(转)Gradle依赖项学习总结,dependencies、transitive、force、exclude的使用与依赖冲突解决

转载自 http://www.paincker.com/gradle-dependencies

之前仔细研究过gradle,看的也挺全面,但是没有做过任何记录,现在发现基本上全都忘光了,所以今天看到这篇文章,赶紧记录一下。

Gradle是一个非常好用的编译工具,特别是继承了maven的依赖项管理功能,需要的Library不需要像传统IDE一样手动下载复制到项目中,只需要简单的写一行gradle脚本,就能自动下载下来并编译。

但是有时候会出现各种不明情况的报错,最常见的一种原因就是依赖项版本冲突。

每个模块都可能依赖其他模块,这些模块又会依赖别的模块。而一个项目中的多个模块,对同一个模块的不同版本有依赖,就可能产生冲突。

通过gradle命令查看依赖树,可以比较直观的看到冲突。具体方法是在模块所在的目录,也即build.gradle所在目录下执行gradle dependencies(需要将gradle加入PATH环境变量),执行结果如图。


Transitive


Transitive用于自动处理子依赖项。默认为true,gradle自动添加子依赖项,形成一个多层树形结构;设置为false,则需要手动添加每个依赖项。

案例

以安卓单元测试espresso的配置为例,gradle依赖如下:

dependencies{

androidTestCompile('com.android.support.test:runner:0.2')

androidTestCompile('com.android.support.test:rules:0.2')

androidTestCompile('com.android.support.test.espresso:espresso-core:2.1')

}

运行gradle dependencies的结果如下。可以看到每个包的依赖项都被递归分析并添加进来。

+---com.android.support.test:runner:0.2

|+---junit:junit-dep:4.10

||\---org.hamcrest:hamcrest-core:1.1

|+---com.android.support.test:exposed-instrumentation-api-publish:0.2

|\---com.android.support:support-annotations:22.0.0

+---com.android.support.test:rules:0.2

|\---com.android.support.test:runner:0.2(*)

\---com.android.support.test.espresso:espresso-core:2.1

+---com.android.support.test:rules:0.2(*)

+---com.squareup:javawriter:2.1.1

+---org.hamcrest:hamcrest-integration:1.1

|\---org.hamcrest:hamcrest-core:1.1

+---com.android.support.test.espresso:espresso-idling-resource:2.1

+---org.hamcrest:hamcrest-library:1.1

|\---org.hamcrest:hamcrest-core:1.1

+---javax.inject:javax.inject:1

+---com.google.code.findbugs:jsr305:2.0.1

+---com.android.support.test:runner:0.2(*)

+---javax.annotation:javax.annotation-api:1.2

\---org.hamcrest:hamcrest-core:1.1

统一指定transitive

可以给dependencies统一指定transitive为false,再次执行dependencies可以看到如下结果。

configurations.all{

transitive=false

}

dependencies{

androidTestCompile('com.android.support.test:runner:0.2')

androidTestCompile('com.android.support.test:rules:0.2')

androidTestCompile('com.android.support.test.espresso:espresso-core:2.1')

}

+---com.android.support.test:runner:0.2

+---com.android.support.test:rules:0.2

\---com.android.support.test.espresso:espresso-core:2.1

单独指定依赖项的transitive

dependencies{

androidTestCompile('com.android.support.test:runner:0.2')

androidTestCompile('com.android.support.test:rules:0.2')

androidTestCompile('com.android.support.test.espresso:espresso-core:2.1'){

transitive=false

}

}

版本冲突


在同一个配置下(例如androidTestCompile),某个模块的不同版本同时被依赖时,默认使用最新版,gradle同步时不会报错。例如下面的hamcrest-core和runner。

dependencies{

androidTestCompile('com.android.support.test:runner:0.4')

androidTestCompile('com.android.support.test:rules:0.2')

androidTestCompile('com.android.support.test.espresso:espresso-core:2.1')

