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SharedPreference如何阻塞主线程

96
ironman_
2017.07.01 00:46* 字数 1230

最近发现我们的很多anr的原因都指向了SharedPreference,那么带着一些疑问,作如下探索:

  • sharedPreference为什么会阻塞主线程?
  • sharedPreference有没有内存缓存,他是如何读和写的?会立即写入文件吗?
  • 他是如何保证数据同步的,如何才能避免sharedPreference引起的anr?

从sharedPreference的创建,到读取,到写入

sp的创建

先来看看sharedPreference是如何创建的,在ContextImple.getSharedPreference()中,

@Override
    public SharedPreferences getSharedPreferences(File file, int mode) {
        checkMode(mode);
        SharedPreferencesImpl sp;
        synchronized (ContextImpl.class) {
            final ArrayMap<File, SharedPreferencesImpl> cache = getSharedPreferencesCacheLocked();
            sp = cache.get(file);
            if (sp == null) {
                sp = new SharedPreferencesImpl(file, mode);
                cache.put(file, sp);
                return sp;
            }
        }
        if ((mode & Context.MODE_MULTI_PROCESS) != 0 ||
            getApplicationInfo().targetSdkVersion < android.os.Build.VERSION_CODES.HONEYCOMB) {
            // If somebody else (some other process) changed the prefs
            // file behind our back, we reload it.  This has been the
            // historical (if undocumented) behavior.
            sp.startReloadIfChangedUnexpectedly();
        }
        return sp;
    }

他会有缓存,并不是每次都去文件中读写,有一个以sharedPreference的名称为key(通过名称缓存一个file,以这个file为key),对应这个sharedPerference的内容为value的静态的map来缓存整个应用中的sp,所以我们最好不要创建过多的小的sp,尽量合并,不然这个静态的map会很大。

然后看看sp的构造函数:

    SharedPreferencesImpl(File file, int mode) {
        mFile = file;
        mBackupFile = makeBackupFile(file);
        mMode = mode;
        mLoaded = false;
        mMap = null;
        startLoadFromDisk();//
    }
    
//初始化的时候会开一个线程去读取xml文件。
    private void startLoadFromDisk() {
        synchronized (this) {
            mLoaded = false;
        }
        new Thread("SharedPreferencesImpl-load") {
            public void run() {
                loadFromDisk();
            }
        }.start();
    }

从构造函数中可以看出来:他会开一个线程去读取文件数据,也就是上次存储的文件,读到内存中。(由此可以看出,sp是有内存缓存的)

sp的读取:

每次读取都会对当前的sp对象加锁,然后判断是否load本地文件成功

@Nullable
    public String getString(String key, @Nullable String defValue) {
        synchronized (this) {
            awaitLoadedLocked();
            String v = (String)mMap.get(key);
            return v != null ? v : defValue;
        }
    }

这里的awaitLoadedLocked()就是等待sp的创建,其实在sp的构造方法中已经开了一个线程去load本地文件,这里只是等待他load完成。

load完成之后就可以从内存中去取了。

sp的写操作:

我们一般使用editor对sp去进行写操作。

先来看看editor如何创建出来的:

    public Editor edit() {
        // TODO: remove the need to call awaitLoadedLocked() when
        // requesting an editor.  will require some work on the
        // Editor, but then we should be able to do:
        //
        //      context.getSharedPreferences(..).edit().putString(..).apply()
        //
        // ... all without blocking.
        synchronized (this) {
            awaitLoadedLocked();
        }

        return new EditorImpl();
    }

这里可以看出来,就算是你不读,只写,他也需要等到读取本地文件完成。

editor里用一个map将改动的东西存起来,当提交的时候他会把他先提交到内存,然后再形成一个异步的提交。

editor里可以暂时存放多个key的改动,然后形成一次提交,如果我们可以将多个提交合并成一次提交,尽量合并,因为每一次调用apply或者commit都会形成一个新的提交,创建各种锁。

