predator defense

3. the role of diapause

4. 社会化结构的昆虫

5. Optimal Foraging Among Primates

6. Mating Songs of Frogs

7. 松鼠储存方式差别

8. Sexual Selection

9. Honeybee Communication

10. Predator and Prey

11. Extinction of the Mammoth

话题分析

这些话题当中,鱼类和海洋生命出现的最多,其次是鸟类(鸟类重点关注bird song以及flight),最后是生命起源和恐龙,我们重点看下这些话题可能涉及到的内容和词汇

01

鱼类和海洋生命

jellyfish

内容:水母过多其实有好有坏。数量多是因为人们过度捕捞,导致他们的竞争者变少,水母大量繁殖。全球变暖和酸雨,让二氧化碳融了好多进水中。水母很喜欢。水体富营养化,然而水母比别的动物更适合在这严峻的环境生存。

词汇:jellyfish(水母) global warming(全球变暖) overfishing(过度捕捞) acid rain(酸雨) eutrophication(富营养化) harsh(严峻的)

marine bioluminescence

内容:在海洋中,一些生物是会发光的,他们通过物质,氧气和特定的酶进行化学反应来产生光,一些生物同时具备多色细胞可控制光的看颜色和强度。发光有许多用处,比如警告侵略者,相反的也可以用于吸引猎物,不同的生物对于发光的需求是不同的。一些生物长期吞噬发光生物,为已经进化成红色或黑色来是掩盖这些发光物质。

词汇:luciferin(荧光粉) luciferase(荧光素酶) protein(蛋白质)

resonant energy transfer(能量共振转移) defensive functions of startle(惊吓敌害) counterillumination /camouflage(引诱食饵) mate attraction/recognition(吸引/识别伴侣)


coal reef

(可参考TPO 47:coal reef)

内容:一片珊瑚和Zooxanthellae的寄生关系 珊瑚提供保护 z提供光合作用产生的二氧化碳 但寄生珊瑚不能在太低温度 或 太深的海底因为光照不到 z光合作用也就不行了 但有些也不是寄生的 判断寄生方法是同位素 z需要c12而非c13 多余c13排放被珊瑚吸收 所以13多的珊瑚就存在寄生关系 判断化石生长速度 用x光线 类似年轮,珊瑚之所以没有寄生关系是 随着海底深度下降 生长速度不变

词汇:Fringing reef(岸礁) Barrier reef(堤礁) Platform reef(平顶礁) parasite(寄生关系) low tide(低潮) photosynthesis(光合作用) a mutually beneficial relationship(互惠关系) isotope(同位素) growth ring(年轮)

02

鸟类

birdsong

内容:鸟的叫声,可以分辨配偶,可以确立领土,一种鸟可以模仿其他鸟声音,最后是人和鸟一样有相同的学习声音方法,只能模仿同种物种。

词汇:hereditary information(遗传信息) constraint(限制) advertise territories(展示领土) duet call mobbing call breed/ reproduce(繁殖) infrasound(次声)

bird flight

内容:没有捕食者的威胁所以不用飞。一种鸟开始进化得flightless是在恐龙灭绝以后,地面威胁少了。一种鸟吃素,吃素需要一个东西产生细菌帮助消化。这个东西很重,会阻碍飞行,所以大部分鸟都吃肉。不飞使得鸟可以生出跟他们身体差不多大的鸟蛋,生 大蛋可以给小鸟提供更多营养提高成活率。总之能不飞的时候就不飞,因为不飞带来的好处多。另外不飞得没进化出手,但有的进化出类似手的claw。

词汇:locomotion(移动) migrate(迁移) flightless(不能飞的) digestive system(消化系统) embryo(胚胎) beak(鸟嘴) manipulate(操作) paw(爪子)

新老话题比重

从17年九月份开始,阅读的话题趋势有个大的改变:新话题开始增多!包括上面罗列的动物类话题,关注“因学托福”公众号的应该能够清楚的感受到:很多话题不再是前面三年考到过的了,出现了大量了新话题!比如:Beaks of Darwin’s Finches,希腊时期的铜马,Cerebral Lateralization。

对比整个17年不难发现,新话题在当年接下来的考试当中重复的概率是及其高的,所以我们重点需要关注他们。下面罗列出18年第二三四季度极有可能的重复到的新话题:

