centos7+nginx+uwsgi+python3+django 部署

说明:这是转载[https://www.cnblogs.com/lvye001/p/10631276.html]的博客(https://www.cnblogs.com/lvye001/p/10631276.html)

CentOS7下部署Django项目详细操作步骤

前记:购买腾讯云服务器,配置自选,当然新用户免费体验半个月,我选择的系统是centos7系统版本,

接下来我们来看整个配置项目流程。

部署是基于:centos7+nginx+uwsgi+python3+django 之上做的

1,详细步骤(下面步骤都是ROOT权限执行):

一、更新系统软件包

<pre style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; overflow-wrap: break-word; font-family: "Courier New" !important; font-size: 12px !important;">yum update -y</pre>

二、安装软件管理包和可能使用的依赖

<pre style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; overflow-wrap: break-word; font-family: "Courier New" !important; font-size: 12px !important;">yum -y groupinstall "Development tools"
yum install openssl-devel bzip2-devel expat-devel gdbm-devel readline-devel sqlite-devel</pre>

三、下载Pyhton3到/usr/local 目录

<pre style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; overflow-wrap: break-word; font-family: "Courier New" !important; font-size: 12px !important;">wget https://www.python.org/ftp/python/3.6.3/Python-3.6.3.tgz</pre>

解压

<pre style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; overflow-wrap: break-word; font-family: "Courier New" !important; font-size: 12px !important;">tar -zxvf Python-3.6.3.tgz</pre>

<pre style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; overflow-wrap: break-word; font-family: "Courier New" !important; font-size: 12px !important;">cd Python-3.6.3</pre>

编译安装到指定路径

<pre style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; overflow-wrap: break-word; font-family: "Courier New" !important; font-size: 12px !important;">./configure --prefix=/usr/local/python3</pre>

/usr/local/python3 路径可以自己指定,自己记着就行,下边要用到。

安装python3

<pre style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; overflow-wrap: break-word; font-family: "Courier New" !important; font-size: 12px !important;">make
make install</pre>

安装完成之后 建立软链接 添加变量 方便在终端中直接使用python3

<pre style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; overflow-wrap: break-word; font-family: "Courier New" !important; font-size: 12px !important;">ln -s /usr/local/python3/bin/python3.6 /usr/bin/python3</pre>

Python3安装完成之后pip3也一块安装完成,不需要再单独安装
一样建立软链接

<pre style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; overflow-wrap: break-word; font-family: "Courier New" !important; font-size: 12px !important;">ln -s /usr/local/python3/bin/pip3.6 /usr/bin/pip3</pre>

四、查看Python3和pip3安装情况

timg.jpg

五、安装virtualenv ,建议大家都安装一个virtualenv,方便不同版本项目管理。

<pre style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; overflow-wrap: break-word; font-family: "Courier New" !important; font-size: 12px !important;">pip3 install virtualenv</pre>

建立软链接

<pre style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; overflow-wrap: break-word; font-family: "Courier New" !important; font-size: 12px !important;">ln -s /usr/local/python3/bin/virtualenv /usr/bin/virtualenv</pre>

安装成功在根目录下建立两个文件夹,主要用于存放env和网站文件的。(个人习惯,其它人可根据自己的实际情况处理)

<pre style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; overflow-wrap: break-word; font-family: "Courier New" !important; font-size: 12px !important;">mkdir -p /data/env
mkdir -p /data/wwwroot</pre>

六、切换到/data/env/下,创建指定版本的虚拟环境。

<pre style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; overflow-wrap: break-word; font-family: "Courier New" !important; font-size: 12px !important;">virtualenv --python=/usr/bin/python3 pyweb</pre>

然后进入/data/env/pyweb/bin

启动虚拟环境:

<pre style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; overflow-wrap: break-word; font-family: "Courier New" !important; font-size: 12px !important;">source activate</pre>

timg.jpg

留意我标记的位置,出现(pyweb),说明是成功进入虚拟环境。

CentOS7安装MySQL(完整版)

1 下载并安装MySQL官方的 Yum Repository

<pre style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; overflow-wrap: break-word; font-family: "Courier New" !important; font-size: 12px !important;">wget -i -c http://dev.mysql.com/get/mysql57-community-release-el7-10.noarch.rpm</pre>

2, 使用上面的命令就直接下载了安装用的Yum Repository,大概25KB的样子,然后就可以直接yum安装了。

<pre style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; overflow-wrap: break-word; font-family: "Courier New" !important; font-size: 12px !important;"> yum -y install mysql57-community-release-el7-10.noarch.rpm</pre>

3,安装MySQL服务器

<pre style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; overflow-wrap: break-word; font-family: "Courier New" !important; font-size: 12px !important;">yum -y install mysql-community-server</pre>

