正规英语积累 Formal English


Writing in Nature, Monroe et al. report that, in stark contrast to this tenet, the rate of mutation in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana is lower in genomic regions that are functionally more important, and in regions where mutations are more frequently harmful.

This trend has been suggested to be an evolutionary ‘risk-management’ strategy, because the detriment imposed by a mutation tends to increase with the expression level of the mutated gene

However, the results of both of these studies have been contested, owing to confounding factors in mutation-rate estimation, and a lack of viable mechanisms

Monroe et al. noticed that the mutation rate of a given genomic region (in the study, a stretch of 1,000 nucleotide bases) is correlated with several genomic features. 

Intriguingly, although selection for lower mutagenesis should be orders of magnitude weaker in the non-selfing forest tree Populus trichocarpa than in the selfing A. thaliana, Monroe and colleagues present evidence suggesting similar mutation-rate profiles between the two species.

有趣的是,尽管在非自交林木Populus trichocarpa中对低诱变的选择应该比在自交A. thaliana中弱几个数量级,但Monroe及其同事提出的证据表明,这两个物种之间有类似的突变率特征。

Moreover, genes that lack untranslated regions in their messenger RNAs have higher coding mutation rates than do other genes. And genes with few non-coding segments (introns) have higher coding mutation rates than do genes with more introns.

In rare cases, some individuals may develop new symptoms (called sequelae) that stem from but were not present at the time of initial infection. People who require intensive care for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, regardless of the cause, usually have a long period of recovery.



crooked; off-center; askew.

"you have a wonky nose and a crooked mouth"

        Similar: crooked, off-center, lopsided, askew, skew, skew-whiff, 

(of a thing) unsteady; shaky.

"they sat drinking, perched on the wonky stools"

        Similar: wobbly, unsteady, unstable, shaky, rocky, bockety

not functioning correctly; faulty.

"your sense of judgment is a bit wonky at the moment"

be on the lookout (for sb/sth) | keep a lookout (for sb/sth)

(informal) to watch carefully for sb/sth in order to avoid danger, etc. or in order to find sth you want 注意;警戒;留心

The public should be on the lookout for symptoms of the disease.


pan out

1. end up; conclude.

"he's happy with the way the deal panned out"

- turn out well. 最终成功 脱颖而出

"Harold's idea had been a good one even if it hadn't panned out"


(of gravel) yield gold when washed in a pan.


rebuttal: 反驳论据

Collectively they are casually referred to as*apply functions because, when operating on the command-line, an asterisk (*) symbolizes a wildcard that will match any character.

wildcard 通配符

This exercise doesn’t have an obvious application or analog in a ‘real’ analysis. It is a somewhat arbitrary application of a statistical test to simulated data. But it presents a few good opportunities to grapple with using loop functions. It is simply an etude in using various *apply functions

etude [ei'tju:d] 练习曲,展示曲

a short composition for a solo instrument; intended as an exercise or to demonstrate technical virtuosity 精湛技术

Your hunch seemed to be right. It appears that the poker game is more your cup of tea than roulette.

Would you like to receive list mail batched in a daily digest? 摘要

List all major extramural grants and research awards received in reverse chronological order and number them


② (N-COUNT) (美国的)学位授予仪式(或演讲) In the United States, a baccalaureate service or address is a service that is held or a talk that is given during the ceremony when students receive their degrees.

If you ever want to unsubscribe or change your options (eg, switch to or from digest mode, change your password, etc.), visit your subscription page at:

This is primarily a venue for graduate students and postdocs to share research updates and brainstorm research avenues.

a choice or way of making progress towards sth 选择;途径;手段

Several avenues are open to us. 有几个办法可以供我们选择。

We will explore every avenue until we find an answer. 我们要探索一切途径,直到找到答案为止。

In your request, please indicate your preferred day/time, field of study, modality (online or in-person), and a brief summary of your needs.

She will help you navigate reading, writing, note-taking, advisors, the job market, imposter syndrome, etc.

    The job market is the market in which employers search for employees and employees search for jobs

The Thesis/Dissertation Accelerator (TDA) is a multi-day intensive event for graduate students to jumpstart their writing between semesters.

Our Graduate Writing Groups provide participants with a community of writers as well as a sense of weekly accountability.

Writers need feedback, sounding boards, and other people to coach them while they compose. That's where the KU Writing Center comes in. It's a place for productive talk about writing, with trained peer consultants to help you brainstorm, draft, and revise your projects.

sounding board


a board or screen placed over or behind a pulpit or stage to reflect a speaker's voice forward.

another term for the soundboard.


2.1 a person or group whose reactions to suggested ideas are used as a test of their validity or likely success before they are made public.

"I considered him mainly as a sounding board for my impressions"

2.2 a channel through which ideas are disseminated.