}

+---com.android.support.test:runner:0.4

|+---com.android.support:support-annotations:23.0.1

|+---junit:junit:4.12

||\---org.hamcrest:hamcrest-core:1.3

|\---com.android.support.test:exposed-instrumentation-api-publish:0.4

+---com.android.support.test:rules:0.2

|\---com.android.support.test:runner:0.2->0.4(*)

\---com.android.support.test.espresso:espresso-core:2.1

+---com.android.support.test:rules:0.2(*)

+---com.squareup:javawriter:2.1.1

+---org.hamcrest:hamcrest-integration:1.1

|\---org.hamcrest:hamcrest-core:1.1->1.3

+---com.android.support.test.espresso:espresso-idling-resource:2.1

+---org.hamcrest:hamcrest-library:1.1

|\---org.hamcrest:hamcrest-core:1.1->1.3

+---javax.inject:javax.inject:1

+---com.google.code.findbugs:jsr305:2.0.1

+---com.android.support.test:runner:0.2->0.4(*)

+---javax.annotation:javax.annotation-api:1.2

\---org.hamcrest:hamcrest-core:1.1->1.3

Force


force强制设置某个模块的版本。

configurations.all{

resolutionStrategy{

force'org.hamcrest:hamcrest-core:1.3'

}

}

dependencies{

androidTestCompile('com.android.support.test:runner:0.2')

androidTestCompile('com.android.support.test:rules:0.2')

androidTestCompile('com.android.support.test.espresso:espresso-core:2.1')

}

可以看到,原本对hamcrest-core 1.1的依赖,全部变成了1.3。

+---com.android.support.test:runner:0.2

|+---junit:junit-dep:4.10

||\---org.hamcrest:hamcrest-core:1.1->1.3

|+---com.android.support.test:exposed-instrumentation-api-publish:0.2

|\---com.android.support:support-annotations:22.0.0

+---com.android.support.test:rules:0.2

|\---com.android.support.test:runner:0.2(*)

\---com.android.support.test.espresso:espresso-core:2.1

+---com.android.support.test:rules:0.2(*)

+---com.squareup:javawriter:2.1.1

+---org.hamcrest:hamcrest-integration:1.1

|\---org.hamcrest:hamcrest-core:1.1->1.3

+---com.android.support.test.espresso:espresso-idling-resource:2.1

+---org.hamcrest:hamcrest-library:1.1

|\---org.hamcrest:hamcrest-core:1.1->1.3

+---javax.inject:javax.inject:1

+---com.google.code.findbugs:jsr305:2.0.1

+---com.android.support.test:runner:0.2(*)

+---javax.annotation:javax.annotation-api:1.2

\---org.hamcrest:hamcrest-core:1.1->1.3

Exclude


Exclude可以设置不编译指定的模块

configurations{

all*.excludegroup:'org.hamcrest',module:'hamcrest-core'

}

dependencies{

androidTestCompile('com.android.support.test:runner:0.2')

androidTestCompile('com.android.support.test:rules:0.2')

androidTestCompile('com.android.support.test.espresso:espresso-core:2.1')

}

+---com.android.support.test:runner:0.2

|+---junit:junit-dep:4.10

|+---com.android.support.test:exposed-instrumentation-api-publish:0.2

|\---com.android.support:support-annotations:22.0.0

+---com.android.support.test:rules:0.2

|\---com.android.support.test:runner:0.2(*)

\---com.android.support.test.espresso:espresso-core:2.1

+---com.android.support.test:rules:0.2(*)

+---com.squareup:javawriter:2.1.1

+---org.hamcrest:hamcrest-integration:1.1

+---com.android.support.test.espresso:espresso-idling-resource:2.1

+---org.hamcrest:hamcrest-library:1.1

+---javax.inject:javax.inject:1

+---com.google.code.findbugs:jsr305:2.0.1

+---com.android.support.test:runner:0.2(*)

