十九、Django2.1 搭建多用户的博客网站——使用自定义模板标签

0.943字数 1074阅读 864

目录:Django 2.1 从零开始搭建博客网站系列

服务器环境搭建(选学)

小试牛刀——简单的博客网站

庖丁解牛——多用户的博客网站之用户模块

庖丁解牛——多用户的博客网站之文章模块

华丽转身——多用户的博客网站之扩展功能

项目源码下载:https://github.com/jt1024/lehehe

正文:

{% if %} 和 {% for %}这些是Django模板中的默认标签,为了应对更多复杂的操作,Django还允许开发者自定义模板标签,共有三种自定义模板标签,分别是simple_tag、inclusion_tag、assignment_tag。

下面我们将通过实例分别使用以上三种自定义模板标签。

在 ./articles 中创建一个目录 templatetags,这个目录名称是Django默认的,必须使用这个名称,不能更改。然后在里面创建两个文件 __ init __.py(init两边分别是两个下划线) 和 article_tags.py

1、使用自定义模板标签显示文章总数

编辑 ./article/templatetags/article_tags.py

from django import template

register = template.Library()
from article.models import ArticlePost


@register.simple_tag
def total_articles():
    return ArticlePost.objects.count()

修改 ./templates/article/list/article_titles.html
在这行代码

{% extends "base.html" %} 

下面增加

 {% load article_tags %}

然后在这行代码

<h1>阅读,丰富头脑,善化行为</h1>

下面增加

 <p>这里已经有{% total_articles %}篇文章供你阅读</p>

完整的./templates/article/list/article_titles.html代码如下:

{% extends "base.html" %}
{% load article_tags %}
{% block title %} articles {% endblock %}
{% block content %}
<div class="row text-center vertical-middle-sm">
    <h1>阅读,丰富头脑,善化行为</h1>
    <p>这里已经有{% total_articles %}篇文章供你阅读</p>
</div>
<div class="container">
    {% for article in articles %}
    <div class="list-group">
        <a href="{{article.get_url_path}}" class="list-group-item active">
            <h4 class="list-group-item-heading">{{article.title}}</h4>
        </a>
        <p class="list-group-item-text">作者:<a href="{% url 'article:author_articles' article.author.username %}">{{article.author.username}}</a></p>
        <p class="list-group-item-text">概要:{{article.body|slice:'70'| linebreaks}}</p>
    </div>
    {% endfor %}
    {% include "paginator.html" %}
</div>
{% endblock %}

运行Django,打开文章详情,查看效果


显示文章总数

2、使用自定义模板标签显示某一个作者的文章总数

编辑 ./article/templatetags/article_tags.py 新增以下代码

@register.simple_tag
def author_total_articles(user):
    return user.article.count()

修改 ./templates/article/list/author_articles.html
同样的,增加

 {% load article_tags %}

然后在这行代码

<p>{{ user.username }}</p>

下面增加

 <p>共发表{% author_total_articles user %}篇文章</p>

完整的./templates/article/list/author_articles.html代码如下

{% extends "base.html" %}
{% load article_tags %}
{% load staticfiles %}
{% block title %}articles{% endblock %}
{% block content %}
<div class="row text-center vertical-middle-sm">
    <h1>阅读,丰富头脑,善化行为</h1>
</div>
<div class="container">
    <div class="col-md-8">
        {% for article in articles %}
        <div class="list-group">
            <a href="{{article.get_url_path}}" class="list-group-item active">
                <h4 class="list-group-item-heading">{{article.title}}</h4>
            </a>
            <p class="list-group-item-text">作者:
                <a href="{% url 'article:author_articles' article.author.username %}">{{article.author.username}}</a>
            </p>
            <p class="list-group-item-text">概要:{{article.body|slice:'70'|linebreaks}} </p>
        </div>
        {% endfor %}
        {% include "paginator.html" %}
    </div>
    <div class="col-md-4">
        <div>
            {% if userinfo.photo %}
            <img src="{{ userinfo.photo | striptags }}" class="img-circle" id="my_photo" name="user_face" style="width: 300px">
            {% else %}
            <img name="user_face" src="{% static 'images/newton.jpg' %}" class="img-circle" id="my_photo" style="width: 300px">
            {% endif %}
        </div>
        <div>
            <p>{{ user.username }}</p>
            <p>共发表{% author_total_articles user %}篇文章</p>
            {% if userinfo %}
            <p>{{ userinfo.company }}</p>
            <p>{{ userinfo.aboutme }}</p>
            {% else %}
            <p>这个作者太懒了,什么也没有留下。</p>
            {% endif %}
        </div>
    </div>
</div>
{% endblock %}

点击文章列表中的作者,效果如图


某一作者的文章列表

3、使用自定义模板标签显示最新发布的文章

编辑 ./article/templatetags/article_tags.py 新增latest_articles

@register.inclusion_tag('article/list/latest_articles.html')
def latest_articles(n=5):
    latest_articles = ArticlePost.objects.order_by("-created")[:n]
    return {"latest_articles": latest_articles}

创建 ./templates/article/list/latest_articles.html

<ul>
    {% for article in latest_articles %}
    <li>
        <a href="{{ article.get_url_path }}">{{ article.title }}</a>
    </li>
    {% endfor %}
</ul>

修改 ./templates/article/list/article_content.html
增加

 {% load article_tags %}

然后在"最受欢迎文章"之后增加以下代码

<hr>
        <p class="text-center">
        <h3>最新文章</h3></p>
        {% latest_articles 4 %}

点击某篇文章,效果如图


显示最新文章

4、使用自定义模板标签显示评论最多的文章

编辑 ./article/templatetags/article_tags.py 新增most_commented_articles

from django.db.models import Count

@register.simple_tag
def most_commented_articles(n=3):
    return ArticlePost.objects.annotate(total_comments=Count('comments')).order_by("-total_comments")[:n]