"neighborhood councils provide a sounding board for local opinion"

These groups are led by KU Writing Center staff, who can help you organize your materials, map out your project, navigate writing tasks, and set goals—both small and large.  

You can discuss topics such as adjusting to graduate-level writingovercoming writer's block, publishing journal articleswriting grant/fellowship applications, and completing academic job applications. In addition, students can receive project management support, which can be particularly helpful for those in the thesis/dissertation writing process. 

The Writing Groups offer accountability, community, and strategies for graduate students completing their course work, writing their theses, drafting their dissertations, or preparing their prospectuses. 

incident adj.

1. Tending to arise or occur as a result or accompaniment:"There is a professional melancholy ... incident to the occupation of a tailor"(Charles Lamb).

2. Law Related to or dependent on another thing.

A student who has a valid I-20 and intends to enroll for next regular term may work on campus incident to status. No special work permit is needed. you 


connected with the general costs of running a business or an organization, for example paying for rent or electricity 经费的;管理费用的

overhead costs 营运开支

The new photosynthetic lineages embarked on an evolutionary trajectory that differed from the dominating consumers— one that was governed by the unique opportunities afforded by an autotrophic mode of resource acquisition.

Virtually everything about plants is different— they are truly the most alien group of organisms we may ever have the privilege of encountering— and these differences should define the core of our understanding of their past, present, and future evolution.


Completion of this book would not have been possible were it not for the contributions of many people, and most of all, the students with whom I have had the privilege of working


(N-SING) 荣幸;荣耀 You can use privilege in expressions such as be a privilege or have the privilege when you want to show your appreciation of someone or something or to show your respect.

[单数] something that you are proud and lucky to have the opportunity to do 荣幸;荣耀;光荣


● It must be a privilege to know such a man...  认识这样的人肯定很荣幸。

● I once had the privilege of meeting the late philosopher CLR James. 我曾经有幸和已故的哲学家C.L.R.詹姆士会面。

I hope to have the privilege of working with them again. 但愿有幸与他们再度合作。

It was a great privilege to hear her sing. 听她唱歌真是三生有幸。


[只用于名词前] (of a person 人) no longer alive 已故的

her late husband 她已故的丈夫

the late Freddie Mercury 已故的弗雷迪·默丘利

it's a great way to practice your English, and pick up new vocabulary. 

pseudo- 假的,伪的 一个前缀

counterfeit  (counterfeiting , counterfeited , counterfeits )

1. ADJ Counterfeit money, goods, or documents are not genuine but have been made to look exactly like genuine ones in order to deceive people. 伪造的

He admitted possessing and delivering counterfeit currency.他承认持有和运送了假币。

2. N-COUNT Counterfeit is also a noun. 仿制品; 伪造品

Levi Strauss says counterfeits of the company's jeans are flooding Europe.利瓦伊·斯特劳斯说该公司牛仔裤的仿冒品充斥着欧洲市场。

3. V-T If someone counterfeits something, they make a version of it that is not genuine but has been made to look genuine in order to deceive people. 仿冒; 伪造

..the coins Davies is alleged to have counterfeited.…这些据称是戴维斯伪造的硬币。


the highest point of sth, especially the top of a mountain 最高点;顶点;山顶

We reached the summit at noon. 中午时分我们抵达峰顶。

This path leads to the summit. 这条路通往山顶。

(figurative)the summit of his career 他事业的顶峰

an official meeting or series of meetings between the leaders of two or more governments at which they discuss important matters (政府间的)首脑会议;峰会

a summit in Moscow 在莫斯科举行的首脑会议

a summit conference 峰会

early bird 早鸟


[可数名词, 不可数名词] a person or group of people or vehicles that travels with sb/sth in order to protect or guard them 护送者;护卫队;护卫舰(或车队、飞机)

Armed escorts are provided for visiting heads of state. 来访的国家元首由武装卫队护送。

Prisoners are taken to court under police escort. 囚犯由警察押送带上法庭。

[可数名词](formal,or old-fashioned) a person, especially a man, who takes sb to a particular social event 陪同某人参加社交活动的人(尤指男人)

[可数名词] a person, especially a woman, who is paid to go out socially with sb 受雇陪同某人外出社交的人(尤指女人)

an escort service/agency 社交陪伴服务社

v. [动词 + 名词短语, usually + 副词或介词短语] to go with sb to protect or guard them or to show them the way 护卫;护送

The President arrived, escorted by twelve soldiers. 总统在十二名卫兵的护送下到达。

You have earned a B or better grade in College English Composition 1 and 2 AND Earned 24 or more credit-bearing hours toward a degree at an accredited US institution or at an institution within a qualifying region*

The Kansas Biological Survey is a KU research and service unit and a non-regulatory state agency, whose mission is to gather information on the kinds, distribution, and abundance of plants and animals in Kansas, and to compile, analyze, interpret, and distribute this information broadly.

