1.turbine/ˈtɜːbɪn, -baɪn/CET6+ TEM8( turbines )
1.N-COUNTAturbineis a machine or engine which uses a stream of air, gas, water, or steam to turn a wheel and produce power. 涡轮机
例：The new ship will be powered by two gas turbines and four diesel engines.
2.manure/məˈnjʊə/TEM8( manures )
1.N-MASSManureis animal faeces, sometimes mixed with chemicals, that is spread on the ground in order to make plants grow healthy and strong. 肥料
例：...bags of manure.
4.handsomely[ 'hænsəmli ]
adv.in an attractively handsome manner
"the volume was handsomely bound"
in a generously handsome manner
"India has responded handsomely by providing 3,000 men"
5.subsidy/ˈsʌbsɪdɪ/CET6 TEM4( subsidies )
1.N-COUNTAsubsidyis money that is paid by a government or other authority in order to help an industry or business, or to pay for a public service. 补贴金
例：European farmers are planning a massive demonstration against farm subsidy cuts.
6.surplus/ˈsɜːpləs/CET4 TEM4( surpluses )
1.N-VARIf there is asurplusofsomething, there is more than is needed. 过剩
例：...countries where there is a surplus of labour.
2.ADJSurplusis used to describe something that is extra or that is more than is needed. 过剩的; 多余的
例：Few people have large sums of surplus cash.
例：I sell my surplus birds to a local pet shop.
3.N-COUNTIf a country has a tradesurplus, it exports more than it imports. 顺差
例：Japan's annual trade surplus is in the region of 100 billion dollars.
4.N-COUNTIf a government has a budgetsurplus, it has spent less than it received in taxes. 盈余
例：Norway's budget surplus has fallen from 5.9% in 1986 to an expected 0.1% this year.
1.N-UNCOUNTIf something isanathematoyou, you strongly dislike it. 令人非常厌恶的事[usu N 'to' n]
例：Violence was anathema to them.
8.utility/juːˈtɪlɪtɪ/CET4 TEM4( utilities )
1.N-COUNTAutilityis an important service such as water, electricity, or gas that is provided for everyone, and that everyone pays for. 公用事业
例：...public utilities such as gas, electricity and phones.
9.incumbent/ɪnˈkʌmbənt/CET6+ TEM8( incumbents )
1.N-COUNTAnincumbentis someone who holds an official post at a particular time. 在职者[正式]
In general, incumbents have a 94 percent chance of being re-elected.
2.ADJIncumbentis also an adjective. 在职的[ADJ n]
例：...the only candidate who defeated an incumbent senator.
3.ADJIf it is incumbent on or upon you to do something, it is your duty or responsibility to do it. 有责任履行的[正式]
例：She felt it was incumbent on herself to act immediately.
1.ADJTo be disruptive means to prevent something from continuing or operating in a normal way. 妨碍的; 扰乱的
例：Alcohol can produce violent, disruptive behaviour.
12.reasonably[ 'ri:znəbli ]
adv.to a moderately sufficient extent or degree
"the shoes are priced reasonably"
with good sense or in a reasonable or intelligent manner
"acted quite reasonably"
adv.prior to the present time
排污权交易的概念排污权交易（Emission Trading）是指在一定区域内，基于总量控制的前提， 各污染源之间通过市场手段进行排放权利的交易，从而控制污染物的排放。
15.scheme/skiːm/CET4 TEM4( scheming, schemed, schemes )
1.N-COUNTA scheme is someone's plan for achieving something, especially something that will bring them some benefit. 计划
例：...a quick money-making scheme to get us through the summer.
例：They would first have to work out some scheme for getting the treasure out.
2.V-T/V-IIf you say that people are scheming, you mean that they are making secret plans in order to gain something for themselves. 密谋[oft cont][表不满]
例：Everyone's always scheming and plotting.
例：The bride's family were scheming to prevent a wedding.
3.N-COUNTA scheme is a plan or arrangement involving many people which is made by a government or other organization. (政府或其他机构的) 大规模计划[英国英语]
例：...a private pension scheme.