01

历史类

Social unrest

1968年二战结束后美国有很多社会动荡(social unrest), 尤其是学生之间。主要是因为有很多社会性事件发生:美国人对于越战(Vietnam War)的意见不统一、马丁路德金遇刺、肯尼迪遇刺等一系列事件。这个动荡不止发生在美国,同时在巴黎,五月份也发生了大规模的动乱,造成了巴黎的短暂性瘫痪(paralysis),然后扩展到其他地方。这些大规模动乱产生的原因:第一个是人口巨大。二战前的生育高峰(baby boom) 正好成长到上大学的年纪,巴黎经历了20年以内都没有过的人口暴涨;这些二战前成长的孩子在比较好的的环境下长大,对于未来有比较好的期待,所以他们有很大的动机来要求进行改革。另一个原因:媒体技术的发展。二战后,录像磁带(video tape)还有影像传输技术(image transmission technique),使得声音和影像可以同时传播到全世界,一个地方的运动可能会给其他地方的运动提供促进和推动作用。

二次工业革命带来的影响

主要是因为二次工业革命(the Second Industrial Revolution)给工人带来了一些变故,不需要技巧的(unskilled)的工作机器都能做了,然后工业革命给经历了第一次工业革命的国家带来的变故,煤(coal)开采越来越少了因为有了引擎(engine)。工业革命带来了不仅是纺织业(textile industry)还有其他行业的发展,连家务活(chore)都能用机器做,最后说的是工业革命在美国福克斯公司生产线的体现,工人开始做一些不用动脑子的工作。

Did Clovis People eat plant as mainfood?

一些考古发现指出,克罗维斯人有可能食用植物作为主要食物来源。这些考古发现包括:用来磨谷物的(grinding)巨大石头、谷物外壳的残留(remains of chaff)、磨损严重的牙齿。后来发现,他们确实有食用植物,但并不作为主要食物来源。因为男性捕猎,女性采集(gathering)。所以女性对植物的分布,不同季节食物的营养更敏感。他们有不断的移动(constant move),所以并不是主要依赖食物。

02

动物类

Beaks of Darwin’s Finches

达尔文雀的鸟嘴和进化论的关系,排除环境因素、基因决定,三拨科学家来观察,达尔文得到进化论核心部分。L在雨季(wet season)观察结果错了,G兄弟是对的,并找到规律:先吃小的柔软的,把大硬的种子储存起来干旱时候吃,所以干旱时候嘴大的鸟存活下来数量增多。

Honeybee Communication

蜜蜂觅食说:如果有一只或几只蜜蜂找到了食物来源,就会来跳舞,其他蜜蜂通过触摸(contact)和观察就能确定食物的位置,于是纷纷敢去觅食。科学家做了一个实验发现有两种舞蹈,一种画圈圈( round dance),一中画圈圈加直线(waggle dance),当食物离蜜蜂较近的时候就用第一种舞,较远的时候就用第二种舞,而且第二种舞蹈的直线距离和食物距离成正比,同时,跳舞的角度也反应了食物相对太阳的方向从而确定方位。

03

生化类

spontaneous generation

关于巴斯德(曲颈瓶(retort)的发明者,反对生命自然发生说)以及米勒的实验(将碳氢化合物分子(hydrocarbon molecules),如甲烷(methane)、氨(ammonia)和氢(hydrogen)等与水混合,一起灌入到一个特殊的玻璃装置中,给瓶内混合物加热,使之不断沸腾(boiling),产生气体(gas)。气体经过一个装有两个电极(electrode)的小室,室内连续产生火花,犹如大自然的闪电和火山爆发,然后经过冷却又变成液体回到原处。最后产生了组成现代生命的蛋白质(protein)结构中的几种氨基酸(amino acid)成分)。文章首先说人们认为微生物(microorganism)是自然发生的,巴斯德却认为微生物本来就存在于空气中,像尘埃一样到处飘。为了验证他的观点,就做了一个实验:把一锅汤煮沸然后密封(seal),多天之后汤没有变质,说明没有产生微生物。反对者又说必须要与大气接触才会有化学反应从而出现微生物,于是巴斯德设计了一种曲颈瓶,瓶内的液体可以接触外界空气,但是空气中微生物无法进入瓶中。巴斯特将汤盛入这种曲颈瓶中,多天以后,也没有变质,从而证明了他自己的观点。虽然巴斯德是正确的,但是地球起初并没有任何生命,所以肯定至少有一次,生命是自然发生的。后面还有一题问地球初期与我们现在的有什么区别于是就说了米勒的那个实验。证明了生命始有可能自然发生的。

