第5课 EOS环境搭建入门(私链节点-钱包-密钥-账号)

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1,摘要

【本文目标】
通过本文实践,能在已编译的EOS V1.0.5版本环境上,完成私链节点启动,钱包创建,密钥导入和账号创建等内容。
【前置条件】
你已完成了EOS编译,编译测试成功。未完成的可参考《第4课 如何在UBUNTU虚拟机上编译EOS完成环境搭建?》完成相关配置。
【技术收获】
1)EOS的节点,钱包,密钥,账号的概念和理解
2)EOS钱包/账号的建立和遇到的问题分析及解决方法
【说明】
EOS版本还没有稳定下来,即使完成了V1.0.2版本环境搭建的人,到V1.0.5时还是摔在了坑里。辉哥通过踩坑分析给大家提供尽可能多的知识和解决思路,大家在V1.0.5以后的版本部署可参考文章和以错误关键字搜索官网的issue网址获取更多知识。

2. EOSIO总体框架

EOSIO有多个程序模块组成,经常会用到的有以下三个模块:

  • nodeos - EOSIO核心模块,用于启动eosio服务,在后台运行,启动时可以添加多种插件plugin。
  • cleos - 命令行界面钱包工具,见《EOS命令行界面钱包》,位于eos/build/programs/cleos/cleos
  • keosd - 管理钱包的各种组件,默认情况下,keosd将随cleos一起启动。位于eos/build/programs/keosd

下图是上面三个工具的关系:


另外,还有智能合约的编译工具eosiocpp

3. EOS系统中钱包,密钥对,账号,智能合约的关系

相对其他区块链公链,EOS系统的组合关系比较自由,也带来了理解上的困难。辉哥结合自己的理解,以中国大地上人们最关系的房子为例,做比喻介绍。
1) 钱包是土豪房东
土豪可以有很多的房子和各种开门的钥匙。上海这个城市有很多个土豪房东,所以一个节点可以创建多个钱包。

cleos wallet create ${参数}

2)钥匙用来打开房东门的。
钥匙分为私钥和公钥。公钥是别人可以看到的,例如下面图片是土豪家的橙色钥匙包,是专门用来存放仁恒滨江的大平层房子钥匙的,私钥是钥匙包里面实际开门的钥匙。
你拿到钥匙包没有用的,你得拿到钥匙盒里面的私钥才可以打开土豪家房子大门。
土豪房东可以把很多的房子配成一样的锁,用一对公钥/私钥来开门,也可以不同的房子不同的钥匙。

cleos wallet import ${参数} 私钥

3) 账户是房子
房东可以给多个房子配一对钥匙(钥匙包和钥匙),也可以不同房子配不同钥匙。
另外,一个房子可以用2把钥匙打开,一把是owner钥匙对,一把是active钥匙对。
房子的owner钥匙地址表示为房东的公钥,表示主人产权归属,用它对应的私钥可以打开房子,这个钥匙包是房东连小姨子也不会给的;
房子的active钥匙对表示为房客的公钥,表示该用户的私钥可以打开房子,房子出租后,房东就把这个钥匙包给租客了;

cleos create account 节点 账户名 Owner的公钥 Active的公钥

4. 搭建实操

搭建实操的流程图如下。


4. 1 启动私链

1) 启动keosd

keosd --http-server-address=127.0.0.1:8900

命令行界面钱包程序为 keosd,位于 eos/build/programs/keosd 路径下,用于存储交易签名的私钥。keosd在本地节点上运行,并将私钥保存在本地节点上。

默认情况下,keosd会在目录 ~/eosio-wallet 中生成一个基础的配置文件 config.ini。该配置文件中的wallet-dir指定了钱包文件存放目录。

另外,在运行命令行钱包时,可通过配置命令行参数 --config-dir指定config.ini配置文件的目录。该配置文件中保存用于接入http链接的服务器配置http-server-address参数,以及其他用于资源共享的配置参数。