4.PHRASEWhen people talk aboutthe scheme of things or the grand scheme of things, they are referring to the way that everything in the world seems to be organized. 天地万物的格局
例：We realize that we are infinitely small within the scheme of things.
17.perennial 1 adj / pə'reniəl ; pəˋrɛnɪəl /
英 / pə'reniəl /
1continuing or existing for a long time, or happening again and again 持续的；长久的；反复出现的
Lack of resources has been a perennial problem since the beginning.
Teddy bears are a perennial favorite with children.
2.a plant that is perennial lives for more than two years 〔植物〕多年生的
18. Economy -wide
1.N-COUNT A rebate is an amount of money which is returned to you after you have paid for goods or services or after you have paid tax or rent. (支付后的) 退款; (税金或租金的) 返还部分
Citicorp will guarantee its credit card customers a rebate on a number of products.
2.V to deduct (a part) of a payment from (the total) (从总支付款中部分)扣除
20.glut n [C usually singular 一般用单数] / ɡlʌt ; glʌt /
英 / ɡlʌt /
1.a supply of something, especially a product or crop, that is more than is needed 供应过剩
[+ of ]
a glut of oil on the world market
glut 2 v [T]
英( past tense and past participle glutted , present participle glutting )
1.to cause something to have too much of something 使供应过剩，充斥
the glutted property market
22.stark 1 adj / stɑːk ; stɑrk /
英 / stɑːk /
1.very plain in appearance, with little or no colour or decoration 〔外表〕简陋的；无修饰的，荒凉的
In the cold dawn light, the castle looked stark and forbidding.
the stark beauty of New Mexico
2.unpleasantly clear and impossible to avoid 明摆着的；严酷的
The movie shows the stark realities of life in the ghetto.
The extreme poverty of the local people is in stark contrast to the wealth of the tourists.
We are faced with a stark choice .
stark 2 adv
not wearing any clothes at all 一丝不挂的，赤裸裸的
Ben was standing there stark naked.
2.stark raving mad/bonkers ( also 又作 stark staring mad BrE 【英】 )
completely crazy 完全疯了的
He’s gone stark raving mad.
23.slump from ....to...
slump 1 v [I] / slʌmp ; slʌmp /
英 / slʌmp /
1.to fall or lean against something because you are not strong enough to stand 〔因无力站立而〕倒下，倚，靠
[+ against/over/back etc ]
She slumped against the wall.
Carol slumped back in her chair, defeated.
Ben staggered and slumped onto the floor.
2.to suddenly go down in price, value, or number 〔价格、价值或数量〕暴跌，骤降
Sales slumped by 20% last year.
[+ to ]
The currency slumped to a record low.
3.( also 又作 be slumped )
if your shoulders or head slump or are slumped, they bend forward because you are unhappy, tired, or unconscious 〔肩或脑袋〕耷拉着〔由于不开心、疲倦或失去知觉〕
Her shoulders slumped and her eyes filled with tears.
slump 2 n [C usually singular 一般用单数]
1.a sudden decrease in prices, sales, profits etc 〔价格、销售额、利润等的〕突然下跌
[+ in ]
a slump in car sales
2.a period when there is a reduction in business and many people lose their jobs 〔经济的〕不景气，萧条
The war was followed by an economic slump.
a worldwide slump
3.a period when a player or team does not play well 〔运动员或运动队的〕低迷期
in a slump
The Dodgers have been in a slump for the last three weeks.
24.havoc n [U] / 'hævək ; ˋhævək /
英 / 'hævək /
1.a situation in which there is a lot of damage or a lack of order, especially so that it is difficult for something to continue in the normal way 灾难；混乱
policies that would wreak havoc on the country’s economy
Rain has continued to play havoc with sporting events.
A strike will cause havoc for commuters.
25.indebtedin‧debt‧ed adj / ɪn'detɪd ɪn'detəd ; ɪnˋdɛtɪd /
英 / ɪn'detɪd /
1.be (deeply/greatly) indebted to sb
to be very grateful to someone for the help they have given you 对某人(十分)感激
We are deeply indebted to Dr Alien.