\---javax.annotation:javax.annotation-api:1.2

单独使用group或module参数

exclude后的参数有group和module,可以分别单独使用,会排除所有匹配项。例如下面的脚本匹配了所有的group为’com.android.support.test’的模块。

configurations{

all*.excludegroup:'com.android.support.test'

}

dependencies{

androidTestCompile('com.android.support.test:runner:0.2')

androidTestCompile('com.android.support.test:rules:0.2')

androidTestCompile('com.android.support.test.espresso:espresso-core:2.1')

}

\---com.android.support.test.espresso:espresso-core:2.1

+---com.squareup:javawriter:2.1.1

+---org.hamcrest:hamcrest-integration:1.1

|\---org.hamcrest:hamcrest-core:1.1

+---com.android.support.test.espresso:espresso-idling-resource:2.1

+---org.hamcrest:hamcrest-library:1.1

|\---org.hamcrest:hamcrest-core:1.1

+---javax.inject:javax.inject:1

+---com.google.code.findbugs:jsr305:2.0.1

+---javax.annotation:javax.annotation-api:1.2

\---org.hamcrest:hamcrest-core:1.1

单独给某个模块指定exclude

dependencies{

androidTestCompile('com.android.support.test:runner:0.2')

androidTestCompile('com.android.support.test:rules:0.2')

androidTestCompile('com.android.support.test.espresso:espresso-core:2.1'){

excludegroup:'org.hamcrest'

}

}

+---com.android.support.test:runner:0.2

|+---junit:junit-dep:4.10

||\---org.hamcrest:hamcrest-core:1.1

|+---com.android.support.test:exposed-instrumentation-api-publish:0.2

|\---com.android.support:support-annotations:22.0.0

+---com.android.support.test:rules:0.2

|\---com.android.support.test:runner:0.2(*)

\---com.android.support.test.espresso:espresso-core:2.1

+---com.android.support.test:rules:0.2(*)

+---com.squareup:javawriter:2.1.1

+---com.android.support.test.espresso:espresso-idling-resource:2.1

+---javax.inject:javax.inject:1

+---com.google.code.findbugs:jsr305:2.0.1

+---com.android.support.test:runner:0.2(*)

\---javax.annotation:javax.annotation-api:1.2

不同配置下的版本冲突

同样的配置下的版本冲突,会自动使用最新版;而不同配置下的版本冲突,gradle同步时会直接报错。可使用exclude、force解决冲突。

例如compile 'com.android.support:appcompat-v7:23.1.1',和androidTestCompile 'com.android.support.test.espresso:espresso-core:2.1',所依赖的com.android.support:support-annotations版本不同,就会导致冲突。

dependencies{

compile'com.android.support:appcompat-v7:23.1.1'

androidTestCompile('com.android.support.test:runner:0.2')

androidTestCompile('com.android.support.test:rules:0.2')

androidTestCompile('com.android.support.test.espresso:espresso-core:2.1')

}

gradle同步时会提示

Warning:Conflictwithdependency'com.android.support:support-annotations'.Resolvedversionsforappandtest app differ.

执行dependencies会提示

FAILURE:Buildfailedwithan exception.

*Whatwent wrong:

A problem occurred configuring project':app'.

>Conflictwithdependency'com.android.support:support-annotations'.Resolvedversionsforappandtest app differ.

*Try:

Runwith--stacktrace option togetthe stack trace.Runwith--infoor--debug option togetmore log output.

