IOS进阶之WKWebView

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o翻滚的牛宝宝o
1.6 2016.10.08 14:41* 字数 847
标题图片

前言


Xcode8发布以后,编译器开始不支持IOS7,所以很多应用在适配IOS10之后都不在适配IOS7了,其中包括了很多大公司,网易新闻,滴滴出行等。因此,我们公司的应用也打算淘汰IOS7。

支持到IOS8,第一个要改的自然是用WKWebView替换原来的UIWebView。WKWebView有很多明显优势:

  • 更多的支持HTML5的特性

  • 官方宣称的高达60fps的滚动刷新率以及内置手势

  • 将UIWebViewDelegate与UIWebView拆分成了14类与3个协议,以前很多不方便实现的功能得以实现。文档

  • Safari相同的JavaScript引擎

  • 占用更少的内存

UIWebView

UIWebView

WKWebView

WKWebView

因此,使用WkWebview替换UIWebView还是很有必要的。

基本使用方法


WKWebView有两个delegate,WKUIDelegateWKNavigationDelegate。WKNavigationDelegate主要处理一些跳转、加载处理操作,WKUIDelegate主要处理JS脚本,确认框,警告框等。因此WKNavigationDelegate更加常用。

比较常用的方法:

#pragma mark - lifeCircle
- (void)viewDidLoad {
    [super viewDidLoad];
    webView = [[WKWebView alloc]init];
    [self.view addSubview:webView];
    [webView mas_makeConstraints:^(MASConstraintMaker *make) {
        make.left.equalTo(self.view);
        make.right.equalTo(self.view);
        make.top.equalTo(self.view);
        make.bottom.equalTo(self.view);
    }];
    webView.UIDelegate = self;
    webView.navigationDelegate = self;
    [webView loadRequest:[NSURLRequest requestWithURL:[NSURL URLWithString:@"http://www.baidu.com"]]];

}

#pragma mark - WKNavigationDelegate
// 页面开始加载时调用
- (void)webView:(WKWebView *)webView didStartProvisionalNavigation:(WKNavigation *)navigation{

}
// 当内容开始返回时调用
- (void)webView:(WKWebView *)webView didCommitNavigation:(WKNavigation *)navigation{

}
// 页面加载完成之后调用
- (void)webView:(WKWebView *)webView didFinishNavigation:(WKNavigation *)navigation{

}
// 页面加载失败时调用
- (void)webView:(WKWebView *)webView didFailProvisionalNavigation:(WKNavigation *)navigation{

}
// 接收到服务器跳转请求之后调用
- (void)webView:(WKWebView *)webView didReceiveServerRedirectForProvisionalNavigation:(WKNavigation *)navigation{

}
// 在收到响应后,决定是否跳转
- (void)webView:(WKWebView *)webView decidePolicyForNavigationResponse:(WKNavigationResponse *)navigationResponse decisionHandler:(void (^)(WKNavigationResponsePolicy))decisionHandler{

    NSLog(@"%@",navigationResponse.response.URL.absoluteString);
    //允许跳转
    decisionHandler(WKNavigationResponsePolicyAllow);
    //不允许跳转
    //decisionHandler(WKNavigationResponsePolicyCancel);
}
// 在发送请求之前,决定是否跳转
- (void)webView:(WKWebView *)webView decidePolicyForNavigationAction:(WKNavigationAction *)navigationAction decisionHandler:(void (^)(WKNavigationActionPolicy))decisionHandler{