2.owing money to someone 负债的
the 17 most heavily indebted nations
(writing, wrote, written, writes)
1.PHRASAL VERB If someone writes off a debt or an amount of money that has been spent on a project, they accept that they are never going to get the money back. 勾销 (债款等)
It was the president who persuaded the West to write off Polish debts.
2.PHRASAL VERB If you write someone or something off, you decide that they are unimportant or useless and that they are not worth further serious attention. 摒弃
He is fed up with people writing him off because of his age.
His critics write him off as too cautious to succeed.
3.PHRASAL VERB If you write off a plan or project, you accept that it is not going to be successful and do not continue with it. 放弃 (计划或项目等)
We decided to write off the rest of the day and go shopping.
26.deployment / di:'plɔimənt /
27.shift to 转入
28.marginal adj AC / 'mɑːdʒɪn ə l 'mɑːdʒən ə l ; ˋmɑrdʒɪnḷ /
英 / 'mɑːdʒɪn ə l /
1.a marginal change or difference is too small to be important 小的，微不足道的，不重要的
a marginal increase in the unemployment figures
a marginal improvement in profits
2.relating to a change in cost, value etc when one more thing is produced, one more dollar is earned etc technical 边际的
a seat in a parliament or similar institution, which can be won or lost by a small number of votes 〔议会或类似机构中以少量票数分胜负的〕边缘席位/选区
英 [ˌdi:ˈregjuleɪt]美 [diˈrɛɡjəˌlet]
例：...the need to deregulate the U.S. airline industry.
The merit order is a way of ranking available sources of energy, especially electrical generation, in ascending order of their short-run marginal costs of production, so that those with the lowest marginal costs are the first ones to be brought online to meet demand, and the plants with the highest marginal costs are the last to be brought on line.
31.at first blush
1.ADJSomething that isintermittenthappens occasionally rather than continuously. 断断续续的
例：After three hours of intermittent rain, the game was abandoned.
例：The talks went on intermittently for three years.
1.ADJHydroelectricmeans relating to or involving electricity made from the energy of running water. 水力发电的[ADJ n]
35.reach out to
3."Ray did a lot of worktoreachouttothe people being considered, " Wohl said.
36. in the doldrums
1.PHRASEIf an activity or situation isin the doldrums, it is very quiet and nothing new or exciting is happening. 无生气的
例：The economy is in the doldrums.
37.constrainkənˈstreɪn/CET6 TEM8( constraining, constrained, constrains )
1.V-TToconstrainsomeone or something means to limit their development or force them to behave in a particular way. 限制; 迫使[正式]
例：Women are too often constrained by family commitments and by low expectations.
38cover peaks in demand覆盖需求高峰
peak/piːk/CET4 TEM4( peaking, peaked, peaks )
1.N-COUNTThepeakof a process or an activity is the point at which it is at its strongest, most successful, or most fully developed. (过程、活动的) 顶峰
例：The firm has slashed its workforce from a peak of 150,000 in 2000.
例：...a flourishing career that was at its peak at the time of his death.
2.V-IWhen somethingpeaks, it reaches its highest value or its highest level. 达到峰值
例Temperatures have peaked at over 90 degrees.
3.ADJThepeaklevel or value of something is its highest level or value. 峰值的[ADJ n]
例：Today's price is 59% lower than the peak level of $1.5 million.
4.ADJPeaktimes are the times when there is most demand for something or most use of something. 高峰的 (时期)[ADJ n]
例：It's always crowded at peak times.
5.N-COUNTApeakis a mountain or the top of a mountain. 山峰
例：...the snow-covered peaks.
6.N-COUNTThepeakof a cap is the part at the front that sticks out over your eyes. 帽檐[英国英语]
例：His eyes were shaded by the peak of his cap.
39.cling /klɪŋ/CET4 TEM4( clinging, clung, clings )
1.V-IIf youclingtosomeone or something, you hold onto them tightly. 紧紧抓住
例：Another man was rescued as he clung to the riverbank.
例：She had to cling onto the door handle until the pain passed.
2.V-IIf someoneclingstoa position or a possession they have, they do everything they can to keep it even though this may be very difficult. 固守
例：Instead, he appears determined to cling to power.
例：Another congressman clung on with a majority of only 18.
