Linux 基础 (二)

Linux 基础 (二)

一、补充:

查看已启动服务的端口:
netstat -tulnp |grep 80
或者
ss -tulnp |grep 80

二、Linux 前期铺垫

  • Linux 要能上网 (ping baidu.com)
  • 掌握Linux软件包安装方法
    • rpm包管理

      • 光盘挂载
      mount /dev/cdrom /mnt
      cd /mnt
      ls
      
      • 安装rpm包
      rpm -ivh vsftpd-3.0.2-22.el7.x86_64.rpm
      或者
      rpm -Uvh vsftpd-3.0.2-22.el7.x86_64.rpm
      
      • 卸载rpm
      rpm -e vsftpd-3.0.2-22.el7.x86_64
      
      • rpm包的查询
      [root@python3 ~]# rpm -q vsftpd
      vsftpd-3.0.2-22.el7.x86_64
      [root@python3 ~]# rpm -q vsftp
      package vsftp is not installed
      [root@python3 ~]# 
      [root@python3 ~]# rpm -qa |grep vsf
      [root@python3 ~]# which vim
      /usr/bin/vim
      [root@python3 ~]# rpm -qf /usr/bin/vim
      
      • 额外补充
      安装多依赖的软件包
      rpm  -ivh  a b c d e f
      
    • yum使用

      • 使用aliyum yum站点源
      Base源
      cd /etc/yum.repos.d/
      mv *.repo /tmp
      wget http://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-7.repo
      
      EPEL源
      yum install -y epel-release
      
      • 使用yum安装软件
      yum install -y openssl openssl-devel 
      
      • 软件包查询及组安装
      yum list |grep vsftpd
      yum grouplist
      yum groupinstall "Development Tools"
      
      • 卸载软件包
      yum remove 软件包名
      
      • 优化yum源
      (1)本地镜像yum源(光盘挂载到/mnt下)
      [local]
      name=localios
      baseurl=file:///mnt
      gpgcheck=0
      
      yum clean all
      yum install -y vsftpd
      
      (2)局域网yum源(ftp)
      1. 安装ftp软件
          yum install -y vsftpd
      2. 启动ftp服务
          systemctl start vsftpd
          systemctl enable  vsftpd
      
      3. 创建站点目录,并将光盘软件拷贝其中
          cp -a /mnt/*  /var/ftp/pub/centos7
      
      4. 生成ftp站点的yum源配置文件
          [ftp]
          name=centos7
          baseurl=ftp://10.0.0.100/pub/centos7
          gpgcheck=0
      
      
      5. 安装软件测试
          yum install openssl-devel bzip2-devel expat-devel gdbm-devel readline-devel sqlite-devel gcc gcc-c++  openssl-devel zlib zlib-devel -y
      
      

三、源码包应用

压缩包解压:
.zip 
unzip  xxx.zip

.tar 
.tar.gz 
.tgz
.tar.bz2 
.tar.xz
tar xf  xxx.tar

.iso
mount -o loop xxx.iso  /test

.cpio
cpio -idcmv < xxx.cpio

四、源码包安装

导入自己的源码压缩包
(1) python3.6源码包安装
# 1. 解压缩
tar xf Python-3.6.1.tar.xz

# 2. cd 到解压出的目录中
cd Python-3.6.1

# 3.
./configure
make
make install
(2)mysql 源码包
# 1.解压缩
# 2. cd 到解压出的目录中
# 3. 
cmake
make
make install
(3)redis 源码包
# 1.解压缩
# 2. cd 到解压出的目录中
# 3.
make

# 4. 修改环境变量
vim /etc/profile
# 添加以下一行:
export PATH=/opt/redis-3.2.10/src:$PATH

# 5. 生效修改后的配置
source /etc/profile
让python链接redis
unzip redis-py-master.zip 
cd redis-py-master
python3 setup.py install

# 对redis的单实例进行连接操作
python3
>>>import redis
>>>r = redis.StrictRedis(host='localhost', port=6379)
>>>r.set('name', 'oldguo')
True
>>>r.get('name')
'oldguo'

五、二进制包安装(mysql5.7.20)

(一)解压及制作软链接
tar xf mysql-5.7.20-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64.tar.gz
ln -s mysql-5.7.20-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64 mysql
(二)编辑环境变量
vim  /etc/profile
# 添加以下一行:
export PATH=/opt/mysql/bin:$PATH

