103. People who take what others regard as a ridiculous position should not bother to say, “I mean every word!”Foreither their position truly is ridiculous, in which case insisting that theyare serious about it only exposes them to deeper embarrassment, or else theirposition has merit, in which case they should meet disbelief with rationalargument rather than with assurances of their sincerity.

Which one of the following arguments is mostsimilar in its reasoning to the argument above?

(A) A practice that has been denounced, as poor practice should not be defended on the grounds that “this I show we have always done it.”If the practice is a poor one, so muchthe worse that is has been extensively used; if it is not poor one, there mustbe a better reason for engaging in it than inertia

(B) People who are asked why they eat some of the unusual foods they eat some of the unusual foods they eat should not answer, “because that is what I like, “Thissort of answer will sound either na?ve or evasive and thus will satisfy no one

(C) People whose taste in clothes is being criticized should not replay, “Every penny I spent on these clothes I earned honestly.”For the issue raise by the critics is nothow the money was come by but rather whether it was spent wisely.

(D) Scholars who champion unpopular new theories should not assume that the widespread rejection of their ideas shows that they “must be no the right track.”The truth is that few theories of any consequence are either wholly right orwholly right or wholly wrong and thus there is no substitute for patient worksin ascertaining which parts are right.

(E) People who set themselves goals that others denounce as overly ambitious do little to silence their critics if they say, “I can accomplish this if anyone can. “Rather,those people should either admit that their critics are right or not dignifythe criticism with any reply.

104.smith: meat in the diet is healthy, despite what some people say.after all, most doctors do eat meat, and who knows more about health thandoctors do?

which one of the following is a flaw in smith’s reasoning?

(A) attacking the opponents’motives instead of their argument

(B) generalizing on the basis of a sampleconsisting of a typical cases

(C) assuming at the outset what the argumentclaims to establish through reasoning

(D) appealing to authority, even whendifferent authorities give conflicting advice about an issue

(E) taking for granted that experts do notact counter to what, according to their expertise, in their best interest