40.diesel/ˈdiːzəl/CET6+ TEM4( diesels )
1.N-MASSDieselordiesel oilis the heavy fuel used in a diesel engine. 柴油
2.N-COUNTAdieselis a vehicle which has a diesel engine. 柴油车
例：I keep hearing that diesels are better now than ever before.
41.dulldʌl/CET4 TEM4( dulling, dulled, duller, dulls, dullest )
1.ADJIf you describe someone or something asdull, you mean they are not interesting or exciting. 沉闷的; 乏味的[表不满]
例：I felt she found me boring and dull.
例：They enjoy anything that breaks the dullness of their routine life.
3.ADJSomeone or something that isdullis not very lively or energetic. 无精打采的; 无生气的
例：The body's natural rhythms mean we all feel dull and sleepy between 1 and 3 pm.
4.dullyADV无精打采地; 了无生气地[ADV after v]
例：His giant face had a rough growth of stubble, his eyes looked dully ahead.
5.ADJAdullcolour or light is not bright. 黯淡的
例：The stamp was a dark, dull blue colour with a heavy black postmark.
6.dullyADV黯淡地[ADV with v]
例：The street lamps gleamed dully through the night's mist.
7.ADJYou say the weather isdullwhen it is very cloudy. (天气) 阴沉的
例：It's always dull and raining.
8.ADJDullsounds are not very clear or loud. 低沉而模糊的
例：The coffin closed with a dull thud.
9.dullyADV低沉而模糊地[ADV after v]
例：He heard his heart thump dully but more quickly.
10.ADJDullfeelings are weak and not intense. 微弱的[ADJ n]
例：The pain, usually a dull ache, gets worse with exercise.
例：His arm throbbed dully.
12.V-T/V-IIf somethingdullsor if itis dulled, it becomes less intense, bright, or lively. 使…变弱/变暗/变得无生气; 变弱/变暗/变得无生气
例：Her eyes dulled and she gazed blankly.
insulate/ˈɪnsjʊˌleɪt/CET6 TEM8( insulating, insulated, insulates )
1.V-TToinsulatesomething such as a building means to protect it from cold, heat, or noise by placing a layer of other material around it or inside it. 使隔 (冷) 热; 使隔音
People should insulate their homes to conserve energy.
例：Is there any way we can insulate our home from the noise?
2.V-TIf a piece of equipmentis insulated, it is covered with rubber or plastic to prevent electricity from passing through it and giving the person using it an electric shock. 使绝缘
例：In order to make it safe, the element is electrically insulated.
3.V-TIf a person or groupis insulatedfromthe rest of society or from outside influences, they are protected from them. 使隔离
例：They wonder if their community is no longer insulated from big city problems.
4.insulation N-UNCOUNT 隔绝
例：They lived in happy insulation from brutal facts.
1.Vto depress or demoralize 使沮丧
例：the flu really dragged her down
1.ADJAviciousperson or aviciousblow is violent and cruel. 凶残的
例：He was a cruel and vicious man.
例：He suffered a vicious attack by a gang of white youths.
例：She had been viciously attacked with a hammer.
3.ADJAviciousremark is cruel and intended to upset someone. 恶毒的
例：It is a deliberate, nasty and vicious attack on a young man's character.
4.viciouslyADV恶毒地[ADV with v]
例："He deserved to die," said Penelope viciously.
45.foster/ˈfɒstə/CET6 TEM4( fostering, fostered, fosters )
1.ADJFosterparents are people who officially take a child into their family for a period of time, without becoming the child's legal parents. The child is referred to as theirfosterchild. 收养的[ADJ n]
例：Little Jack was placed with foster parents.
2.V-TIf youfostera child, you take it into your family for a period of time, without becoming its legal parent. 收养
例：She has since gone on to find happiness by fostering more than 100 children.
3.V-TTofostersomething such as an activity or idea means to help it to develop. 促进
例：He said that developed countries had a responsibility to foster global economic growth to help new democracies.
46.deter/dɪˈtɜː/CET6+ TEM4( deterring, deterred, deters )
1.V-TTodetersomeonefromdoing something means to make them not want to do it or continue doing it. 阻止
例：Supporters of the death penalty argue that it would deter criminals from carrying guns.