默认情况下,keosd将钱包文件保存在 ~/eosio-wallet 目录下,钱包文件名为:<wallet-name>.wallet。例如,默认钱包文件名为 default.wallet。当建立了其他钱包后,在该目录下会分别建立每个钱包文件,例如当建立了一个名称为"duncanwang"的钱包,会生成一个钱包文件duncanwang.wallet。钱包文件可以通过命令行参数--data-dir存放在指定的目录中。

【预警】从V1.0.5开始,发现要先运行keosd后在运行nodeos才可以创建钱包。

成功输出结果如下:

duncanwang@duncanwang:~$ keosd --http-server-address=127.0.0.1:8900
3861ms thread-0   wallet_plugin.cpp:39          plugin_initialize    ] initializing wallet plugin
3862ms thread-0   http_plugin.cpp:290           plugin_initialize    ] configured http to listen on 127.0.0.1:8900
3863ms thread-0   http_plugin.cpp:377           add_handler          ] add api url: /v1/keosd/stop
3863ms thread-0   http_plugin.cpp:331           plugin_startup       ] start listening for http requests
3865ms thread-0   wallet_api_plugin.cpp:73      plugin_startup       ] starting wallet_api_plugin
3865ms thread-0   http_plugin.cpp:377           add_handler          ] add api url: /v1/wallet/create
3865ms thread-0   http_plugin.cpp:377           add_handler          ] add api url: /v1/wallet/create_key
3865ms thread-0   http_plugin.cpp:377           add_handler          ] add api url: /v1/wallet/get_public_keys
3865ms thread-0   http_plugin.cpp:377           add_handler          ] add api url: /v1/wallet/import_key
3865ms thread-0   http_plugin.cpp:377           add_handler          ] add api url: /v1/wallet/list_keys
3865ms thread-0   http_plugin.cpp:377           add_handler          ] add api url: /v1/wallet/list_wallets
3865ms thread-0   http_plugin.cpp:377           add_handler          ] add api url: /v1/wallet/lock
3865ms thread-0   http_plugin.cpp:377           add_handler          ] add api url: /v1/wallet/lock_all
3865ms thread-0   http_plugin.cpp:377           add_handler          ] add api url: /v1/wallet/open
3865ms thread-0   http_plugin.cpp:377           add_handler          ] add api url: /v1/wallet/remove_key
3865ms thread-0   http_plugin.cpp:377           add_handler          ] add api url: /v1/wallet/set_timeout
3865ms thread-0   http_plugin.cpp:377           add_handler          ] add api url: /v1/wallet/sign_digest
3866ms thread-0   http_plugin.cpp:377           add_handler          ] add api url: /v1/wallet/sign_transaction
3866ms thread-0   http_plugin.cpp:377           add_handler          ] add api url: /v1/wallet/unlock
75115ms thread-0   wallet.cpp:223                save_wallet_file     ] saving wallet to file /home/duncanwang/eosio-wallet/./duncanwang.wallet

【问题】关机后重新启动NODEOS,会有以下错误提示。

duncanwang@duncanwang:~/eos/build/programs/nodeos$ ./nodeos -e -p eosio --plugin eosio::wallet_plugin --plugin eosio::chain_api_plugin --plugin eosio::history_api_plugin --replay-blockchain
1983994ms thread-0   wallet_plugin.cpp:39          plugin_initialize    ] initializing wallet plugin
1983994ms thread-0   chain_plugin.cpp:208          plugin_initialize    ] initializing chain plugin
1983996ms thread-0   chain_plugin.cpp:337          plugin_initialize    ] Replay requested: deleting state database
CHAINBASE:   Failed to pin chainbase shared memory (of size 1024 MB) in RAM. Performance degradation is possible.
1984049ms thread-0   main.cpp:123                  main                 ] database dirty flag set (likely due to unclean shutdown): replay required

【解决方法】
进入'~/.local/share/eosio/nodeos' 目录,删除data文件夹。
重新运行即可成功。

duncanwang@duncanwang:~/eos/build/programs/nodeos$ cd ~/.local/share/eosio/nodeos
duncanwang@duncanwang:~/.local/share/eosio/nodeos$ ls
config  data
duncanwang@duncanwang:~/.local/share/eosio/nodeos$ rm -r -f data