4, MySQL数据库设置

首先启动MySQL

<pre style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; overflow-wrap: break-word; font-family: "Courier New" !important; font-size: 12px !important;">systemctl start mysqld.service</pre>

查看MySQL运行状态,运行状态如图:

<pre style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; overflow-wrap: break-word; font-family: "Courier New" !important; font-size: 12px !important;">systemctl status mysqld.service</pre>

image

此时MySQL已经开始正常运行,不过要想进入MySQL还得先找出此时root用户的密码,通过如下命令可以在日志文件中找出密码:

<pre style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; overflow-wrap: break-word; font-family: "Courier New" !important; font-size: 12px !important;">grep "password" /var/log/mysqld.log</pre>

image

如下命令进入数据库:

<pre style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; overflow-wrap: break-word; font-family: "Courier New" !important; font-size: 12px !important;"> mysql -uroot -p</pre>

输入初始密码(是上面图片最后面的 no;e!5>>alfg),此时不能做任何事情,因为MySQL默认必须修改密码之后才能操作数据库:

<pre style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; overflow-wrap: break-word; font-family: "Courier New" !important; font-size: 12px !important;">ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'new password';</pre>

其中‘new password’替换成你要设置的密码,注意:密码设置必须要大小写字母数字和特殊符号(,/';:等),不然不能配置成功

开启mysql的远程访问

执行以下命令开启远程访问限制(注意:下面命令开启的IP是 192.168.0.1,如要开启所有的,用%代替IP):

<pre style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; overflow-wrap: break-word; font-family: "Courier New" !important; font-size: 12px !important;">grant all privileges on . to 'root'@'192.168.0.1' identified by 'password' with grant option;</pre>

然后再输入下面两行命令

<pre style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; overflow-wrap: break-word; font-family: "Courier New" !important; font-size: 12px !important;">mysql> flush privileges;
mysql> exit</pre>

然后在windows远程测试(也可以用可视化第三方navcat等)

<pre style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; overflow-wrap: break-word; font-family: "Courier New" !important; font-size: 12px !important;">mysql -h 148.70.75.219 -P 3306 -uroot -p</pre>

redis安装

下载安装包

<pre style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; overflow-wrap: break-word; font-family: "Courier New" !important; font-size: 12px !important;">wget http://download.redis.io/releases/redis-4.0.2.tar.gz</pre>

解压安装包并安装

<pre style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; overflow-wrap: break-word; font-family: "Courier New" !important; font-size: 12px !important;">tar xzf redis-4.0.2.tar.gz
cd redis-4.0.2 make
make install</pre>

redis 的很多设置例如:设置密码,远程访问,持久化等,请移驾 点击 跳转。

最后开始进行项目配置

1,安装uwsgi

<pre style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; overflow-wrap: break-word; font-family: "Courier New" !important; font-size: 12px !important;">pip install uwsgi</pre>

2,配置uwsgi,在项目根目录下(manage.py同层目录),新建uwsgi.ini

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<pre style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; overflow-wrap: break-word; font-family: "Courier New" !important; font-size: 12px !important;"># mysite_uwsgi.ini file
[uwsgi] # Django-related settings # 项目根目录的路径
chdir = /data/wwwroot/wtp_02 # Django's wsgi file #wsgi-file = demo01/wsgi.py
module = wtp_02.wsgi:application # uwsgi服务器的角色
master = true # 进程7数
processes=4

线程数

threads=2

存放进程编号的文件

pidfile= uwsgi.pid # the socket (use the full path to be safe
socket=:8082

http = 127.0.0.1:8002

stats = 127.0.0.1:9191 # ... with appropriate permissions - may be needed #chmod-socket = 664 # clear environment on exit

vacuum = true # 日志文件,因为uwsgi可以脱离终端在后台运行,日志看不见。我们以前的runserver是依赖终端的
daemonize=uwsgi.log # 虚拟环境的目录
pythonpath = /data/env/pyweb</pre>

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然后启动uwsgi

<pre style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; overflow-wrap: break-word; font-family: "Courier New" !important; font-size: 12px !important;">uwsgi -i uwsgi.ini # 启动
uwsgi --stop uwsgi.pid # 停止</pre>

我们查下是否启动成功

image

通过查询日志,成功运行,证明配置没有问题

配置项目静态文件

修改你的dango setting.py

<pre style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; overflow-wrap: break-word; font-family: "Courier New" !important; font-size: 12px !important;">DEBUG = False

ALLOWED_HOSTS = ['*']

STATIC_ROOT = os.path.join(BASE_DIR,'static') #静态文件收集 配置路径且将 STATICFILES_DIRS 注释</pre>

