come to fore
第二章结尾留下一个问题：即然大脑是可改变的，那什么是提升我们大脑improve our brain的好方法？
“So here is a major part of the answer to the question we asked at the end of the last chapter: What exactly is being changed in the brain with deliberate practice? The main thing that sets experts apart from the rest of us is that their years of practice have changed the neural circuitry in their brains to produce highly specialized mental representations, which in turn make possible the incredible memory, pattern recognition, problem solving, and other sorts of advanced abilities needed to excel in their particular specialties.”
“Much of deliberate practice involves developing ever more efficient mental representations that you can use in whatever activity you are practicing. ”
心理表征：A mental representation is a mental structure that corresponds to an object, an idea, a collection of information, or anything else, concrete or abstract, that the brain is thinking about. A simple example is a visual image”
“The thing all mental representations have in common is that they make it possible to process large amounts of information quickly, despite the limitations of short-term memory. Indeed, one could define a mental representation as a conceptual structure designed to sidestep the usual restrictions that short-term memory places on mental processing.”
“so we are always building mental representations of one sort or another without even being aware of it. Indeed, without mental representations we couldn’t walk (too many muscle movements to coordinate), we couldn’t talk (ditto on the muscle movements, plus no understanding of the words), we couldn’t live any sort of human life.”
“So everyone has and uses mental representations. What sets expert performers apart from everyone else is the quality and quantity of their mental representations.”
“This explains a crucial fact about expert performance in general: there is no such thing as developing a general skill. ”
一般来说， better mental representation lead to better performance.
“In pretty much every area, a hallmark of expert performance is the ability to see patterns in a collection of things that would seem random or confusing to people with less well developed mental representations. In other words, experts see the forest when everyone else sees only trees.”
🚩“Again, better mental representations lead to better performance.”
the key benefit of mental representations lies in how they help us deal with information: understanding and interpreting it, holding it in memory, organizing it, analyzing it, and making decisions with it. The same is true for all experts—and most of us are experts at something, whether we realize it or not.
🚩“The more you study a subject, the more detailed your mental representations of it become, and the better you get at assimilating new information. ”
This is a major advantage of highly developed mental representations: you can assimilate and consider a great deal more information at once. Research on expert diagnosticians has found that they tend to see symptoms and other relevant data not as isolated bits of information but as pieces of larger patterns—in much the same way that grandmasters see patterns among chess pieces rather than a random assortment of pieces.”
“mental representations can be used to plan a wide variety of areas, and the better the representation, the more effective the planning.”
“The more effective the mental representation is, the better the performance will be. ”
“In general, mental representations aren’t just the result of learning a skill; they can also help us learn. ”
In these areas too, the virtuous circle rules: honing the skill improves mental representation, and mental representation helps hone the skill.
“It’s like a staircase that you climb as you build it. Each step of your ascent puts you in a position to build the next step. Then you build that step, and you’re in a position to build the next one. And so on. Your existing mental representations guide your performance and allow you to both monitor and judge that performance. As you push yourself to do something new—to develop a new skill or sharpen an old one—you are also expanding and sharpening your mental representations, which will in turn make it possible for you to do more than you could before.”
1. 每个人都有mental representations的能力，只是我们不知道。在学习摄影之初，我们总是会思考我要用什么镜头，拍摄距离多远，我要用多大的快门，光圈，ios，对焦模式，甚至是闪光灯怎么调。当经过大量的拍摄练习之后，拍摄都是在一瞬间完全的。以前我不曾思考过这个过程。其实在大量地摄影练习之后，你的大脑会根据不同的拍摄场景，快速做出决策，选择用什么参数拍摄。
2. 一般来讲在摄影的拍摄初期，想提高技能，一定离不开大量读图，读图可以有助于找到喜欢的拍摄风格，进而模仿。在学习了第三章的内容后，我意识到“读图”的这一过程，实际上就是在建立有效的mental representations。读图量越大，你在拍摄时的拍摄速度和成功率越大。