BUILD FAILED

不兼容


虽然可以通过force、exclude等方式避免依赖项版本冲突,使得grade同步成功,但是并不能代表编译时没有问题。由于不同版本可能不完全兼容,于是会出现各种奇怪的报错。已知的解决思路是更改包的版本、尝试强制使用不同版本的依赖项,找到可兼容的依赖组合。

报错例如:

com.android.dex.DexException:Multipledex files defineLorg/hamcrest/MatcherAssert;

at com.android.dx.merge.DexMerger.readSortableTypes(DexMerger.java:596)

at com.android.dx.merge.DexMerger.getSortedTypes(DexMerger.java:554)

at com.android.dx.merge.DexMerger.mergeClassDefs(DexMerger.java:535)

at com.android.dx.merge.DexMerger.mergeDexes(DexMerger.java:171)

at com.android.dx.merge.DexMerger.merge(DexMerger.java:189)

at com.android.dx.command.dexer.Main.mergeLibraryDexBuffers(Main.java:454)

at com.android.dx.command.dexer.Main.runMonoDex(Main.java:303)

at com.android.dx.command.dexer.Main.run(Main.java:246)

at com.android.dx.command.dexer.Main.main(Main.java:215)

at com.android.dx.command.Main.main(Main.java:106)

Error:Executionfailedfortask':app:dexDebugAndroidTest'.

>com.android.ide.common.process.ProcessException:org.gradle.process.internal.ExecException:Process'command '/Library/Java/JavaVirtualMachines/jdk1.8.0_40.jdk/Contents/Home/bin/java''finishedwithnon-zeroexitvalue2

BUILD FAILED

又例如Android执行Espresso单元测试时出现:

Runningtests

Testrunning started

java.lang.NoSuchMethodError:org.hamcrest.core.AnyOf.anyOf

at org.hamcrest.Matchers.anyOf(Matchers.java:87)

at android.support.test.espresso.Espresso.(Espresso.java:158)

at com.jzj1993.unittest.test.MainActivityEspressoTest.sayHello(MainActivityEspressoTest.java:28)

at java.lang.reflect.Method.invokeNative(NativeMethod)

at java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Method.java:525)

at org.junit.runners.model.FrameworkMethod$1.runReflectiveCall(FrameworkMethod.java:45)

at org.junit.internal.runners.model.ReflectiveCallable.run(ReflectiveCallable.java:15)

at org.junit.runners.model.FrameworkMethod.invokeExplosively(FrameworkMethod.java:42)

at org.junit.internal.runners.statements.InvokeMethod.evaluate(InvokeMethod.java:20)

at android.support.test.internal.statement.UiThreadStatement.evaluate(UiThreadStatement.java:55)

at android.support.test.rule.ActivityTestRule$ActivityStatement.evaluate(ActivityTestRule.java:257)

at org.junit.rules.RunRules.evaluate(RunRules.java:18)

at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner.runLeaf(ParentRunner.java:263)

at org.junit.runners.BlockJUnit4ClassRunner.runChild(BlockJUnit4ClassRunner.java:68)

at org.junit.runners.BlockJUnit4ClassRunner.runChild(BlockJUnit4ClassRunner.java:47)

at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner$3.run(ParentRunner.java:231)

at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner$1.schedule(ParentRunner.java:60)

at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner.runChildren(ParentRunner.java:229)

at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner.access$000(ParentRunner.java:50)

at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner$2.evaluate(ParentRunner.java:222)

at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner.run(ParentRunner.java:300)

at org.junit.runners.Suite.runChild(Suite.java:128)

at org.junit.runners.Suite.runChild(Suite.java:24)

at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner$3.run(ParentRunner.java:231)

at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner$1.schedule(ParentRunner.java:60)

at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner.runChildren(ParentRunner.java:229)

at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner.access$000(ParentRunner.java:50)

at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner$2.evaluate(ParentRunner.java:222)

at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner.run(ParentRunner.java:300)

at org.junit.runner.JUnitCore.run(JUnitCore.java:157)

at org.junit.runner.JUnitCore.run(JUnitCore.java:136)

at android.support.test.internal.runner.TestExecutor.execute(TestExecutor.java:54)

at android.support.test.runner.AndroidJUnitRunner.onStart(AndroidJUnitRunner.java:228)

at android.app.Instrumentation$InstrumentationThread.run(Instrumentation.java:1701)

Finish

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