主要来看一下他的apply方法:

public void apply() {
            final MemoryCommitResult mcr = commitToMemory();
            final Runnable awaitCommit = new Runnable() {
                    public void run() {
                        try {
                            //阻塞调用者,谁调用,阻塞谁
                            mcr.writtenToDiskLatch.await();
                        } catch (InterruptedException ignored) {
                        }
                    }
                };

            QueuedWork.add(awaitCommit);

            Runnable postWriteRunnable = new Runnable() {
                    public void run() {
                        awaitCommit.run();
                        QueuedWork.remove(awaitCommit);
                    }
                };

            SharedPreferencesImpl.this.enqueueDiskWrite(mcr, postWriteRunnable);

            // Okay to notify the listeners before it's hit disk
            // because the listeners should always get the same
            // SharedPreferences instance back, which has the
            // changes reflected in memory.
            notifyListeners(mcr);
        }

这里会先创建一个awaitCommit的Runnable,主要是用来阻塞调用者(writtenToDiskLatch.await()谁调用阻塞谁),然后将这个awaitCommit加到QueuedWrok的队列中,然后又创建了一个postWriteRunnable,里面主要是做清除工作。然后最后一句enqueueDiskWrite()这个方法:

private void enqueueDiskWrite(final MemoryCommitResult mcr,
                                  final Runnable postWriteRunnable) {
        final Runnable writeToDiskRunnable = new Runnable() {
                public void run() {
                    synchronized (mWritingToDiskLock) {
                        writeToFile(mcr);
                    }
                    synchronized (SharedPreferencesImpl.this) {
                        mDiskWritesInFlight--;
                    }
                    if (postWriteRunnable != null) {
                        postWriteRunnable.run();
                    }
                }
            };

        final boolean isFromSyncCommit = (postWriteRunnable == null);

        // Typical #commit() path with fewer allocations, doing a write on
        // the current thread.
        if (isFromSyncCommit) {
            boolean wasEmpty = false;
            synchronized (SharedPreferencesImpl.this) {
                wasEmpty = mDiskWritesInFlight == 1;
            }
            if (wasEmpty) {
                writeToDiskRunnable.run();
                return;
            }
        }

        QueuedWork.singleThreadExecutor().execute(writeToDiskRunnable);
    }

这里又创建了一个Runnable,我们来理清一下他们之间的调用关系。

sp.png

从上图可以看到,其实那个加入到单线程线程池中的异步写文件操作(writeToDiskRunnable)才真正成为了一个异步任务,其他的两个runnable只是被调用了run方法。

一个异步写操作:先调用写入文件,写入完成调用setDiskWriteResult()这里将计数锁减一,表示当前这个写操作完成。然后调用postWriteRunnable做清除队列操作,这里会调用awaitCommit这个runnable里的await()但是因为刚刚的锁已经解除了,所以这里不会阻塞。这样就表示一次apply的异步任务完成。

但是他为什么要把awaitCommit这个Runnable存放到一个静态的队列中去呢?这里就是阻塞主线程的关键了。

在QueuedWork这个类的主要内容:

/**
 * Internal utility class to keep track of process-global work that's
 * outstanding and hasn't been finished yet.
 *
 * This was created for writing SharedPreference edits out
 * asynchronously so we'd have a mechanism to wait for the writes in
 * Activity.onPause and similar places, but we may use this mechanism
 * for other things in the future.
 *
 * @hide
 */
 
    // The set of Runnables that will finish or wait on any async
    // activities started by the application.
    private static final ConcurrentLinkedQueue<Runnable> sPendingWorkFinishers =
            new ConcurrentLinkedQueue<Runnable>();
            
    /**
     * Add a runnable to finish (or wait for) a deferred operation
     * started in this context earlier.  Typically finished by e.g.
     * an Activity#onPause.  Used by SharedPreferences$Editor#startCommit().
     *
     * Note that this doesn't actually start it running.  This is just
     * a scratch set for callers doing async work to keep updated with
     * what's in-flight.  In the common case, caller code
     * (e.g. SharedPreferences) will pretty quickly call remove()
     * after an add().  The only time these Runnables are run is from
     * waitToFinish(), below.
     */
    public static void add(Runnable finisher) {
        sPendingWorkFinishers.add(finisher);
    }
    