48.portfolio/pɔːtˈfəʊlɪəʊ/CET6 TEM8( portfolios )
1.N-COUNTAportfoliois a set of pictures by someone, photographs of their work, or examples of their writing, which they use when entering competitions or applying for work. (用于参赛或求职的) 作品选辑
例：After dinner that evening, Edith showed them a portfolio of her own political cartoons.
2.N-COUNTIn finance, aportfoliois the combination of investments that a particular person or company owns. 投资组合[商业]
例：...Roger Early, a portfolio manager at Federated Investors Corp.
3.N-COUNTIn politics, aportfoliois a high-ranking official's responsibility for a particular area of a government's activities. (高官的) 职责
例：He has held the defence portfolio since the first free elections in 1990.
4.N-COUNTA company'sportfolioof products or designs is their range of products or designs. (产品或设计的) 系列[商业]
例：The company has continued to invest heavily in a strong portfolio of products.
49.mandate/ˈmændeɪt/CET6+ TEM8( mandating, mandated, mandates )
1.N-COUNTIf a government or other elected body has amandateto carry out a particular policy or task, they have the authority to carry it out as a result of winning an election or vote. (政府或机构经选举而获得的) 授权
例：The president and his supporters are almost certain to read this vote as a mandate for continued economic reform.
2.N-COUNTIf someone is given amandateto carry out a particular policy or task, they are given the official authority to do it. (个人所获得的) 授权
例：How much longer does the independent prosecutor have a mandate to pursue this investigation?
3.N-COUNTYou can refer to the fixed length of time that a country's leader or government remains in office as theirmandate. 任期[正式]
例：...his intention to leave politics once his mandate ends.
4.V-TWhen someoneis mandatedtocarry out a particular policy or task, they are given the official authority to do it. 授权[正式][usu passive]
例：He'd been mandated by the West African Economic Community to go in and to enforce a ceasefire.
5.V-TTomandatesomething means to make it mandatory. 强制执行[美国英语]
例：The proposed initiative would mandate a reduction of carbon dioxide of 40%.
例：Sixteen years ago, Quebec mandated that all immigrants send their children to French schools.
50.incentive/ɪnˈsɛntɪv/CET6 TEM4( incentives )
1.N-VARIf something is anincentivetodo something, it encourages you to do it. 鼓励
例：There is little or no incentive to adopt such measures.
51.cannibalize/ˈkænɪbəˌlaɪz/( cannibalizing, cannibalized, cannibalizes )
[ 过去式 cannibalized 过去分词 cannibalized 现在分词 cannibalizing ]
1.V-TIf youcannibalizesomething, you take it to pieces and use it to make something else. 拆用配件
例：They cannibalized damaged planes for the parts.
2.V-TIf one of a company's productscannibalizesthe company's sales, people buy it instead of any of the company's other products. 冲击(公司其它产品销量)[商业]
例：A website need not cannibalize existing sales.
52.tread on one's own tail
tail的用法 ...tread on one's own tail踩着自己的尾巴；自己伤害自己 tuck one's tail 夹起尾巴；感到羞愧；感到慌乱 ...
2.自己伤害自己 tail的用法 ...tread on one's own tail踩着自己的尾巴；自己伤害自己tuck one's tail 夹起尾巴；感到羞愧；感到慌乱 ...
53.it is a fair bet that
54.peg /pɛɡ/ CET6 TEM4 ( pegging, pegged, pegs )
1. N-COUNT A peg is a small piece of wood or metal that is used for fastening something to something else. 销钉
例：He builds furniture using wooden pegs instead of nails.
2. N-COUNT A peg is a small hook or knob that is attached to a wall or door and is used for hanging things on. 挂钩; 挂环
例：His work jacket hung on the peg in the kitchen.
3. N-COUNT A peg is a small device that you use to fasten clothes to a clothes line. 衣夹 [英国英语]
4. V-T If you peg something somewhere or peg it down, you fix it there with pegs. 用衣夹夹住; 用销钉固定
例：Peg down netting over the top to keep out leaves.
例...a tent pegged to the ground nearby for the kids.
