Sleep and neuropsychiatric illness
Sleep disturbances may cause major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder
What is DSM-5 diagnostic ?
- The DSM-5 outlines the following criterion to make a diagnosis of depression. (DSM-5 是用于诊断抑郁症的一份评估标准）The individual must be experiencing five or more symptoms during the same 2-week period and at least one of the symptoms should be either (1) depressed mood or (2) loss of interest or pleasure. (如果一个人符合5个或以上症状，则可能患有抑郁症，其中应有抑郁的情绪或丧失兴趣这一条)
- Depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day.
- Markedly diminished interest or pleasure in all, or almost all, activities most of the day, nearly every day.
- Significant weight loss when not dieting or weight gain, or decrease or increase in appetite nearly every day.
- A slowing down of thought and a reduction of physical movement (observable by others, not merely subjective feelings of restlessness or being slowed down).
- Fatigue or loss of energy nearly every day.
- Feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt nearly every day.
- Diminished ability to think or concentrate, or indecisiveness, nearly every day.
- Recurrent thoughts of death, recurrent suicidal ideation without a specific plan, or a suicide attempt or a specific plan for committing suicide.
circadian rhythm dysregulation (independent of sleep disturbance) may be a risk for neuropsychiatric illness, including bipolar disorder, neurodegen- erative disorders, and schizophrenia.
analysis of sleep function
EEG has been the standard method to determine differences in brain activity during vigilance states.
fMRI, DTI, and other imaging methods have added information about the role of specific networks in sleep/wake dysfunction and hyperarousal conditions.
fMRI 功能性核磁共振成像, DTI 扩散张量成像,以及其他成像手段可以相互印证，提供更多在 “睡眠/清醒” 正常、紊乱、 警觉状态下大脑网络的信息
neuropsychiatric illness 一些神经精神疾病的描述或定义
- insomnia is difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep, even when a person has the chance to do so.
- People with insomnia can feel dissatisfied with their sleep and usually experience one or more of the following symptoms:
- fatigue, low energy
- difficulty concentrating
- mood disturbances
- decreased performance in work or at school
Those who suffer from depression experience persistent feelings of sadness and hopelessness and lose interest in activities they once enjoyed. Aside from the emotional problems, individuals can also present with a physical symptom such as chronic pain or digestive issues.
Depressed individuals also present with irritability (易怒), brooding (阴森的), and obsessive rumination (沉思), and report anxiety, phobias (恐惧), excessive worry over physical health, and complain of pain.
- Autism or autism spectrum disorder causes a person to establish repetitive behavioral patterns and often impairs their social interactions with other people.
- symptoms includes:
- adoption of unusual speech patterns, such as using a robot-like tone 不同寻常的说话模式
- avoiding eye contact with others 避免眼神交流
- not babbling or cooing to parents as an infant 在婴儿的时候就沉默寡言
- not responding to their name 对人喊他没反应
- late development of speech skills 语言能力发育晚
- having difficulty with maintaining conversation 对话困难
- frequently repeating phrases 重复某个词
- apparent difficulty in understanding feelings and expressing their own 不能理解和表达自己的感受
generalized anxiety disorder
- Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is perpetual state of constant worry about a variety of everyday situations for at least six months.
- Irritability 易怒
- Muscle tension 肌肉紧张
- Difficulty concentrating 注意力不集中
- Sleep disturbances 睡眠紊乱
- Easy fatigue 容易疲惫
- Restlessness or feeling on edge 烦躁
post-traumatic stress disorder
- Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition that’s triggered by a terrifying event — either experiencing it or witnessing it. Symptoms may include flashbacks, nightmares and severe anxiety, as well as uncontrollable thoughts about the event.
bipolar disorder 躁郁症：时而宁静，时而疯狂
- bipolar disorder includes mania and depression.
- increased talkativeness 话多
- increased self-esteem or grandiosity 感觉自己很厉害
- decreased need for sleep 不需要睡觉
- increase in goal-direct activity, energy level, or irritability 精力旺，易怒
- racing thought 想法激进
- poor attention 注意力不集中
- increased risk-taking (spending money, risky sexual behaviors, etc.) 冒险行为增加
- depressed mood 沮丧
- changes in sleep 失眠？
- changes in eating 吃得少体重下降
- fatigue or lack of energy 疲惫没有能量
- loss of pleasure in activities once enjoyed 没意思
- restlessness or slowing down 烦躁，或不紧不慢？
- feelings of guilt or worthlessness 愧疚？人生不值得
- indecision or difficulty concentrating 没主意，注意不集中
- thoughts of suicide 想死
- Examples of neurodegenerative diseases are Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia and the spinocerebellar ataxias.
- These diseases are diverse in their pathophysiology – with some causing memory and cognitive impairments and others affecting a person’s ability to move, speak and breathe
- Schizophrenia is a chronic psychological disorder that affects a person’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior. A person suffering from schizophrenia has difficulty distinguishing between what is real and what is not real. Major symptoms that include delusions and hallucinations are distressing