2) 启动私链
在新的命令行窗口输入以下命令。

cd ~/eos/build/programs/nodeos
./nodeos -e -p eosio --plugin eosio::wallet_plugin --plugin eosio::chain_api_plugin --plugin eosio::history_api_plugin --replay-blockchain

参数说明:
1) -e
enable-stale-production,开启后,即使链过时了,也能产生区块
2) -p eosio
producer-name,生产者的名字,这里指定为eosio
3) --plugin eosio::wallet_plugin
在启动nodeos时,需要添加参数eosio::wallet_plugin,否则的话,每次节点重启,之前创建的钱包,账号都不会加载进来。
4)--plugin eosio::chain_api_plugin

5) --plugin eosio::history_api_plugin
记录执行过程。
7) --replay-blockchain
--replay-blockchain表示清除数据库内链的状态,重新运行,它会导致重新启动时先读取之前的区块进行加载。
【注意】 节点关闭后,钱包将会被加锁。重新启动nodeos后,需要使用open命令打开钱包,然后使用unlock命令解锁钱包。
例如:

duncanwang@duncanwang:~/eos$ cleos wallet unlock -n duncanwang
password: Unlocked: duncanwang

输入nodes -help可以看到所有参数的帮助说明。

duncanwang@duncanwang:~/eos$ nodeos -help
Application Options:

Config Options for eosio::bnet_plugin:
  --bnet-endpoint arg (=0.0.0.0:4321)   the endpoint upon which to listen for 
                                        incoming connections
  --bnet-follow-irreversible arg (=0)   this peer will request only 
                                        irreversible blocks from other nodes
  --bnet-threads arg                    the number of threads to use to process
                                        network messages
  --bnet-connect arg                    remote endpoint of other node to 
                                        connect to; Use multiple bnet-connect 
                                        options as needed to compose a network
  --bnet-no-trx                         this peer will request no pending 
                                        transactions from other nodes
  --bnet-peer-log-format arg (=["${_name}" ${_ip}:${_port}])
                                        The string used to format peers when 
                                        logging messages about them.  Variables
                                        are escaped with ${<variable name>}.
                                        Available Variables:
                                           _name  self-reported name
                                        
                                           _id    self-reported ID (Public Key)
                                        
                                           _ip    remote IP address of peer
                                        
                                           _port  remote port number of peer
                                        
                                           _lip   local IP address connected to
                                                  peer
                                        
                                           _lport local port number connected 
                                                  to peer
                                        
                                        

Config Options for eosio::chain_plugin:
  --blocks-dir arg (="blocks")          the location of the blocks directory 
                                        (absolute path or relative to 
                                        application data dir)
  --checkpoint arg                      Pairs of [BLOCK_NUM,BLOCK_ID] that 
                                        should be enforced as checkpoints.
  --wasm-runtime wavm/binaryen          Override default WASM runtime
  --chain-state-db-size-mb arg (=1024)  Maximum size (in MB) of the chain state
                                        database
  --reversible-blocks-db-size-mb arg (=340)
                                        Maximum size (in MB) of the reversible 
                                        blocks database
  --contracts-console                   print contract's output to console
  --actor-whitelist arg                 Account added to actor whitelist (may 
                                        specify multiple times)
  --actor-blacklist arg                 Account added to actor blacklist (may 
                                        specify multiple times)
  --contract-whitelist arg              Contract account added to contract 
                                        whitelist (may specify multiple times)
  --contract-blacklist arg              Contract account added to contract 
                                        blacklist (may specify multiple times)
  --action-blacklist arg                Action (in the form code::action) added
                                        to action blacklist (may specify 
                                        multiple times)
  --key-blacklist arg                   Public key added to blacklist of keys 
                                        that should not be included in 
                                        authorities (may specify multiple 
                                        times)

