刻意练习Peak- Chapter3

单词:

rekindle

verbatim 

overarching

assimilate

score 乐谱

come to fore

red herrings


第二章结尾留下一个问题:即然大脑是可改变的,那什么是提升我们大脑improve our brain的好方法?

答案是是刻意练习。在刻意练习之中,我们的大脑究竟是什么发生了变化?

实验表明区分专家和我们普通人的主要因素是:他们经过年复一年的练习,已经改变了大脑中的神经回路,以创建高度专业化的心理表征,这些心理表征反过来使得令人难以置信的记忆、规则等等

“So here is a major part of the answer to the question we asked at the end of the last chapter: What exactly is being changed in the brain with deliberate practice? The main thing that sets experts apart from the rest of us is that their years of practice have changed the neural circuitry in their brains to produce highly specialized mental representations, which in turn make possible the incredible memory, pattern recognition, problem solving, and other sorts of advanced abilities needed to excel in their particular specialties.”


刻意练习和建立有效的心理表征和关系。

意练习包括创建心理表征:

大多数的刻意练习,包括创建更加有效的心理表征,不论你在练习什么,都可以使用这些心理表征。

“Much of deliberate practice involves developing ever more efficient mental representations that you can use in whatever activity you are practicing. ”


什么是mental representation

先来了解一下什么是表征:

表征是外部事物在心理活动中的内部再现,因此,它一方面反映客观事物,代表客观事物,另一方面又是心理活动进一步加工的对象。表征有不同的方式,可以是具体形象的,也可以是语词的或要领的。

心理表征:A mental representation is a mental structure that corresponds to an object, an idea, a collection of information, or anything else, concrete or abstract, that the brain is thinking about. A simple example is a visual image”

特点一:具有行业的特定性,不具备通用性。因为这个原因,建立心理表征不容易,但是心理表征的通性是:

“The thing all mental representations have in common is that they make it possible to process large amounts of information quickly, despite the limitations of short-term memory. Indeed, one could define a mental representation as a conceptual structure designed to sidestep the usual restrictions that short-term memory places on mental processing.”

特点二:日常生活中我们总是在建立这样那样的心理表征,只是我们不知道罢了。

“so we are always building mental representations of one sort or another without even being aware of it. Indeed, without mental representations we couldn’t walk (too many muscle movements to coordinate), we couldn’t talk (ditto on the muscle movements, plus no understanding of the words), we couldn’t live any sort of human life.”

特点三:人人都有mental presentation的能力,只是专家和一般人的心理表在数量和质量上不同,直接表是现专家和新手之间巨大的差异。专家是通过多年的练习,建立了高度复杂的心理表征。这使得他们面对某一情形,可以做出更快速、精准的决策和响应。

“So everyone has and uses mental representations. What sets expert performers apart from everyone else is the quality and quantity of their mental representations.”

“This explains a crucial fact about expert performance in general: there is no such thing as developing a general skill. ”


一般来说, better mental representation lead to better performance.

那专家的心理表征是什么样子?

某个领域的专家即能够看到“一片森林”,又可以小到关注一棵,而普通人,却只看见“一棵树”。

1. 心理表征能够在随机事物中发现规律,做出无意识的决策

“In pretty much every area, a hallmark of expert performance is the ability to see patterns in a collection of things that would seem random or confusing to people with less well developed mental representations. In other words, experts see the forest when everyone else sees only trees.”

🚩“Again, better mental representations lead to better performance.”

几乎在每一个行业或领域,杰出表现的标志是能在一系列事物中找出规律,这些事物,在无法创建高效心理表征的人们看来,可能是随机或令人困惑的。换句话讲,杰出人物能够看到“一片森林”,又可以小到关注一棵,而普通人,却只看见“一棵树”。


2.  帮助处理信息 

the key benefit of mental representations lies in how they help us deal with information: understanding and interpreting it, holding it in memory, organizing it, analyzing it, and making decisions with it. The same is true for all experts—and most of us are experts at something, whether we realize it or not.

🚩“The more you study a subject, the more detailed your mental representations of it become, and the better you get at assimilating new information. ”

3. 吸收信息,找到答案

This is a major advantage of highly developed mental representations: you can assimilate and consider a great deal more information at once. Research on expert diagnosticians has found that they tend to see symptoms and other relevant data not as isolated bits of information but as pieces of larger patterns—in much the same way that grandmasters see patterns among chess pieces rather than a random assortment of pieces.”

4. 计划

“mental representations can be used to plan a wide variety of areas, and the better the representation, the more effective the planning.”

“The more effective the mental representation is, the better the performance will be. ”

5. 有助于学习

“In general, mental representations aren’t just the result of learning a skill; they can also help us learn. ”


技能和mental representation的过关系:相辅相成

In these areas too, the virtuous circle rules: honing the skill improves mental representation, and mental representation helps hone the skill. 

“It’s like a staircase that you climb as you build it. Each step of your ascent puts you in a position to build the next step. Then you build that step, and you’re in a position to build the next one. And so on. Your existing mental representations guide your performance and allow you to both monitor and judge that performance. As you push yourself to do something new—to develop a new skill or sharpen an old one—you are also expanding and sharpening your mental representations, which will in turn make it possible for you to do more than you could before.”

感悟:

以摄影来举例

1. 每个人都有mental representations的能力,只是我们不知道。在学习摄影之初,我们总是会思考我要用什么镜头,拍摄距离多远,我要用多大的快门,光圈,ios,对焦模式,甚至是闪光灯怎么调。当经过大量的拍摄练习之后,拍摄都是在一瞬间完全的。以前我不曾思考过这个过程。其实在大量地摄影练习之后,你的大脑会根据不同的拍摄场景,快速做出决策,选择用什么参数拍摄。

2. 一般来讲在摄影的拍摄初期,想提高技能,一定离不开大量读图,读图可以有助于找到喜欢的拍摄风格,进而模仿。在学习了第三章的内容后,我意识到“读图”的这一过程,实际上就是在建立有效的mental representations。读图量越大,你在拍摄时的拍摄速度和成功率越大。

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