2018第一季度词汇汇总

向上滑动,查看所有单词

1.6

strategy=plan

enhancing=increasing

compensate for=make up for

temporarily =briefly

devastated =severely damaged

inherently =naturally

prolonged =extended

boosting=increasing

deteriorating =worsening

persistent=continuous

converge =meet

artificial=human-made

prompts=stimulates

particular=specific

eventually=in the end

recall=remember

unprecedented=never before seen

permanent=constant

excessive=too many

inadvertently=accidentally

relentless =without pause

encountered=came into contact with

mobilize=put into action

remarkable=impressive

lethal =deadly

disrupted =interfered with

appeal=attraction

vicinity =area

1.13

eminent = distinguished

conceivable = imaginable

dismiss = reject

relatively = comparatively

abrupt = sudden

derived = obtained

core = center

presumed = supposed

occasionally = sometimes

drastically = extremely

segregated = separated

accommodated = allowed

detected = noticed

debate = argue about

crucial = very important

edge = advantage

overall = general

practically = almost

discrete = distinct

simultaneously = at the same time

routinely = regularly

plausible = likely

sufficiently = enough

soared = increased dramatically

apparently affects = seems to affect

1.27

exclusively = only

compromise = weaken

documented = recorded

magnified = increased

potential = possible

favorable = advantageous

ambiguous = unclear

convey = transmit

properties = characteristics

substantially = significantly

allegedly = supposedly

apparent = obvious

in profusion = abundantly

readily = easily

eventually = finally

1.28

chaotic = disorganized

coalesced = joined

suddenly = abruptly

refine = improved

sparse = thin

2.4

unfavorable = negative

more permeable = had more places where crossings could occur

pursue = engage in

comparable = similar

hastening = hurrying

readily = quickly

rudimentary = primitive

motives = reasons

anticipate = predict

foundation = basis

isolated = widely separated

distinct = clear

mutual = shared

allied = related

compilations = collections

dispersed = spread

remnants = remainders

remote = isolated

cited = mentioned

mundane = ordinary

decisive = determining

rival = competitor

lethal = deadly

disrupted = destroyed

appeal = attraction

vicinity = area

a case in point = a good example

barring = excluding

the course of change the way = the change developed

exclusively = only

regardless of = no matter

3.3

consequently = as a result

remarkably = distinctly

severity = harshness

congregate = together

remnants = remains

comprise = consisting of

3.10

most compelling = strongest

terminate = stop

viable = able to survive

much deterioration = much worsening

thoroughly = carefully

end = location

extract = select

fine-tuning / thoroughly control

3.11

undoubtedly = certainly

accomplished = achieved

intermediate = in-between

reinforce = strengthen

founding = establishment

dwellings = homes

essential to = necessary for

mature = fully developed

suspected =thought it likely

function = purpose

progressively = increasingly

subsequent = later

vigorously = energetically

was heightened = increased

prevail = dominate

substantially = largely

initiate = begin

3.24

Air-Breathing Fishes

stagnant = unmoving

tolerate = endure

critical = essential

Cerebral Lateralization

integrating = coordinating

assume = take on

consistent = the same each time

implications = consequences

generation = production

acceleration = speeding up

predominantly = mostly

particularly = especially

reflected = shown

flourishes = does very well

autonomy = self-rule

pervasive = widespread

Constituent = component

Gradual = slow

Predominate = are in the majority

Diffuse = spread

virtually = almost completely

startled = surprised

disrupt = disturb

rudimentary = simple

swift = fast

significant = considerable

modest = relatively small

Consequently = therefore

3.31

vigorous= very active

immensely=enormously

progressively = increasingly

hence = therefore

ferocity = intensity

repudiation = rejection

in odds with = in conflict with

antiquated = outdated

startle = surprise

disrupt = disturb

rudimentary = simple

predominate = mainly

potent = powerful

托福高分攻略

1.基本的托福词汇量

2.基本的句子简化能力

3.做题的熟练及准确度

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