然后收集你项目里的所有静态文件,

<pre style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; overflow-wrap: break-word; font-family: "Courier New" !important; font-size: 12px !important;">python manage.py collectstatic</pre>

3,安装nginx

切进 该 /usr/local/ 目录下,执行下面命令

<pre style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; overflow-wrap: break-word; font-family: "Courier New" !important; font-size: 12px !important;">wget http://nginx.org/download/nginx-1.13.7.tar.gz</pre>

下载完成后,执行解压命令:

<pre style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; overflow-wrap: break-word; font-family: "Courier New" !important; font-size: 12px !important;">tar -zxvf nginx-1.13.7.tar.gz</pre>

进入解压后的nginx-1.13.7文件夹,依次执行以下命令:

<pre style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; overflow-wrap: break-word; font-family: "Courier New" !important; font-size: 12px !important;">./configure
make
make install</pre>

nginx一般默认安装好的路径为/usr/local/nginx
在/usr/local/nginx/conf/中先备份一下nginx.conf文件,以防意外。

<pre style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; overflow-wrap: break-word; font-family: "Courier New" !important; font-size: 12px !important;">cp nginx.conf nginx.conf.bak</pre>

然后打开nginx.conf,把原来的内容删除,直接加入以下内容:

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<pre style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; overflow-wrap: break-word; font-family: "Courier New" !important; font-size: 12px !important;">user root;
worker_processes 1; #

error_log logs/error.log; ##error_log logs/error.log notice; ##error_log logs/error.log info;

pid logs/nginx.pid;

events {

worker_connections 1024;

} #

http {
include mime.types;
default_type application/octet-stream;
sendfile on;
keepalive_timeout 65;
upstream django { #django项目的端口号 和uwsgi里面的端口号保存一致
server 127.0.0.1:8082; # for a web port socket (we'll use this first)
} # configuration of the server
server { # nginx服务的端口号 不用修改
listen 8001; # the domain name it will serve for # 这里可以填写你的ip地址或者域名
server_name 148.70.75.219;
charset utf-8;
gzip on;
gzip_disable "msie6";
gzip_proxied any;
gzip_min_length 1k;
gzip_comp_level 4;
gzip_types text/plain text/css application/json application/x-javascript text/javascript text/xml image/jpeg image/png image/gif; # max upload size
client_max_body_size 75M; # adjust to taste

Django media #location /media { # alias /home/x/work/liebiao/lbpro/media; # 指向django的media目录 #}

location /static {
alias /home/x/work/liebiao/lbpro/static; # 指向django的static目录
} # Finally, send all non-media requests to the Django server.
location / {
uwsgi_pass django;
include uwsgi_params; # the uwsgi_params file you installed
}
}
}</pre>

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配置完成后,启动nginx

<pre style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; overflow-wrap: break-word; font-family: "Courier New" !important; font-size: 12px !important;">/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -c /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf #启动nginx
./nginx -s reload                             #重启nginx/当然stop是停止 (/usr/local/nginx/sbin下)
./nginx                                 #启动nginx</pre>

查询是否启动成功

image

<pre style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; overflow-wrap: break-word; font-family: "Courier New" !important; font-size: 12px !important;">lsof -i:8000 查端口占用
ps -ef|grep nginx 查端口号
pkill -9 nginx 强制停止运行</pre>

现在打开浏览器即可进行访问。

image

当然,在实际的开发过程中,经常会碰到服务器需要部署多个项目,我们只需要把 nginx.conf 配置文件稍微修改即可

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<pre style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: pre-wrap; overflow-wrap: break-word; font-family: "Courier New" !important; font-size: 12px !important;">#user root; #worker_processes 1;
events {
worker_connections 1024;
}

http {
include mime.types;
default_type application/octet-stream;

sendfile        on;

keepalive_timeout 65;

gzip on;

server {
    listen       #监听端口号;
    server_name  #你的服务器ip;

 location / { # 将nginx所有请求转到uwsgi

include uwsgi_params; # uwsgi的ip与端口
uwsgi_pass 127.0.0.1:8082;
} #location /static {
# 静态文件目录
# alias /home/XXXXX(静态文件目录);
# }
error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html;
location = /50x.html {
root html;
}
}

  server {
    listen       # 监听端口号;
    server_name  # 你的服务器ip; 
  client_max_body_size 75M; # adjust to taste 

location / { # 将nginx所有请求转到uwsgi
include uwsgi_params; # uwsgi的ip与端口
uwsgi_pass 127.0.0.1:8100;
}

  location /static { # 静态文件目录
        alias /data/wwwroot/wtp_upload_video/static;
        }

  error_page 500 502 503 504  /50x.html;
  location = /50x.html {
         root   html;
        }

        }

} </pre>

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标红的是上面要修改的地方,

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