5. V-T If a price or amount of something is pegged at a particular level, it is fixed at that level. 固定 (价格、数量等)
例：Its currency is pegged to the dollar.
例：The Bank wants to peg rates at 9%.
55.shy away from( shying, shied, shyer, shies, shyest )
1.PHRASAL VERBIf youshy away fromdoing something, you avoid doing it, often because you are afraid or not confident enough. (因害怕或信心不足而) 避免
例：We frequently shy away from making decisions.
56.buckbuck/bʌk/CET6 TEM4( bucking, bucked, bucks )
1.N-COUNTAbuckis a U.S. or Australian dollar. 美元; 澳元[非正式]
例：That would probably cost you about fifty bucks.
例：Why can't you spend a few bucks on a coat?
2.N-COUNTAbuckis the male of various animals, including the deer, antelope, rabbit, and kangaroo. (雄鹿、公羊、雄兔、雄袋鼠等) 雄性动物
3.Na young man 年轻男人[美国英语][非正式]
4.Na type of vaulting horse 鞍马[gymnastics]
5.Na marker in the jackpot to remind the winner of some obligation when his turn comes to deal (提醒赢家履行义务的)标识[poker]
6.ADJIf someone hasbuckteeth, their upper front teeth stick forward out of their mouth. 外龅的[ADJ n]
7.V-IIf a horsebucks, it kicks both of its back legs wildly into the air, or jumps into the air wildly with all four feet
off the ground. (马) 狂蹬后腿跃起; 四蹄离地狂跳
例：The stallion bucked as he fought against the reins holding him tightly in.
8.V-TIf youbuckthe trend, you obtain different results from others in the same area. If youbuckthe system, you get what you want by breaking or ignoring the rules. 违逆 (潮流); 抗拒 (体制)
例：While other newspapers are losing circulation, we are bucking the trend.
例：He wants to be the tough rebel who bucks the system.
9.Vto cut (a felled or fallen tree) into lengths 把(伐倒的树木)截成段[美国英语]
10.PHRASEIf youpass the buck, you refuse to accept responsibility for something, and say that someone else is responsible. 推诿责任[非正式]
例：David says the responsibility is Mr. Smith's and it's no good trying to pass the buck.
57.go some way to (doing) sth
58.dry up( drying, dried, dryer, dries, driest )
1.PHRASAL VERBIf somethingdries upor if somethingdriesitup, it loses all its moisture and becomes completely dry and shrivelled or hard. 使…干枯; 干枯
例：As the day goes on, the pollen dries up and becomes hard.
2.PHRASAL VERBIf a river, lake, or welldries up, it becomes empty of water, usually because of hot weather and a lack of rain. 干涸
例：Reservoirs are drying up and farmers have begun to leave their land in search of water.
3.PHRASAL VERBIf a supply of somethingdries up, it stops. (供应) 停止
例：The main source of income, tourism, is expected to dry up completely this summer.
4.PHRASAL VERBIf youdry upwhen you are speaking, you stop in the middle of what you were saying, because you cannot think what to say next. (讲话时) 语塞
例：When he turned around and saw her, his conversation dried up.
59.eat into demand削弱需求
61.triple/ˈtrɪpəl/CET6 TEM4( tripling, tripled, triples )
1.ADJTriplemeans consisting of three things or parts. 三个的; 三部分的[ADJ n]
例：...a triple somersault.
2.V-T/V-IIf somethingtriplesor if youtripleit, it becomes three times as large in size or number. 使成为三倍; 变成三倍
例：I got a fantastic new job and my salary tripled.
例：The exhibition has tripled in size from last year.
3.PREDETIf something istriple theamount or size of another thing, it is three times as large. 3倍的[PREDET 'the' n]
62.moderateCET4 TEM4( moderating, moderated, moderates )
1.ADJModeratepolitical opinions or policies are not extreme. (政见或政策) 温和的
例：He was an easygoing man of very moderate views.
2.ADJYou usemoderateto describe people or groups who have moderate political opinions or policies. (人或团体) 温和的
例：...a moderate Democrat.
3.N-COUNTAmoderateis someone with moderate political opinions. 温和派
例：If he presents himself as a radical he risks scaring off the moderates whose votes he so desperately needs.