Command Line Options for eosio::chain_plugin:
  --genesis-json arg                    File to read Genesis State from
  --genesis-timestamp arg               override the initial timestamp in the 
                                        Genesis State file
  --print-genesis-json                  extract genesis_state from blocks.log 
                                        as JSON, print to console, and exit
  --extract-genesis-json arg            extract genesis_state from blocks.log 
                                        as JSON, write into specified file, and
                                        exit
  --fix-reversible-blocks               recovers reversible block database if 
                                        that database is in a bad state
  --force-all-checks                    do not skip any checks that can be 
                                        skipped while replaying irreversible 
                                        blocks
  --replay-blockchain                   clear chain state database and replay 
                                        all blocks
  --hard-replay-blockchain              clear chain state database, recover as 
                                        many blocks as possible from the block 
                                        log, and then replay those blocks
  --delete-all-blocks                   clear chain state database and block 
                                        log
  --truncate-at-block arg (=0)          stop hard replay / block log recovery 
                                        at this block number (if set to 
                                        non-zero number)

Config Options for eosio::history_plugin:
  -f [ --filter-on ] arg                Track actions which match 
                                        receiver:action:actor. Actor may be 
                                        blank to include all. Receiver and 
                                        Action may not be blank.

Config Options for eosio::http_client_plugin:
  --https-client-root-cert arg          PEM encoded trusted root certificate 
                                        (or path to file containing one) used 
                                        to validate any TLS connections made.  
                                        (may specify multiple times)
                                        
  --https-client-validate-peers arg (=1)
                                        true: validate that the peer 
                                        certificates are valid and trusted, 
                                        false: ignore cert errors

Config Options for eosio::http_plugin:
  --http-server-address arg (=127.0.0.1:8888)
                                        The local IP and port to listen for 
                                        incoming http connections; set blank to
                                        disable.
  --https-server-address arg            The local IP and port to listen for 
                                        incoming https connections; leave blank
                                        to disable.
  --https-certificate-chain-file arg    Filename with the certificate chain to 
                                        present on https connections. PEM 
                                        format. Required for https.
  --https-private-key-file arg          Filename with https private key in PEM 
                                        format. Required for https
  --access-control-allow-origin arg     Specify the Access-Control-Allow-Origin
                                        to be returned on each request.
  --access-control-allow-headers arg    Specify the Access-Control-Allow-Header
                                        s to be returned on each request.
  --access-control-max-age arg          Specify the Access-Control-Max-Age to 
                                        be returned on each request.
  --access-control-allow-credentials    Specify if Access-Control-Allow-Credent
                                        ials: true should be returned on each 
                                        request.
  --max-body-size arg (=1048576)        The maximum body size in bytes allowed 
                                        for incoming RPC requests
  --verbose-http-errors                 Append the error log to HTTP responses

Config Options for eosio::net_plugin:
  --p2p-listen-endpoint arg (=0.0.0.0:9876)
                                        The actual host:port used to listen for
                                        incoming p2p connections.
  --p2p-server-address arg              An externally accessible host:port for 
                                        identifying this node. Defaults to 
                                        p2p-listen-endpoint.
  --p2p-peer-address arg                The public endpoint of a peer node to 
                                        connect to. Use multiple 
                                        p2p-peer-address options as needed to 
                                        compose a network.
  --p2p-max-nodes-per-host arg (=1)     Maximum number of client0nodes from any
                                        single IP address
  --agent-name arg (="EOS Test Agent")  The name supplied to identify this node
                                        amongst the peers.
  --allowed-connection arg (=any)       Can be 'any' or 'producers' or 
                                        'specified' or 'none'. If 'specified', 
                                        peer-key must be specified at least 
                                        once. If only 'producers', peer-key is 
                                        not required. 'producers' and 
                                        'specified' may be combined.
  --peer-key arg                        Optional public key of peer allowed to 
                                        connect.  May be used multiple times.
  --peer-private-key arg                Tuple of [PublicKey, WIF private key] 
                                        (may specify multiple times)
  --max-clients arg (=25)               Maximum number of clients from which 
                                        connections are accepted, use 0 for no 
                                        limit
  --connection-cleanup-period arg (=30) number of seconds to wait before 
                                        cleaning up dead connections
  --network-version-match arg (=0)      True to require exact match of peer 
                                        network version.
  --sync-fetch-span arg (=100)          number of blocks to retrieve in a chunk
                                        from any individual peer during 
                                        synchronization
  --max-implicit-request arg (=1500)    maximum sizes of transaction or block 
                                        messages that are sent without first 
                                        sending a notice
  --use-socket-read-watermark arg (=0)  Enable expirimental socket read 
                                        watermark optimization
  --peer-log-format arg (=["${_name}" ${_ip}:${_port}])
                                        The string used to format peers when 
                                        logging messages about them.  Variables
                                        are escaped with ${<variable name>}.
                                        Available Variables:
                                           _name  self-reported name
                                        