修改 ./templates/article/list/article_content.html 在"最新文章"之后增加以下代码

<hr>
        <p class="text-center">
        <h3>最多评论文章</h3></p>
        {% most_commented_articles as most_comments %}
        <ul>
            {% for comment_article in most_comments %}
            <li>
                <a href="{{comment_article.get_url_path}}">{{ comment_article.title }}</a>
            </li>
            {% endfor %}
        </ul>

完整的./templates/article/list/article_content.html代码如下

{% extends "base.html" %}
{% load article_tags %}
{% load staticfiles %}
{% block title %}articles list{% endblock %}
{% block content %}

{% with total_likes=article.users_like.count users_like=article.users_like.all %}
<div class="container">
    <div class="col-md-9">
        <header>
            <h1>{{ article.title }}</h1>
            <p>
                <a href="{% url 'article:author_articles' article.author.username %}">{{ article.author.username }}</a>
                <span style="margin-left:20px" class="glyphicon glyphicon-thumbs-up">{{ total_likes }}like{{ total_likes|pluralize }}</span>
                <span style="margin-left:20px">{{ total_views }} view{{ total_views|pluralize}}</span>
            </p>
        </header>

        <link rel="stylesheet" href="{% static 'editor/css/editormd.preview.css' %}"/>
        <div id='editormd-view'>
        <textarea id="append-test" style="display:none;">
{{ article.body }}
        </textarea>
        </div>
        <div>
            <p class="text-center">
                <a onclick="like_article({{article.id}}, 'like')" href="#">
                    <span class="glyphicon glyphicon-thumbs-up">like</span>
                </a>
                <a onclick="like_article({{article.id}}, 'unlike')" href="#">
                    <span style="margin-left: 15px;" class="glyphicon glyphicon-thumbs-down">unlike</span>
                </a>
            </p>
        </div>
        <div>
            <p class="text-center"><strong>点赞本文的读者</strong></p>
            {% for user in article.users_like.all %}
            <p class="text-center">{{user.username}}</p>
            {% empty %}
            <p class="text-center">还没有人对此文章表态</p>
            {% endfor %}
        </div>
        <div>
            <h3><span class="glyphicon glyphicon-bullhorn"></span>本文有{{ comments.count }}评论</h3>
            {% for comment in article.comments.all %}
            <div>
                <p><strong>{{ comment.commentator }}</strong>说:</p>
                <p style="margin-left:40px;">{{ comment.body }}</p>
            </div>
            {% empty %}
            <p>没有评论</p>
            {% endfor %}

            <h3><span class="glyphicon glyphicon-send"></span>看文章,发评论,不要沉默</h3>
            <form action="." method="post" class="form-horizontal" role="form">{% csrf_token %}
                <div class="form-group">
                    <label for="inputEmail3" class="col-sm-2 control-label">评论员</label>
                    <div class="col-sm-10">
                        {{ comment_form.commentator}}
                    </div>
                </div>
                <div class="form-group">
                    <label for="inputEmail3" class="col-sm-2 control-label">评论</label>
                    <div class="col-sm-10">
                        {{ comment_form.body }}
                    </div>
                </div>
                <div class="form-group">
                    <div class="col-sm-offset-2 col-sm-10">
                        <p><input type="submit" name="" value=" 发 评 论 " class="btn btn-primary"></p>
                    </div>
                </div>
            </form>
        </div>
    </div>

    <div class="col-md-3">
        <p class="text-center">
        <h3>最受欢迎文章</h3></p>
        <ol>
            {% for article_rank in most_viewed %}
            <li>
                <a href="{{article_rank.get_url_path}}">{{ article_rank.title }}</a>
            </li>
            {% endfor %}
        </ol>

        <hr>
        <p class="text-center">
        <h3>最新文章</h3></p>
        {% latest_articles 4 %}

        <hr>
        <p class="text-center">
        <h3>最多评论文章</h3></p>
        {% most_commented_articles as most_comments %}
        <ul>
            {% for comment_article in most_comments %}
            <li>
                <a href="{{comment_article.get_url_path}}">{{ comment_article.title }}</a>
            </li>
            {% endfor %}
        </ul>
    </div>
</div>

<script src='{% static "js/jquery.js" %}'></script>
<script src='{% static "editor/lib/marked.min.js" %}'></script>
<script src='{% static "editor/lib/prettify.min.js" %}'></script>
<script src='{% static "editor/lib/raphael.min.js" %}'></script>
<script src='{% static "editor/lib/underscore.min.js" %}'></script>
<script src='{% static "editor/lib/sequence-diagram.min.js" %}'></script>
<script src='{% static "editor/lib/flowchart.min.js" %}'></script>
<script src='{% static "editor/lib/jquery.flowchart.min.js" %}'></script>
<script src='{% static "editor/editormd.js" %}'></script>
<script type="text/javascript" src="{% static 'js/layer.js'%}"></script>
<script type="text/javascript">
$(function(){
    editormd.markdownToHTML("editormd-view", {
        htmlDecode: "style, script, iframe",
        emoji: true,
        taskList:true,
        tex:true,
        flowChart:true,
        sequenceDiagram : true,
    });
});

function like_article(id, action){
    $.ajax({
        url: "{% url 'article:like_article' %}",
        type: "POST",
        data: {"id":id, "action":action},
        success: function(e){
            if(e=="1"){
                layer.msg("感谢点赞");
                window.location.reload();
            }else{
                layer.msg("我会继续努力");
                window.location.reload();
            }
        },
    });
}
</script>
{% endwith %}
{% endblock %}

点击某篇文章,效果如图


显示最多评论文章

推荐阅读更多精彩内容