     NSLog(@"%@",navigationAction.request.URL.absoluteString);
    //允许跳转
    decisionHandler(WKNavigationActionPolicyAllow);
    //不允许跳转
    //decisionHandler(WKNavigationActionPolicyCancel);
}
#pragma mark - WKUIDelegate
// 创建一个新的WebView
- (WKWebView *)webView:(WKWebView *)webView createWebViewWithConfiguration:(WKWebViewConfiguration *)configuration forNavigationAction:(WKNavigationAction *)navigationAction windowFeatures:(WKWindowFeatures *)windowFeatures{
    return [[WKWebView alloc]init];
}
// 输入框
- (void)webView:(WKWebView *)webView runJavaScriptTextInputPanelWithPrompt:(NSString *)prompt defaultText:(nullable NSString *)defaultText initiatedByFrame:(WKFrameInfo *)frame completionHandler:(void (^)(NSString * __nullable result))completionHandler{
    completionHandler(@"http");
}
// 确认框
- (void)webView:(WKWebView *)webView runJavaScriptConfirmPanelWithMessage:(NSString *)message initiatedByFrame:(WKFrameInfo *)frame completionHandler:(void (^)(BOOL result))completionHandler{
    completionHandler(YES);
}
// 警告框
- (void)webView:(WKWebView *)webView runJavaScriptAlertPanelWithMessage:(NSString *)message initiatedByFrame:(WKFrameInfo *)frame completionHandler:(void (^)(void))completionHandler{
    NSLog(@"%@",message);
    completionHandler();
}

OC与JS交互


WKWebview提供了API实现js交互 不需要借助JavaScriptCore或者webJavaScriptBridge。使用WKUserContentController实现js native交互。简单的说就是先注册约定好的方法,然后再调用。

JS调用OC方法

oc代码(有误,内存不释放):

@interface ViewController ()<WKUIDelegate,WKNavigationDelegate,WKScriptMessageHandler>{
    WKWebView * webView;
    WKUserContentController* userContentController;
}
@end
@implementation ViewController
#pragma mark - lifeCircle
- (void)viewDidLoad {
    [super viewDidLoad];
    //配置环境
    WKWebViewConfiguration * configuration = [[WKWebViewConfiguration alloc]init];
    userContentController =[[WKUserContentController alloc]init];
    configuration.userContentController = userContentController;
    webView = [[WKWebView alloc]initWithFrame:CGRectMake(0, 0, 100, 100) configuration:configuration];
    //注册方法
    [userContentController addScriptMessageHandler:self  name:@"sayhello"];//注册一个name为sayhello的js方法

    [self.view addSubview:webView];
    [webView mas_makeConstraints:^(MASConstraintMaker *make) {
        make.left.equalTo(self.view);
        make.right.equalTo(self.view);
        make.top.equalTo(self.view);
        make.bottom.equalTo(self.view);
    }];
    webView.UIDelegate = self;
    webView.navigationDelegate = self;
    [webView loadRequest:[NSURLRequest requestWithURL:[NSURL URLWithString:@"http://www.test.com"]]];
}
- (void)dealloc{
    //这里需要注意,前面增加过的方法一定要remove掉。
    [userContentController removeScriptMessageHandlerForName:@"sayhello"];
}
#pragma mark - WKScriptMessageHandler
- (void)userContentController:(WKUserContentController *)userContentController didReceiveScriptMessage:(WKScriptMessage *)message{
    NSLog(@"name:%@\\\\n body:%@\\\\n frameInfo:%@\\\\n",message.name,message.body,message.frameInfo);
}
@end

上面的OC代码如果认证测试一下就会发现dealloc并不会执行,这样肯定是不行的,会造成内存泄漏。原因是[userContentController addScriptMessageHandler:self name:@"sayhello"];这句代码造成无法释放内存。(ps:试了下用weak指针还是不能释放,不知道是什么原因。)因此还需要进一步改进,正确的写法是用一个新的controller来处理,新的controller再绕用delegate绕回来。

oc代码(正确写法):