# 生效配置:
source /etc/profile
(三)卸载自带的mariadb数据库
yum remove mariadb-libs
(四)生成配置文件 (/etc/my.cnf)
vim /etc/my.cnf

[mysqld]
basedir=/opt/mysql
datadir=/opt/mysql/data
socket=/tmp/mysql.sock
user=mysql
log_error=/var/log/mysql.log
log_bin=/opt/mysql/data/mysql-bin
server_id=100
[mysql]
socket=/tmp/mysql.sock
(五)创建用户和数据目录,并授权
useradd mysql 
mkdir  /opt/mysql/data 
chown -R mysql.mysql /opt/mysql
(六)初始化数据
[root@python3 ~]# mysqld --initialize-insecure --basedir=/opt/mysql --datadir=/opt/mysql/data --user=mysql
2019-01-04T03:58:03.128958Z 0 [Warning] TIMESTAMP with implicit DEFAULT value is deprecated. Please use --explicit_defaults_for_timestamp server option (see documentation for more details).
2019-01-04T03:58:03.142436Z 0 [ERROR] Could not open file '/var/log/mysql.log' for error logging: Permission denied
2019-01-04T03:58:03.142492Z 0 [ERROR] Aborting

# 出现报错解决
touch /var/log/mysql.log 
chown -R mysql.mysql /var/log/mysql.log

# 再次初始化:
mysqld --initialize-insecure --basedir=/opt/mysql --datadir=/opt/mysql/data --user=mysql
(七)启动mysql
cd /opt/mysql/support-files
./mysql.server start

# 拷贝该文件到简单目录下并重命名,以后启动不用使用那么复杂的目录结构
cp mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysqld

/etc/init.d/mysqld restart

# 扩展:使用systemctl 管理mysql
vim /etc/systemd/system/mysqld.service
# 配置

[Unit]
Description=MySQL Server
Documentation=man:mysqld(8)
Documentation=http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/en/using-systemd.html
After=network.target
After=syslog.target

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
[Service]
User=mysql
Group=mysql
ExecStart=/opt/mysql/bin/mysqld --defaults-file=/etc/my.cnf
LimitNOFILE = 5000

# 重新启动mysql
systemctl restart mysqld
# 查看 mysql 端口启动成功没有
netstat -tulnp |grep 3306
(八)测试python3链接mysql
# 创建mysql链接用户

grant all on *.* to root@'10.0.0.%' identified by 'root';
create database bbs charset utf8;


# python代码测试:

# 更新 pip
pip3 install --upgrade pip
# 安装 pymysql
pip3 install pymysql

# 新建python文件
vim testmysql.py
#!/usr/bin/python3
import pymysql
db = pymysql.connect("10.0.0.100","root","123","bbs" )
cursor.execute("SELECT VERSION()")
data = cursor.fetchone()
print ("Database version : %s " % data)
db.close()
# 运行python文件
python3  testmysql.py 

六、经典互联网架构项目

LNMPT =  Linux  Nginx  MySQL  PHP Tomcat 
LNMPJ =  Linux  Nginx  MySQL  PHP Jboss

七、测试django是否正常运行

(一)创建一个空的django项目,然后手动运行
[root@web01 ~]# django-admin.py startproject demosite
[root@web01 ~]# cd demosite
[root@web01 demosite]# python3 manage.py runserver 0.0.0.0:8002
# 在浏览器内输入:http://127.0.0.1:8002,检查django是否运行正常。
(二)配置uwsgi
[root@web01 demosite]# vim /root/demosite/uwsgi.ini
[uwsgi]
socket = 127.0.0.1:9999
master = true
workers = 2
max-requests = 1000
buffer-size = 30000
pidfile = /run/uwsgi.pid
daemonize = /var/log/uwsgi.log

uwsgi --ini /root/demosite/uwsgi.ini &
(三)配置Nginx
1、使用官方 Nginx yum源
[root@nginx ~]# vim /etc/yum.repos.d/nginx.repo 
[nginx]
name=nginx repo
baseurl=http://nginx.org/packages/centos/7/$basearch/
gpgcheck=0
enabled=1

#安装Nginx
[root@nginx ~]# yum install nginx -y
2、启动Nginx
systemctl start nginx
systemctl enable nginx
3、配置Nginx
[root@web01 demosite]# vim /etc/nginx/conf.d/py.conf

server {
    listen 80;
    server_name 10.0.0.100;
    client_max_body_size 100M;

    location / {
        index index.html;
        include uwsgi_params;
        uwsgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9999;
        uwsgi_param UWSGI_SCRIPT demosite.wsgi;
        uwsgi_param UWSGI_CHDIR /root/demosite;
    }
}

# 重启nginx
systemctl restart nginx
(四)浏览器访问,输入ip地址,不用加端口就能访问成功

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