android 6.0以上版本动态权限处理

目前搭载android6.0以上版本系统手机占有量将近三分之一,具体如下图所示:


android各系统版本占有量

所以有必要将升级app的targetSdkVersion,但从Android6.0 以上开始,系统引入了一个新的应用权限模型,运行时权限模型(Runtime Permissions)。

运行时权限:用户在应用运行时,对应用授予危险权限。由应用决定何时去申请权限(例如,在应用打开摄像机时或访问通讯录时),但必须容许用户来授予或者拒绝应用对特定权限的访问。

权限分为两种:

  • 正常权限:不涉及用户的隐私,不需要在运行时向其授权。主要是震动,蓝牙,访问网络等权限。 查看所有正常权限
  • 危险权限:涉及用户的隐私,需要在运行时向其授权。主要是使用相机,拨打电话,收发短信,获取位置信息,读写sd卡等权限。 查看所有危险权限及分组。系统将危险权限进行了分组,当用户对组内的某一个权限进行了授权,下次请求组内其他权限时系统会默认直接授予。

目前在开发上最简单的做法就是将targetSdkVersion一直设置在23以下,这样的话就不需要考虑动态授权的问题,在AndroidManifest.xml中申请你需要的权限就可以了。

我们现在处理targetSdkVersion = 23及以上的情况:

1. 声明权限

普通权限和危险权限都要在此声明。

<manifest xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
package="xxx.xxx.xxx">
<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.CALL_PHONE" />
<application android:allowBackup="true"
android:supportsRtl="true">
</application>
</manifest>

2. 检查并请求权限

/**
* 检查权限,如果未授权,则请求
*
* @param activity
* @param requestCode 请求码,例如:如果你需要请求打电话的权限,参数值就是Manifest.permission.CALL_PHONE
*/
public static void requestPermission(final Activity activity, final int requestCode, PermissionGrant permissionGrant) {
if (activity == null) {
return;
}
if (requestCode < 0 || requestCode >= requestPermissions.length) {
return;
}
final String requestPermission = requestPermissions[requestCode];
//如果是6.0以下的手机,ActivityCompat.checkSelfPermission()会始终等于PERMISSION_GRANTED,
// 但是,如果用户关闭了你申请的权限,ActivityCompat.checkSelfPermission(),会导致程序崩溃(java.lang.RuntimeException: Unknown exception code: 1 msg null),
// 你可以使用try{}catch(){},处理异常,也可以判断系统版本,低于23就不申请权限,直接做你想做的。permissionGrant.onPermissionGranted(requestCode);
if (Build.VERSION.SDK_INT < 23) {
permissionGrant.onPermissionGranted(requestCode);
return;
}
int checkSelfPermission;
try {
checkSelfPermission = ActivityCompat.checkSelfPermission(activity, requestPermission);
} catch (RuntimeException e) {
Toast.makeText(activity, "please open this permission", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT)
.show();
return;
}
if (checkSelfPermission != PackageManager.PERMISSION_GRANTED) {
if (ActivityCompat.shouldShowRequestPermissionRationale(activity, requestPermission)) {
shouldShowRationale(activity, requestCode, requestPermission);
} else {
ActivityCompat.requestPermissions(activity, new String[]{requestPermission}, requestCode);
}
} else {
Toast.makeText(activity, "opened:" + requestPermissions[requestCode], Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
permissionGrant.onPermissionGranted(requestCode);
}
}

3. 回调处理申请结果

/**
* @param activity
* @param requestCode
* @param permissions
* @param grantResults
*/
public static void requestPermissionsResult(final Activity activity, final int requestCode, @NonNull String[] permissions,
@NonNull int[] grantResults, PermissionGrant permissionGrant) {
if (activity == null) {
return;
}
if (requestCode == CODE_MULTI_PERMISSION) {
requestMultiResult(activity, permissions, grantResults, permissionGrant);
return;
}
if (requestCode < 0 || requestCode >= requestPermissions.length) {
Toast.makeText(activity, "illegal requestCode:" + requestCode, Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
return;
}
if (grantResults.length == 1 && grantResults[0] == PackageManager.PERMISSION_GRANTED) {
permissionGrant.onPermissionGranted(requestCode);
} else {
String[] permissionsHint = activity.getResources().getStringArray(R.array.permissions);
openSettingActivity(activity, "Result" + permissionsHint[requestCode]);
}
}

以上涉及到的一些函数方法,我在下面一并写出来:

/**
提示用户为什么要开启该权限
* @param activity
* @param requestCode
* @param requestPermission
/
private static void shouldShowRationale(final Activity activity, final int requestCode, final String requestPermission) {
String[] permissionsHint = activity.getResources().getStringArray(R.array.permissions);
showMessageOKCancel(activity, "Rationale: " + permissionsHint[requestCode], new DialogInterface.OnClickListener() {
@Override
public void onClick(DialogInterface dialog, int which) {
ActivityCompat.requestPermissions(activity,
new String[]{requestPermission},
requestCode);
}
});
}
/

* 提示框
* @param context
* @param message
* @param okListener
/
private static void showMessageOKCancel(final Activity context, String message, DialogInterface.OnClickListener okListener) {
new AlertDialog.Builder(context)
.setMessage(message)
.setPositiveButton("OK", okListener)
.setNegativeButton("Cancel", null)
.create()
.show();
}
/
*
* 打开权限设置界面
* @param activity
* @param message
/
private static void openSettingActivity(final Activity activity, String message) {
showMessageOKCancel(activity, message, new DialogInterface.OnClickListener() {
@Override
public void onClick(DialogInterface dialog, int which) {
Intent intent = new Intent();
intent.setAction(Settings.ACTION_APPLICATION_DETAILS_SETTINGS);
Uri uri = Uri.fromParts("package", activity.getPackageName(), null);
intent.setData(uri);
activity.startActivity(intent);
}
});
}
/
*
* 一次申请多个权限
/
public static void requestMultiPermissions(final Activity activity, PermissionGrant grant) {
final List<String> permissionsList = getNoGrantedPermission(activity, false);
final List<String> shouldRationalePermissionsList = getNoGrantedPermission(activity, true);
if (permissionsList == null || shouldRationalePermissionsList == null) {
return;
}
if (permissionsList.size() > 0) {
ActivityCompat.requestPermissions(activity, permissionsList.toArray(new String[permissionsList.size()]),
CODE_MULTI_PERMISSION);
} else if (shouldRationalePermissionsList.size() > 0) {
showMessageOKCancel(activity, "should open those permission",
new DialogInterface.OnClickListener() {
@Override
public void onClick(DialogInterface dialog, int which) {
ActivityCompat.requestPermissions(activity, shouldRationalePermissionsList.toArray(new String[shouldRationalePermissionsList.size()]),
CODE_MULTI_PERMISSION);
}
});
} else {
grant.onPermissionGranted(CODE_MULTI_PERMISSION);
}
}
/
*
* 一次请求多个权限结果回调
* @param activity
* @param permissions
* @param grantResults
* @param permissionGrant
/
private static void requestMultiResult(Activity activity, String[] permissions, int[] grantResults, PermissionGrant permissionGrant) {
if (activity == null) {
return;
}
Map<String, Integer> perms = new HashMap<>();
ArrayList<String> notGranted = new ArrayList<>();
for (int i = 0; i < permissions.length; i++) {
perms.put(permissions[i], grantResults[i]);
if (grantResults[i] != PackageManager.PERMISSION_GRANTED) {
notGranted.add(permissions[i]);
}
}
if (notGranted.size() == 0) {
Toast.makeText(activity, "all permission success" + notGranted, Toast.LENGTH_SHORT)
.show();
permissionGrant.onPermissionGranted(CODE_MULTI_PERMISSION);
} else {
openSettingActivity(activity, "those permission need granted!");
}
}
/
*
* 授予权限接口回调
*/
public interface PermissionGrant {
void onPermissionGranted(int requestCode);
}

4. 在Activity或Fragment中调用

/**
*
/btnCall.setOnClickListener(new View.OnClickListener() {
@Override
public void onClick(View view) {
PermissionUtils.requestPermission(xxx.this, PermissionUtils.CODE_CALL_PHONE, mPermissionGrant);
}
});
/
*
* 打电话
/
public void callPhone() {
Intent intent = new Intent(Intent.ACTION_CALL);
Uri data = Uri.parse("tel:" + "13918396199");
intent.setData(data);
startActivity(intent);
}
/
*
* Callback received when a permissions request has been completed.
/
private PermissionUtils.PermissionGrant mPermissionGrant = new PermissionUtils.PermissionGrant() {
@Override
public void onPermissionGranted(int requestCode) {
switch (requestCode) {
case PermissionUtils.CODE_CALL_PHONE:
callPhone();
break;
default:
break;
}
}
};
/
*
* Callback received when a permissions request has been completed.
*/
@Override
public void onRequestPermissionsResult(final int requestCode, @NonNull String[] permissions,
@NonNull int[] grantResults) {
PermissionUtils.requestPermissionsResult(this, requestCode, permissions, grantResults, mPermissionGrant);
}

最后感谢Google提供的demo Google demo 下载地址

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