The image that emerges of Mendel is of a meticulous scientist who accepted the tenets of Darwinian evolution, while privately pinpointing aspects of Darwin’s views of inheritance that were not supported by Mendel’s own experiments.

His published and private scientific writings are entirely objective, devoid of polemics or religious allusions, and address evolutionary questions in a manner consistent with that of his scientific contemporaries.

Two years before Mendel entered the University of Vienna, Carl Friedrich von Gärtner (1849) published his magnum opusVersuche und Beobachtungen über die Bastarderzeugung im Pflanzenreiche (Experiments and Observations on Hybrid Production in the Plant Kingdom), which Mendel obtained, probably while at university.

magnum opus /ˌmaɡnəm ˈəʊpəs,ˈɒpəs/

noun | a work of art, music, or literature that is regarded as the most important or best work that an artist, composer, or writer has produced.

Despite the tantalizing evidence for DAG and/or its downstream products in visual transduction and the synergistic role of calcium, in no instance has application of such chemical stimuli fully reproduced the remarkable size and speed of the photocurrent.

same old same old


used to say that a situation or someone's behavior remains the same, especially when it is boring or annoying:

Most people just keep on doing the same old same old every day.

miss the boat

(informal) to be unable to take advantage of sth because you are too late 错失良机

If you don't buy now, you may find that you've missed the boat.


cut out 

6. Every few minutes the motor cut out as the machinery became jammed.


1. The sub-plots are only tenuously interconnected.


2. His works tenuously survive in the minds of a few scholars. 


expand on/upon sth

to say more about sth and add some details 详述;充分叙述;详细阐明

Could you expand on that point, please?



~ (about/on/over sth) (formal) to think about sth carefully for a period of time 沉思;考虑;琢磨

= consider


She pondered over his words.


They were left to ponder on the implications of the announcement.


[动词 + 名词短语]

The senator pondered the question for a moment.


[动词 + wh-从句]

They are pondering whether the money could be better used elsewhere.



in one's back pocket 留了一手,留了个底牌,以备不时之需

(idiomatic) Available to use as a resource for one's advantage whenever needed; in reserve

"To have [something] in your BACK pocket" means you have the option of using that thing (which can be a person) in a situation where it is perhaps unexpected but will give you an advantage. Similar to the phrase "To have [something] up your sleeve" - an example would be "I'm giving a presentation to these Japanese executives this afternoon - if I really want to impress them, I've got Bob in my back pocket who speaks fluent Japanese"

"To have [someone] in your pocket" means you have complete control over them. This is frequently used in football (soccer) games e.g. "The defender had the attacker in his pocket the whole game" meaning the defender was in complete control of the attacker


Mountain trails have treacherous steep sections and restful flat sections.

ADJ If you say that something is treacherous, you mean that it is very dangerous and unpredictable. 危险的; 变化莫测的

The current of the river is fast flowing and treacherous.


On a curve like a circle or a parabola or any other smooth path (as long as it’s not a perfectly straight line), the slope is bound to be steeper in some places and shallower in others.


~ to do/be sth certain or likely to happen, or to do or be sth 一定会;很可能会

There are bound to be changes when the new system is introduced. 引进新系统后一定会发生变化。

It's bound to be sunny again tomorrow. 明天肯定又是阳光灿烂。

You've done so much work─you're bound to pass the exam. 你下了这么大工夫,考试绝对没问题。

It was bound to happen sooner or later (= we should have expected it). 这事迟早都是要发生的。

You're bound to be nervous the first time (= it's easy to understand) .


The catch is that rates of change are rarely constant in the real world or in mathematics. In that case, defining a rate becomes problematic.

N-COUNT A catch is a hidden problem or difficulty in a plan or an offer that seems surprisingly good. 隐藏的困难; 意料不到的情况

The catch is that you work for your supper, and the food and accommodations can be very basic. 问题在于你工作是为了顿饭,而且吃住条件非常一般。

All that money for two hours' work─what's the catch? 干了两小时的活就给那么多钱——这里面有什么鬼?

It's defined as the ramp’s vertical rise Δy divided by its horizontal run Δx.

When the American car manufacturer Chevrolet claims that one of its muscle cars, the V-8 Camaro SS, can go from 0 to 60 miles per hour in 4 seconds flat, they’re quoting acceleration as a rate: a change in speed (from 0 to 60 miles per hour) divided by a change in time (4 seconds).

in… flat

(informal) used with an expression of time to say that sth happened or was done very quickly, in no more than the time stated (与表达时间的词语连用,表示发生或做得很快)才…,只用了…,整

They changed the wheel in three minutes flat (= in exactly three minutes) .


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