S04E05-句读《中国哲学的故事》---Human-heartedness and Righteousness

Human-heartedness and Righteousness

仁、义

With regard to the virtues of the individual, Confucius emphasized human-heartedness and righteousness, especially the former. 

关于个人有点,孔子强调仁和义,尤其是仁。

Righteousness (yi) means the "oughtness" of a situation. 

义意思是一定场合中应该做的事。

It is a categorical imperative. 

这是绝对律令

Every one in society has certain things which he ought to do, and which must be done for their own sake, because they are the morally right things to do. 

社会中的每个人都有些事情是应该做的,还有些是为了个人利益,他们必须做的,因为这些事情是道德上应该做的。

If, however, he does them only because of other non-moral considerations, then even though he does what he ought to do, his action is no longer a righteous one. 

但是,如果他做这些事情仅仅是因为非道德因素,那么即使他做了他应该做的事情,他的表现也不能称为义。

To use a word often disparaged by Confucius and later confucianists, he is then acting for "profit." 

用一个孔子及之后的儒学家鄙视的词来说,他的表现是为了“利”。

Yi (righteousness) and li(profit) are in Confucianism diametrically opposed terms. 

在儒家看来,义和利是两个完全相反的词。

Confucius himself says: The superior man comprehends yi; the small man comprehends li. (Analects, IV, 16.) 

孔子自己也说:“大人予以义,小人予以利。”

Herein lies what the later Confucianists called the distinction between yi and li, a distinction which they considered to be of the utmost importance in moral teaching. 

这也就是后来的儒家所认为的义和利的区别,在道德教学中他们认为这是最重要的。


The idea of yi is rather formal, but that of jen (humanheartedness) is much more concrete. 

义比较形式化,但仁更具体些。

The formal essence of the duties of man in sociely is their oughtness, because all these duties are what he ought to do. 

社会中人的职责的形式上的本质是他们应该做的,因为所有这些职责都是他们应该做的。

But the material essence of these duties is "loving others, i.e., jen or human-heartedness. 

但这些职责的具体本质是“爱别人”,即仁。

The father acts according to the way a father should act who loves his son; the son acts according to the way a son should act who loves his father. 

父亲根据一个爱孩子的父亲应该做的样子来做事情;儿子也应该根据一个爱父亲的人应该做的样子来做事情。

Confucius says: Human-heartedness consists in loving others. (Analects, XII, 2.2..) 

孔子说:“仁者爱人。”

The man who really loves others is one able to perform his duties in society. 

真正爱别人的人是那些在社会中履行职责的人。

Hence in the Analects we see that Confucius sometimes uses the word jen not only to denote a special kind of virtue, but also to denote all the virtues combined, so that the term "man of jen" becomes synonymous with the man of all-round virtue. 

因此在《论语》中可看到孔子有时用仁不仅仅指某一特殊的有点,更是指相关的所有的优点,所以“仁者”是君子的同义词。

In such contexts, jen can be translated as "perfect virtue."

在这样的背景下,仁才可以翻译为“完美的品德”。

==========

推荐阅读更多精彩内容