                                           _id    self-reported ID (64 hex 
                                                  characters)
                                        
                                           _sid   first 8 characters of 
                                                  _peer.id
                                        
                                           _ip    remote IP address of peer
                                        
                                           _port  remote port number of peer
                                        
                                           _lip   local IP address connected to
                                                  peer
                                        
                                           _lport local port number connected 
                                                  to peer
                                        
                                        

Config Options for eosio::producer_plugin:

  -e [ --enable-stale-production ]      Enable block production, even if the 
                                        chain is stale.
  -x [ --pause-on-startup ]             Start this node in a state where 
                                        production is paused
  --max-transaction-time arg (=30)      Limits the maximum time (in 
                                        milliseconds) that is allowed a pushed 
                                        transaction's code to execute before 
                                        being considered invalid
  --max-irreversible-block-age arg (=-1)
                                        Limits the maximum age (in seconds) of 
                                        the DPOS Irreversible Block for a chain
                                        this node will produce blocks on (use 
                                        negative value to indicate unlimited)
  -p [ --producer-name ] arg            ID of producer controlled by this node 
                                        (e.g. inita; may specify multiple 
                                        times)
  --private-key arg                     (DEPRECATED - Use signature-provider 
                                        instead) Tuple of [public key, WIF 
                                        private key] (may specify multiple 
                                        times)
  --signature-provider arg (=EOS6MRyAjQq8ud7hVNYcfnVPJqcVpscN5So8BhtHuGYqET5GDW5CV=KEY:5KQwrPbwdL6PhXujxW37FSSQZ1JiwsST4cqQzDeyXtP79zkvFD3)
                                        Key=Value pairs in the form 
                                        <public-key>=<provider-spec>
                                        Where:
                                           <public-key>    is a string form of 
                                                           a vaild EOSIO public
                                                           key
                                        
                                           <provider-spec> is a string in the 
                                                           form <provider-type>
                                                           :<data>
                                        
                                           <provider-type> is KEY, or KEOSD
                                        
                                           KEY:<data>      is a string form of 
                                                           a valid EOSIO 
                                                           private key which 
                                                           maps to the provided
                                                           public key
                                        
                                           KEOSD:<data>    is the URL where 
                                                           keosd is available 
                                                           and the approptiate 
                                                           wallet(s) are 
                                                           unlocked
  --keosd-provider-timeout arg (=5)     Limits the maximum time (in 
                                        milliseconds) that is allowd for 
                                        sending blocks to a keosd provider for 
                                        signing

Config Options for eosio::txn_test_gen_plugin:
  --txn-reference-block-lag arg (=0)    Lag in number of blocks from the head 
                                        block when selecting the reference 
                                        block for transactions (-1 means Last 
                                        Irreversible Block)

Config Options for eosio::wallet_plugin:
  --wallet-dir arg (=".")               The path of the wallet files (absolute 
                                        path or relative to application data 
                                        dir)
  --unlock-timeout arg (=900)           Timeout for unlocked wallet in seconds 
                                        (default 900 (15 minutes)). Wallets 
                                        will automatically lock after specified
                                        number of seconds of inactivity. 
                                        Activity is defined as any wallet 
                                        command e.g. list-wallets.