4.ADJYou usemoderateto describe something that is neither large nor small in amount or degree. (数量或程度) 适中的
例：While a moderate amount of stress can be beneficial, too much stress can exhaust you.
例：Both are moderately large insects, with a wingspan of around four centimetres.
6.ADJAmoderatechange in something is a change that is not great. (变化) 不大的
例：Most drugs offer either no real improvement or, at best, only moderate improvements.
7.moderatelyADV不大地[ADV after v]
例：Share prices on the Tokyo Exchange declined moderately.
8.V-T/V-IIf youmoderatesomething or if itmoderates, it becomes less extreme or violent and easier to deal with or accept. 使缓和; 变得缓和
例：They are hoping that once in office he can be persuaded to moderate his views.
例：A moderation in food prices helped to offset the first increase in energy prices.
1.ADJAnincipientsituation or quality is one that is starting to happen or develop. 开始发生的; 正在发展的[正式][ADJ n]
例：...an incipient economic recovery.
65.icon/ˈaɪkɒn/(also ikon)CET6 TEM8( icons )
1.N-COUNTIf you describe something or someone as anicon, you mean that they are important as a symbol of a particular thing. 象征物; 偶像
例：...only Marilyn has proved as enduring a fashion icon.
2.N-COUNTAniconis a picture of Christ, his mother, or a saint painted on a wooden panel. (耶稣基督、圣母玛利亚等圣人的) 木制圣像
例：...a painter of religious icons.
3.N-COUNTAniconis a picture on a computer screen representing a particular computer function. If you want to use it, you move the cursor onto the icon using a mouse. (电脑屏幕上可用鼠标点击的) 图标[计算机]
例：Kate clicked on the mail icon on her computer screen.
66.grumble/ˈɡrʌmbəl/CET6+ TEM4( grumbling, grumbled, grumbles ) ~about/at 抱怨
1.V-T/V-IIf someonegrumbles, they complain about something in a bad-tempered way. 抱怨
例：They grumble about how hard they have to work.
例：Taft grumbled that the law so favoured the criminal that trials seemed like a game of chance.
2.N-COUNTGrumbleis also a noun. 抱怨
例：My only grumble is that there isn't a non-smoking section.
3.V-IIf somethinggrumbles, it makes a low continuous sound. 隆隆作响[文学性]
例：It was quiet now, the thunder had grumbled away to the west.
4.N-SINGGrumbleis also a noun. 隆隆响声[usu N 'of' n]
例：One could often hear, far to the east, the grumble of guns.
precipitous[pri'sipitəs ] adj. 悬崖峭壁般的；陡峭的；险峻 急转直下的；突然落下的=precipitate
68.obscure / əb'skjuə; ɔb- /
The moon was obscured by clouds.
the aims obscured by means
The item he intentionally obscured would make several interpretations possible.
His fame was obscured by that of his wife .
69.fitful / 'fitful /
adj.1.occurring in spells and often abruptly
fitful bursts of energy
2.intermittently stopping and starting
fitful (or interrupted) sleep
同义词： interrupted / off-and-on(a)
70.stall1 / stɔ:l /
He stalled his car near the exit.
His car was stalled because of overloading.
1.(发动机)熄火；(汽车)抛锚；(飞机等)失速(有时与 out 连用)：
What? ——My car stalled. I can't start it.
The enemy's resistance has stalled by force.
We stalled in a mountain village by the storm.
stall 2 / stɔ:l /
He stalled for time to wait for his friends coming.
She stalled and evaded the question.
The goalkeeper stalled as starting the goal kick,being given a yellow card.
vt.1.拖延；推迟(通常与 off 连用)：
He stalled the police for ten minutes so his accomplice could get away.
He managed to stall off his creditor.
71.unabated /ˌʌnəˈbeɪtɪd/ TEM8
1.ADJ If something continues unabated, it continues without any reduction in intensity or amount. (程度，数量)不减的
The fighting has continued unabated for over 24 hours.
众包 - 引用次数：6
Based on the theory of insourcing,outsourcing and crowdsourcing,it explores different ways of new product development in different context according to its spiral development trend.