    
    /**
     * Finishes or waits for async operations to complete.
     * (e.g. SharedPreferences$Editor#startCommit writes)
     *
     * Is called from the Activity base class's onPause(), after
     * BroadcastReceiver's onReceive, after Service command handling,
     * etc.  (so async work is never lost)
     */
    public static void waitToFinish() {
        Runnable toFinish;
        while ((toFinish = sPendingWorkFinishers.poll()) != null) {
            toFinish.run();
        }
    }

这里可以看出,他是要保证写入的内容不会丢失,所以才会将每个apply的await存起来,然后依次调用,如果有没有完成的,则阻塞调用者也就是主线程。

那,到底是在哪里调用的呢?

那我们就来找在我们的崩溃日志中,多次出现的

at java.util.concurrent.CountDownLatch.await(CountDownLatch.java:202)
at android.app.SharedPreferencesImpl$EditorImpl$1.run(SharedPreferencesImpl.java:364)
at android.app.QueuedWork.waitToFinish(QueuedWork.java:88)
at android.app.ActivityThread.handleStopActivity(ActivityThread.java:3246)
at android.app.ActivityThread.access$1100(ActivityThread.java:141)
at android.app.ActivityThread$H.handleMessage(ActivityThread.java:1239)

这里看到ActivityThread。handleStopActivity()这个方法,果然在这个方法中能找到调用QueueWork中的await的地方:

    private void handleStopActivity(IBinder token, boolean show, int configChanges, int seq) {
        ActivityClientRecord r = mActivities.get(token);
        if (!checkAndUpdateLifecycleSeq(seq, r, "stopActivity")) {
            return;
        }
        r.activity.mConfigChangeFlags |= configChanges;

        StopInfo info = new StopInfo();
        performStopActivityInner(r, info, show, true, "handleStopActivity");

        if (localLOGV) Slog.v(
            TAG, "Finishing stop of " + r + ": show=" + show
            + " win=" + r.window);

        updateVisibility(r, show);

        // Make sure any pending writes are now committed.
        if (!r.isPreHoneycomb()) {
            QueuedWork.waitToFinish();
        }

        // Schedule the call to tell the activity manager we have
        // stopped.  We don't do this immediately, because we want to
        // have a chance for any other pending work (in particular memory
        // trim requests) to complete before you tell the activity
        // manager to proceed and allow us to go fully into the background.
        info.activity = r;
        info.state = r.state;
        info.persistentState = r.persistentState;
        mH.post(info);
        mSomeActivitiesChanged = true;
    }

这个方法会在什么时候调用呢?

当系统给app发送了命令之后会调用

再看一下这个handleStopActivity调用了哪些方法:
handleStopActivity的调用链

ActivityThread.handleStopActivity
    ActivityThread.performStopActivityInner
        ActivityThread.callCallActivityOnSaveInstanceState
            Instrumentation.callActivityOnSaveInstanceState
                Activity.performSaveInstanceState
                    Activity.onSaveInstanceState

        ActivityThread.performStop
            Activity.performStop
                Instrumentation.callActivityOnStop
                    Activity.onStop

    updateVisibility

    H.post(StopInfo)
        AMP.activityStopped
            AMS.activityStopped
                ActivityStack.activityStoppedLocked
                AMS.trimApplications
                    ProcessRecord.kill
                    ApplicationThread.scheduleExit
                        Looper.myLooper().quit()

                    AMS.cleanUpApplicationRecordLocked
                    AMS.updateOomAdjLocked

看到当handleStopActivity被调用之后会回调一些我们熟悉的方法

  • Activity.onSaveInstanceState
  • Activity.onStop

总结一下:

使用了apply方式异步写sp的时候每次apply()调用都会形成一次提交,每次有系统消息发生的时候(handleStopActivity, handlePauseActivity)都会去检查已经提交的apply写操作是否完成,如果没有完成则阻塞主线程。

参考文章:http://www.cnblogs.com/xiaoweiz/p/3733272.html

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