Application Config Options:
  --plugin arg                          Plugin(s) to enable, may be specified 
                                        multiple times

Application Command Line Options:
  -h [ --help ]                         Print this help message and exit.
  -v [ --version ]                      Print version information.
  --print-default-config                Print default configuration template
  -d [ --data-dir ] arg                 Directory containing program runtime 
                                        data
  --config-dir arg                      Directory containing configuration 
                                        files such as config.ini
  -c [ --config ] arg (=config.ini)     Configuration file name relative to 
                                        config-dir
  -l [ --logconf ] arg (=logging.json)  Logging configuration file name/path 
                                        for library users

4.2 创建钱包

cleos wallet create -n duncanwang

创建duncanwang钱包成功,输出结果如下:

duncanwang@duncanwang:~/eos$ cleos wallet create -n duncanwang
Creating wallet: duncanwang
Save password to use in the future to unlock this wallet.
Without password imported keys will not be retrievable.
"PW5JMZdES2Cds5LsPRUBRo2THEXpbFSM17Xmcd2XWG7XBd49wveTo"

【结果确认】

duncanwang@duncanwang:~$ cleos wallet list
Wallets:
[
  "duncanwang *"
]

duanwang钱包已存在了,*表示该账号已解锁。

【问题1】 创建钱包重名,但是cleos wallet list看不到

duncanwang@duncanwang:~$ cleos wallet create -n duncanwang
Error 3120001: Wallet already exists
Try to use different wallet name.

【解决方法】
这个主要是运行的命令中没有导入钱包--plugin eosio::wallet_plugin这个参数,导致已创建钱包未加载,但是目录下存在已创建的钱包文件。

./nodeos -e -p eosio --plugin eosio::chain_api_plugin --plugin eosio::history_api_plugin --replay-blockchain

~/eosio-wallet 目录下删除文件duncanwang.wallet即可重新创建。

【问题2】重启节点后,cleos wallet list发现已创建的钱包等不存在。

duncanwang@duncanwang:~$ cleos wallet list
Wallets:
[
]

【解决方法】
运行./nodeos命令时要带参数--plugin eosio::wallet_plugin
【解决方法2】
后来发现这种方法有时也是不可行,cleos wallet list没有看到钱包。
采用命令'cleos wallet open -n duncanwang'打开钱包后,就正常加载进来了。

【问题3】创建钱包时提示keosd已运行,并且无法连接

duncanwang@duncanwang:~$ cleos wallet create -n duncanwang
"/usr/local/bin/keosd" launched
Unable to connect to keosd, if keosd is running please kill the process and try again.

【解决方法】
需要输入以下命令把keosd重启下。

ps -ef | grep keosd
kill -9 pid
keosd --http-server-address=127.0.0.1:8900

操作实例如下:

duncanwang@duncanwang:~$ ps -ef | grep keosd
duncanw+  2439     1  0 07:14 pts/1    00:00:00 /usr/local/bin/keosd --http-server-address=::1:8900
duncanw+  2441  2389  0 07:16 pts/1    00:00:00 grep --color=auto keosd

duncanwang@duncanwang:~$ kill -9 2439

4.3 钱包导入系统账号私钥

1) 找到eosio的系统账号的默认公钥/私钥对
找到配置文件,例如以下地址,~/.local/share/eosio/nodeosconfig 的 config.ini,默认的私钥/公钥是一样的。

#signature-provider = EOS6MRyAjQq8ud7hVNYcfnVPJqcVpscN5So8BhtHuGYqET5GDW5CV=KEY:5KQwrPbwdL6PhXujxW37FSSQZ1JiwsST4cqQzDeyXtP79zkvFD3

2),钱包导入系统账号私钥

cleos wallet import 5KQwrPbwdL6PhXujxW37FSSQZ1JiwsST4cqQzDeyXtP79zkvFD3 -n duncanwang

duncanwang@duncanwang:~/eos$ cleos wallet import 5KQwrPbwdL6PhXujxW37FSSQZ1JiwsST4cqQzDeyXtP79zkvFD3 -n duncanwang
imported private key for: EOS6MRyAjQq8ud7hVNYcfnVPJqcVpscN5So8BhtHuGYqET5GDW5CV