@interface ViewController ()<WKUIDelegate,WKNavigationDelegate,WKScriptMessageHandler>{
    WKWebView * webView;
    WKUserContentController* userContentController;
}
@end
@implementation ViewController
#pragma mark - lifeCircle
- (void)viewDidLoad {
    [super viewDidLoad];
    //配置环境
    WKWebViewConfiguration * configuration = [[WKWebViewConfiguration alloc]init];
    userContentController =[[WKUserContentController alloc]init];
    configuration.userContentController = userContentController;
    webView = [[WKWebView alloc]initWithFrame:CGRectMake(0, 0, 100, 100) configuration:configuration];
    //注册方法
    WKDelegateController * delegateController = [[WKDelegateController alloc]init];
    delegateController.delegate = self;

    [userContentController addScriptMessageHandler:delegateController  name:@"sayhello"];

    [self.view addSubview:webView];
    [webView mas_makeConstraints:^(MASConstraintMaker *make) {
        make.left.equalTo(self.view);
        make.right.equalTo(self.view);
        make.top.equalTo(self.view);
        make.bottom.equalTo(self.view);
    }];
    webView.UIDelegate = self;
    webView.navigationDelegate = self;
    [webView loadRequest:[NSURLRequest requestWithURL:[NSURL URLWithString:@"http://www.test.com"]]];
}
- (void)dealloc{
    //这里需要注意,前面增加过的方法一定要remove掉。
    [userContentController removeScriptMessageHandlerForName:@"sayhello"];
}
#pragma mark - WKScriptMessageHandler
- (void)userContentController:(WKUserContentController *)userContentController didReceiveScriptMessage:(WKScriptMessage *)message{
    NSLog(@"name:%@\\\\n body:%@\\\\n frameInfo:%@\\\\n",message.name,message.body,message.frameInfo);
}
@end

WKDelegateController代码:

#import <UIKit/UIKit.h>
#import <WebKit/WebKit.h>
@protocol WKDelegate <NSObject>

- (void)userContentController:(WKUserContentController *)userContentController didReceiveScriptMessage:(WKScriptMessage *)message;

@end

@interface WKDelegateController : UIViewController <WKScriptMessageHandler>

@property (weak , nonatomic) id<WKDelegate> delegate;

@end

.m代码:

#import "WKDelegateController.h"

@interface WKDelegateController ()

@end

@implementation WKDelegateController

- (void)viewDidLoad {
    [super viewDidLoad];
}

- (void)userContentController:(WKUserContentController *)userContentController didReceiveScriptMessage:(WKScriptMessage *)message{
    if ([self.delegate respondsToSelector:@selector(userContentController:didReceiveScriptMessage:)]) {
        [self.delegate userContentController:userContentController didReceiveScriptMessage:message];
    }
}


@end

h5代码:

<html>
<head>
    <script>
function say()
{
//前端需要用 window.webkit.messageHandlers.注册的方法名.postMessage({body:传输的数据} 来给native发送消息
    window.webkit.messageHandlers.sayhello.postMessage({body: 'hello world!'});
}
</script>
</head>
    <body>
        <h1>hello world</h1>
        <button onclick="say()">say hello</button>
    </body>

</html>

打印出的log:

 name:sayhello
 body:{
    body = "hello world!";
}
 frameInfo:<WKFrameInfo: 0x7f872060ce20; isMainFrame = YES; request =   <NSMutableURLRequest: 0x618000010a30> { URL: http://www.test.com/ }>

注意点

  • addScriptMessageHandler要和removeScriptMessageHandlerForName配套出现,否则会造成内存泄漏。
  • h5只能传一个参数,如果需要多个参数就需要用字典或者json组装。

oc调用JS方法

代码如下:

- (void)webView:(WKWebView *)tmpWebView didFinishNavigation:(WKNavigation *)navigation{

    //say()是JS方法名,completionHandler是异步回调block
    [webView evaluateJavaScript:@"say()" completionHandler:^(id _Nullable result, NSError * _Nullable error) {
        NSLog(@"%@",result);
    }];
    
}

h5代码同上。

WebViewJavascriptBridge


一般来说,一个好的UI总有一个大神会开发出一个好的第三方封装框架。WebViewJavascriptBridge的作者也做了一套支持WKWebView与JS交互的第三方框架:WKWebViewJavascriptBridge。

