Personal Value

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  1. women favor two values more than men: Sense of Belonging and Warm Relationships with Others. Yet the psychological benefits of a reciprocal, sharing lifestyle, characteristic of women who endorse warm relationships with others, contrasts sharply with the life of the demographically similar women who submerge themselves into being possessions of their family, "belonging" to it. Women who endorse Sense of Belonging seem relatively more neurotic and frustrated.

FROM: Using the list of values (LOV) to understand consumers.

Journal of consumer research






FROM:作者:陈章龙,周莉著 页数:388 出版日期:2004.12

THREE universal requirements of human existence with which people must cope: needs of individuals as biological organ- isms, requisites of coordinated social interaction, and survival and welfare needs of groups.

![Schwarz Value Survey](

where is the "short explanatory phase"?

I can not find them :)

The questionnaire currently recommended by Schwartz is PVQ-RR (Portrait Values Questionnaire – Revised).

PVQ-RR consists of 57 items, designed to measure the 19 values (three items for each value) that are differentiated in the refined theory (Schwartz et al., 2012)


FROM: Refining the Theory of Basic Individual Values Shalom H. Schwartz 2012


Value structure

NOT partition, IS a series of motivational continuum.

Value Structure via Schwartz, 2012

The three outer circles identify the conceptual bases for this order. We theorize that the values bounded by the top half of the outermost circle express growth and self-expansion and are more likely to motivate people when they are free of anxiety. The values bounded by the lower half of the outermost circle are directed toward protecting the self against anxiety and threat. The values on the right in the next circle have a personal focus—concern with outcomes for self. Those on the left have a social focus—concern with outcomes for others or for established institutions.
The second circle from the center indicates the boundaries between the four higher order values into which values can be grouped. Openness to change values emphasize readiness for new ideas, actions, and experiences. They contrast with conservation values that emphasize self-restriction, order, and avoiding change. Self-enhancement values emphasize pursuing one’s own interests. They contrast with self-transcendence values that emphasize transcending one’s own interests for the sake of others. Hedonism shares elements of both openness to change and self-enhancement. The innermost circle arrays the values such that pursuit of a value on one side of the circle is likely to conflict with pursuit of the values distant from it and on the other side of the circle.

FROM: Schwarz, 2012.


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