3),查看系统账号信息
以下命令可以查看eosio系统账号的密钥和资源占用情况。

cleos get account eosio

duncanwang@duncanwang:~/eos/build$ cleos get account eosio
privileged: true
permissions: 
     owner     1:    1 EOS6MRyAjQq8ud7hVNYcfnVPJqcVpscN5So8BhtHuGYqET5GDW5CV
        active     1:    1 EOS6MRyAjQq8ud7hVNYcfnVPJqcVpscN5So8BhtHuGYqET5GDW5CV
memory: 
     quota:       unlimited  used:     60.75 KiB  

net bandwidth: 
     used:               unlimited
     available:          unlimited
     limit:              unlimited

cpu bandwidth:
     used:               unlimited
     available:          unlimited
     limit:              unlimited

4.4 加载Bios合约

现在我们有一个钱包,并且加载了eosio帐户的密钥,我们可以设置一个默认的系统合约。为了开发的目的,可以使用默认的eosio.bios合约。通过此合约,您可以直接控制其他帐户的资源分配,并调用其他特权API。在公开区块链中,这个系统合约将管理其他账户的 token 抵押和解抵押操作,以为合约执行预留CPU、网络活动带宽,以及预留内存。
eosio.bios合约可以在你的EOSIO源代码文件夹中找到:contracts/eosio.bios。下面的命令序列,都假定是在EOSIO源代码的根目录执行。但是您可以通过指定完整路径,从任意位置执行这个命令:${EOSIO_SOURCE}/build/contracts/eosio.bios。

这个命令序列的结果是,cleos发起一个包含两个操作(actions)的交易(transaction):eosio::setcode和eosio::setabi。

代码定义了合约如何运行,abi描述了参数如何在二进制和json表示之间进行转换。虽然abi在技术上是可选的,但为了便于使用,所有的EOSIO工具都依赖于它。

输入命令:

cleos set contract eosio build/contracts/eosio.bios -p eosio

输出结果,表示本地执行成功。

duncanwang@duncanwang:~/eos$ cleos set contract eosio build/contracts/eosio.bios -p eosio
Reading WAST/WASM from build/contracts/eosio.bios/eosio.bios.wasm...
Using already assembled WASM...
Publishing contract...
executed transaction: f4c1cc4e953710645a4849eb41cf92d9d3881c756b227323a3ade221e3807fbb  3720 bytes  12685 us
#         eosio <= eosio::setcode               {"account":"eosio","vmtype":0,"vmversion":0,"code":"0061736d0100000001621260037f7e7f0060057f7e7e7e7e...
#         eosio <= eosio::setabi                {"account":"eosio","abi":"0e656f73696f3a3a6162692f312e30050c6163636f756e745f6e616d65046e616d650f7065...
warning: transaction executed locally, but may not be confirmed by the network yet

4.5 创建并导入新的密钥对

1)创建新的密钥对

cleos create key

创建密钥对的输出结果。

duncanwang@duncanwang:~/eos$ cleos create key
Private key: 5JZQmnt6ZtEzUADswgKgBwMp9qAwTSNM9JFHPRFu1FjrLjj49g7
Public key: EOS6EHAzvrpQ4wo1BPcAk86X6aGDARZgqTcAq1mJRF1SxEYgNGWN1

2) 导入新的私钥

cleos wallet import 5JZQmnt6ZtEzUADswgKgBwMp9qAwTSNM9JFHPRFu1FjrLjj49g7 -n duncanwang

输出结果如下:

duncanwang@duncanwang:~/eos$ cleos wallet import 5JZQmnt6ZtEzUADswgKgBwMp9qAwTSNM9JFHPRFu1FjrLjj49g7 -n duncanwang
imported private key for: EOS6EHAzvrpQ4wo1BPcAk86X6aGDARZgqTcAq1mJRF1SxEYgNGWN1

**3)查看确认密钥对是否导入成功 **

cleos wallet keys

用于查看钱包的密钥对情况。
【输出结果】

duncanwang@duncanwang:~/eos$ cleos wallet keys
[
  "EOS6EHAzvrpQ4wo1BPcAk86X6aGDARZgqTcAq1mJRF1SxEYgNGWN1",
  "EOS6MRyAjQq8ud7hVNYcfnVPJqcVpscN5So8BhtHuGYqET5GDW5CV"
]