主要方法如下:

//初始化方法
+ (instancetype)bridgeForWebView:(WKWebView*)webView;
+ (void)enableLogging;

//注册函数名
- (void)registerHandler:(NSString*)handlerName handler:(WVJBHandler)handler;

//调用函数名
- (void)callHandler:(NSString*)handlerName;
- (void)callHandler:(NSString*)handlerName data:(id)data;
- (void)callHandler:(NSString*)handlerName data:(id)data responseCallback:(WVJBResponseCallback)responseCallback;

//重置
- (void)reset;

//设置WKNavigationDelegate
- (void)setWebViewDelegate:(id<WKNavigationDelegate>)webViewDelegate;

基本的实现方法和上面写的差不多,就是封装了一下,有兴趣的童鞋可以自己pod下来使用。


我是翻滚的牛宝宝,欢迎大家评论交流~

补充


前不久把项目中的UIWebView更新到WkWebView,解决了一大堆问题,但是也遗留了一大堆问题,比方说cookie。

以前UIWebView会自动去NSHTTPCookieStorage中读取cookie,但是WKWebView并不会去读取,因此导致cookie丢失以及一系列问题,解决方式就是在request中手动帮其添加上。

mainWebView.UIDelegate = self;
mainWebView.navigationDelegate = self;
NSMutableURLRequest *request = [NSMutableURLRequest requestWithURL:[NSURL URLWithString:@"http://www.test.com"]];
[request addValue:[self readCurrentCookieWithDomain:@"http://www.test.com/"] forHTTPHeaderField:@"Cookie"];
[mainWebView loadRequest:request];

- (NSString *)readCurrentCookieWithDomain:(NSString *)domainStr{
    NSHTTPCookieStorage*cookieJar = [NSHTTPCookieStorage sharedHTTPCookieStorage];
    NSMutableString * cookieString = [[NSMutableString alloc]init];
    for (NSHTTPCookie*cookie in [cookieJar cookies]) {
        [cookieString appendFormat:@"%@=%@;",cookie.name,cookie.value];
    }

//删除最后一个“;”
    [cookieString deleteCharactersInRange:NSMakeRange(cookieString.length - 1, 1)];
    return cookieString;
}

但是这只能解决第一次进入的cookie问题,如果页面内跳转(a标签等)还是取不到cookie,因此还要再加代码。

- (void)webView:(WKWebView *)webView didFinishNavigation:(WKNavigation *)navigation {

   //取出cookie
    NSHTTPCookieStorage *cookieStorage = [NSHTTPCookieStorage sharedHTTPCookieStorage];
    //js函数
    NSString *JSFuncString =
@"function setCookie(name,value,expires)\
    {\
    var oDate=new Date();\
    oDate.setDate(oDate.getDate()+expires);\
document.cookie=name+'='+value+';expires='+oDate+';path=/'\
    }\
    function getCookie(name)\
    {\
    var arr = document.cookie.match(new RegExp('(^| )'+name+'=([^;]*)(;|$)'));\
    if(arr != null) return unescape(arr[2]); return null;\
    }\
    function delCookie(name)\
    {\
    var exp = new Date();\
    exp.setTime(exp.getTime() - 1);\
    var cval=getCookie(name);\
    if(cval!=null) document.cookie= name + '='+cval+';expires='+exp.toGMTString();\
    }";

    //拼凑js字符串
    NSMutableString *JSCookieString = JSFuncString.mutableCopy;
    for (NSHTTPCookie *cookie in cookieStorage.cookies) {
    NSString *excuteJSString = [NSString stringWithFormat:@"setCookie('%@', '%@', 1);", cookie.name, cookie.value];
        [JSCookieString appendString:excuteJSString];
    }
    //执行js
    [webView evaluateJavaScript:JSCookieString completionHandler:nil];

}
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