Fragment 监听返回按键

在日常开发中,我们用fragment承担页面UI主要的逻辑,简化activity逻辑。有个场景,fragment需要监听返回键。但fragment不像activity能感知物理按键。

过去

我们会写一个监听接口,让fragment实现。然后activity遍历(或根据tag)找到需要的fragment,在按返回键时,主动将事件下发给fragment。

虽然实现了fragment监听返回键的效果,但是代码需要侵入到activity,并不利于维护。google官方也考虑到了这个问题。

现在

在新版的AndroidX中:ComponentActivity中增加了OnBackPressedDispatcher(用于注册返回键监听)。

activity继承关系如下:

WechatIMG9.jpeg

新的fragment监听方案:

关键类:OnBackPressedCallback,OnBackPressedDispatcher,ComponentActivity。

// 定义返回键监听事件。
val callback = object : OnBackPressedCallback(false) {

        override fun handleOnBackPressed() {
            //do some thing
        }
    }
// 注册监听事件。activity为ComponentActivity的子类对象即可。并绑定生命周期。
activity.onBackPressedDispatcher.addCallback(lifecycleOwner, callback)
// 也可以不绑定生命周期。
activity.onBackPressedDispatcher.addCallback(callback)

OnBackPressedCallback可以设置enabled,可以灵活控制要不要消费返回键点击事件。

优势

所有代码都在fragment里。不需要要求activity写多余的逻辑。只要能拿到activity对象和所在的lifecycleOwner即可完成监听任务。甚至是在自定义view中。

深入源码

OnBackPressedCallback:用于处理OnBackPressedDispatcher.onBackPressed()回调而无需将该实现与的子类强耦合的类ComponentActivity。源码比较简单

public abstract class OnBackPressedCallback {
    private boolean mEnabled;
    private CopyOnWriteArrayList<Cancellable> mCancellables = new CopyOnWriteArrayList<>();
    /**
     * Create a {@link OnBackPressedCallback}.
     *
     * @param enabled The default enabled state for this callback.
     * @see #setEnabled(boolean)
     */
    public OnBackPressedCallback(boolean enabled) {
        mEnabled = enabled;
    }
    /**
     * Set the enabled state of the callback. Only when this callback
     * is enabled will it receive callbacks to {@link #handleOnBackPressed()}.
     * <p>
     * Note that the enabled state is an additional layer on top of the
     * {@link androidx.lifecycle.LifecycleOwner} passed to
     * {@link OnBackPressedDispatcher#addCallback(LifecycleOwner, OnBackPressedCallback)}
     * which controls when the callback is added and removed to the dispatcher.
     *
     * @param enabled whether the callback should be considered enabled
     */
    @MainThread
    public final void setEnabled(boolean enabled) {
        mEnabled = enabled;
    }
    /**
     * Checks whether this callback should be considered enabled. Only when this callback
     * is enabled will it receive callbacks to {@link #handleOnBackPressed()}.
     *
     * @return Whether this callback should be considered enabled.
     */
    @MainThread
    public final boolean isEnabled() {
        return mEnabled;
    }
    /**
     * Removes this callback from any {@link OnBackPressedDispatcher} it is currently
     * added to.
     */
    @MainThread
    public final void remove() {
        for (Cancellable cancellable: mCancellables) {
            cancellable.cancel();
        }
    }
    /**
     * Callback for handling the {@link OnBackPressedDispatcher#onBackPressed()} event.
     */
    @MainThread
    public abstract void handleOnBackPressed();
    void addCancellable(@NonNull Cancellable cancellable) {
        mCancellables.add(cancellable);
    }
    void removeCancellable(@NonNull Cancellable cancellable) {
        mCancellables.remove(cancellable);
    }
}

OnBackPressedDispatcher:存放监听的容器,通过它统一执行。

储存结构:

// 利用一个队列存储回调。    
@SuppressWarnings("WeakerAccess") /* synthetic access */
final ArrayDeque<OnBackPressedCallback> mOnBackPressedCallbacks = new ArrayDeque<>();

是否有有效回调:

@MainThread
    public boolean hasEnabledCallbacks() {
        Iterator<OnBackPressedCallback> iterator =
                mOnBackPressedCallbacks.descendingIterator();
        while (iterator.hasNext()) {
            if (iterator.next().isEnabled()) {
                return true;
            }
        }
        return false;
    }

执行顺序:

// 按先注册顺序遍历,只执行enabled为true的回调。
@MainThread
    public void onBackPressed() {
        Iterator<OnBackPressedCallback> iterator =
                mOnBackPressedCallbacks.descendingIterator();
        while (iterator.hasNext()) {
            OnBackPressedCallback callback = iterator.next();
            if (callback.isEnabled()) {
                callback.handleOnBackPressed();
                return;
            }
        }
        if (mFallbackOnBackPressed != null) {
            mFallbackOnBackPressed.run();
        }
    }

绑定生命周期原理:

@MainThread
    public void addCallback(@NonNull LifecycleOwner owner,
            @NonNull OnBackPressedCallback onBackPressedCallback) {
        Lifecycle lifecycle = owner.getLifecycle();
        if (lifecycle.getCurrentState() == Lifecycle.State.DESTROYED) {
            return;  // 无视已经死亡的。
        }
        onBackPressedCallback.addCancellable(
                new LifecycleOnBackPressedCancellable(lifecycle, onBackPressedCallback));
    }

LifecycleOnBackPressedCancellable 监听生命周期变化,决定是否cancel掉监听。

private class LifecycleOnBackPressedCancellable implements LifecycleEventObserver,
            Cancellable {
        private final Lifecycle mLifecycle;
        private final OnBackPressedCallback mOnBackPressedCallback;
        @Nullable
        private Cancellable mCurrentCancellable;
        LifecycleOnBackPressedCancellable(@NonNull Lifecycle lifecycle,
                @NonNull OnBackPressedCallback onBackPressedCallback) {
            mLifecycle = lifecycle;
            mOnBackPressedCallback = onBackPressedCallback;
            lifecycle.addObserver(this);
        }
        @Override
        public void onStateChanged(@NonNull LifecycleOwner source,
                @NonNull Lifecycle.Event event) {
            if (event == Lifecycle.Event.ON_START) {
                // 此时为有效。
                mCurrentCancellable = addCancellableCallback(mOnBackPressedCallback);
            } else if (event == Lifecycle.Event.ON_STOP) {
                // Should always be non-null
                if (mCurrentCancellable != null) {
                    mCurrentCancellable.cancel();
                }
            } else if (event == Lifecycle.Event.ON_DESTROY) {
                cancel();
            }
        }
        @Override
        public void cancel() {
            mLifecycle.removeObserver(this);
            mOnBackPressedCallback.removeCancellable(this);
            if (mCurrentCancellable != null) {
                mCurrentCancellable.cancel();
                mCurrentCancellable = null;
            }
        }
    }

ComponentActivity:

关键代码:

// 父类的 onBackPressed 事件委托给 OnBackPressedDispatcher 。
private final OnBackPressedDispatcher mOnBackPressedDispatcher =
            new OnBackPressedDispatcher(new Runnable() {
                @Override
                public void run() {
                    ComponentActivity.super.onBackPressed();
                }
            });
// 自己的 onBackPressed 全交给 OnBackPressedDispatcher 处理。
@Override
    @MainThread
    public void onBackPressed() {
        mOnBackPressedDispatcher.onBackPressed();
    }

总结

利用注册监听的方式,可以很好的结偶代码,可以activity的功能分发到各个能够访问activity对象的组件上。

配个图

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