4.6 创建新账号

创建账号的命令:
cleos create account eosio {new_account} ownerkey {active_key}

其中eosio是超级用户,需要靠超级用户来创建其它的新用户,eosio后面就是你的新用户的用户名。

除了新的账号之外,命令后面还有两个key:
1、Owner key
2、Active key

Owner key是什么意思呢?Owner key表示分配给新账号的一个Owner认证的公钥。Active key是分配给新账号一个Active认证的一个公钥。

至于这两个认证,我后面会给详细介绍,这是两个主要的权限。我创建一个账号,如果这个账号要有Owner的权限和Active的权限,就必须要用这两个key才能实现。
我们来总结一下刚才的操作,我们刚才操作是调用cleos create account创建了一个账号,这个账号的命名规则遵守下边两个规则:
1、小于13个字符;
2、仅包含这些字符:.12345abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
另外,刚才给大家说到Owner key和Active key的概念。Owner key的概念就是你账号的所有控制权限,你只要有了Owner key,你可以对这个账号的任何东西做任何的事儿,这是它的所有控制权。
而Active key只掌握了你的账号资金的访问权限,也就是你如果有了Active这个权限的话,你可以对这个账号的资金进行转移,但是你不能转移这个账号的所有权,或者不能做超过这个Active权限其它的权利。
如果简单的理解,Owner key就是对这个账号的最高权限,Active只是用来转移资金而已。这也是与以太坊智能合约开发的一个区别,以太坊账号的权限其实没有这么细分,它就只有一个账号,我只要有这个账号的公钥和私钥,我就可以做任何事情。
具体操作如下。

cleos create account eosio wangdenghui1 EOS6EHAzvrpQ4wo1BPcAk86X6aGDARZgqTcAq1mJRF1SxEYgNGWN1 EOS6EHAzvrpQ4wo1BPcAk86X6aGDARZgqTcAq1mJRF1SxEYgNGWN1

【错误现象】

duncanwang@duncanwang:~/eos$ cleos create account eosio wangdenghui1 EOS6EHAzvrpQ4wo1BPcAk86X6aGDARZgqTcAq1mJRF1SxEYgNGWN1 EOS6EHAzvrpQ4wo1BPcAk86X6aGDARZgqTcAq1mJRF1SxEYgNGWN1
Error 3050000: action exception

【解决方案-查询账号】
查询发现该账号已存在,之前辉哥创建过,忘记了。

duncanwang@duncanwang:~/eos$ cleos get accounts EOS6EHAzvrpQ4wo1BPcAk86X6aGDARZgqTcAq1mJRF1SxEYgNGWN1
{
  "account_names": [
    "wangdenghui1"
  ]
}

cleos create account eosio boss EOS6EHAzvrpQ4wo1BPcAk86X6aGDARZgqTcAq1mJRF1SxEYgNGWN1 EOS6EHAzvrpQ4wo1BPcAk86X6aGDARZgqTcAq1mJRF1SxEYgNGWN1

创建成功输出结果:

duncanwang@duncanwang:~/eos$ cleos create account eosio boss EOS6EHAzvrpQ4wo1BPcAk86X6aGDARZgqTcAq1mJRF1SxEYgNGWN1 EOS6EHAzvrpQ4wo1BPcAk86X6aGDARZgqTcAq1mJRF1SxEYgNGWN1
executed transaction: cb6801fe82816f94b447cbfb903ae8e9477f5c99920322d679a9c8c04347e536  200 bytes  367 us
#         eosio <= eosio::newaccount            {"creator":"eosio","name":"boss","owner":{"threshold":1,"keys":[{"key":"EOS6EHAzvrpQ4wo1BPcAk86X6aGD...
warning: transaction executed locally, but may not be confirmed by the network yet

4.6 总结

至此,基于私链环境搭建和准备工作已经完毕,接下来就可以在上面运行"Hello World"智能合约了。

5. 参考

1)eoshackathon/eos_dapp_development_cn 古千峰Github
2) github官网
3)本地环境
EOS圈古千峰大侠担任本篇的武术指导,深表感谢。

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