每周文献速览 2019.10.7 - 2019.10.14

Sleep and neuropsychiatric illness

Sleep disturbances may cause major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder
睡眠紊乱可能会引起严重的抑郁症,焦虑,创伤性应激障碍(PTSD),躁郁症(bipolar disorder)。

What is DSM-5 diagnostic ?

  • The DSM-5 outlines the following criterion to make a diagnosis of depression. (DSM-5 是用于诊断抑郁症的一份评估标准)The individual must be experiencing five or more symptoms during the same 2-week period and at least one of the symptoms should be either (1) depressed mood or (2) loss of interest or pleasure. (如果一个人符合5个或以上症状,则可能患有抑郁症,其中应有抑郁的情绪丧失兴趣这一条)
  1. Depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day.
  2. Markedly diminished interest or pleasure in all, or almost all, activities most of the day, nearly every day.
  3. Significant weight loss when not dieting or weight gain, or decrease or increase in appetite nearly every day.
  4. A slowing down of thought and a reduction of physical movement (observable by others, not merely subjective feelings of restlessness or being slowed down).
  5. Fatigue or loss of energy nearly every day.
  6. Feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt nearly every day.
  7. Diminished ability to think or concentrate, or indecisiveness, nearly every day.
  8. Recurrent thoughts of death, recurrent suicidal ideation without a specific plan, or a suicide attempt or a specific plan for committing suicide.

circadian rhythm dysregulation (independent of sleep disturbance) may be a risk for neuropsychiatric illness, including bipolar disorder, neurodegen- erative disorders, and schizophrenia.
节律失调(不同睡眠紊乱)可能也是神经精神疾病的重大风险,这些疾病包括:躁郁症,神经退行性疾病和精神分裂症。

analysis of sleep function

  • EEG has been the standard method to determine differences in brain activity during vigilance states.
    EGG 依然是测量睡眠和警觉状态的标准手段
  • fMRI, DTI, and other imaging methods have added information about the role of specific networks in sleep/wake dysfunction and hyperarousal conditions.
    fMRI 功能性核磁共振成像, DTI 扩散张量成像,以及其他成像手段可以相互印证,提供更多在 “睡眠/清醒” 正常、紊乱、 警觉状态下大脑网络的信息

neuropsychiatric illness 一些神经精神疾病的描述或定义

insomnia 失眠

  • insomnia is difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep, even when a person has the chance to do so.
  • People with insomnia can feel dissatisfied with their sleep and usually experience one or more of the following symptoms:
    1. fatigue, low energy
    2. difficulty concentrating
    3. mood disturbances
    4. decreased performance in work or at school

depression 抑郁症

  • Those who suffer from depression experience persistent feelings of sadness and hopelessness and lose interest in activities they once enjoyed. Aside from the emotional problems, individuals can also present with a physical symptom such as chronic pain or digestive issues.
    抑郁症的人会感到持续的沮丧,丧失生活的喜欢和兴趣。除了心里上的压抑,身体上可能也会有慢性疼痛或消化能力下降等问题

  • Depressed individuals also present with irritability (易怒), brooding (阴森的), and obsessive rumination (沉思), and report anxiety, phobias (恐惧), excessive worry over physical health, and complain of pain.

autism 自闭症

  • Autism or autism spectrum disorder causes a person to establish repetitive behavioral patterns and often impairs their social interactions with other people.
    患自闭症或自闭谱系障碍的人会重复某种行为模式,并且有严重的社交障碍
  • symptoms includes:
    1. adoption of unusual speech patterns, such as using a robot-like tone 不同寻常的说话模式
    2. avoiding eye contact with others 避免眼神交流
    3. not babbling or cooing to parents as an infant 在婴儿的时候就沉默寡言
    4. not responding to their name 对人喊他没反应
    5. late development of speech skills 语言能力发育晚
    6. having difficulty with maintaining conversation 对话困难
    7. frequently repeating phrases 重复某个词
    8. apparent difficulty in understanding feelings and expressing their own 不能理解和表达自己的感受

generalized anxiety disorder

  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is perpetual state of constant worry about a variety of everyday situations for at least six months.
    广泛性焦虑症是一种反复的,持续的担心状态。
  1. Irritability 易怒
  2. Muscle tension 肌肉紧张
  3. Difficulty concentrating 注意力不集中
  4. Sleep disturbances 睡眠紊乱
  5. Easy fatigue 容易疲惫
  6. Restlessness or feeling on edge 烦躁

post-traumatic stress disorder

  • Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition that’s triggered by a terrifying event — either experiencing it or witnessing it. Symptoms may include flashbacks, nightmares and severe anxiety, as well as uncontrollable thoughts about the event.
    创伤后应激障碍是受到可怕事件后的一种精神创伤。通常表现为不能控制地回想起事故,做噩梦,严重焦虑。

bipolar disorder 躁郁症:时而宁静,时而疯狂

  • bipolar disorder includes mania and depression.
  • mania:
    1. increased talkativeness 话多
    2. increased self-esteem or grandiosity 感觉自己很厉害
    3. decreased need for sleep 不需要睡觉
    4. increase in goal-direct activity, energy level, or irritability 精力旺,易怒
    5. racing thought 想法激进
    6. poor attention 注意力不集中
    7. increased risk-taking (spending money, risky sexual behaviors, etc.) 冒险行为增加
  • depression:
    1. depressed mood 沮丧
    2. changes in sleep 失眠?
    3. changes in eating 吃得少体重下降
    4. fatigue or lack of energy 疲惫没有能量
    5. loss of pleasure in activities once enjoyed 没意思
    6. restlessness or slowing down 烦躁,或不紧不慢?
    7. feelings of guilt or worthlessness 愧疚?人生不值得
    8. indecision or difficulty concentrating 没主意,注意不集中
    9. thoughts of suicide 想死

neurodegenerative disease

  • Examples of neurodegenerative diseases are Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia and the spinocerebellar ataxias.
  • These diseases are diverse in their pathophysiology – with some causing memory and cognitive impairments and others affecting a person’s ability to move, speak and breathe

schizophrenia 精神分裂症

  • Schizophrenia is a chronic psychological disorder that affects a person’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior. A person suffering from schizophrenia has difficulty distinguishing between what is real and what is not real. Major symptoms that include delusions and hallucinations are distressing
    精神分裂症是一种慢性的精神疾病,影响病人的思考、感受和行为。精神分裂的人很难区分什么是真实,一个主要的症状就是会产生错觉或幻觉。

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