Action Research Study
When researchers approach a question or problem they do so with a set of assumptions and theories about how the people think, learn, and interact with the world. This can be thought of as their conceptual framework or theory of understanding. The conceptual framework has two functions: First, it frames your research and guides how you seek answers to questions. This includes how data will be collected and how it will be analyzed. Second, by stating a theory of understanding, you are providing readers with a sense of how your research was conducted. Doing so aids the reader in understanding the research and enhances the credibility of your findings. You don't need to spend hours researching and writing about your conceptual framework but it is something you should think about and include it in your research. It has three main frameworks:
Behaviorism, is based on the supposition that learning occurs with a change in behavior, is shaped by the environment, and is guided by the principles of contiguity and reinforcement (Skinner, 1950).
Cognitivism, by refuting the conceptualization of learning as solely a product of stimulus-response associations and extends the conceptualization of learning to encompass not just behavior modification based on rewards and punishments but the realization that cognitive processing of external information leads to understanding and productive thinking, not just
reproduction, enabling transfer to novel, problem-solving situations (Mayer,1996).
Social Constructivism, extended the cognitivism view and defined learning as an individual construct resulting from personal interpretations of all life experiences within a society and culture, including both formal and informal education (Steffe & Gale, 1995).
Mayer, R.E. (1996). Learners as information processors: legacies and limitations of Educational Psychology's Second Metaphor.Educational
Skinner, B.F. (1950). Are theories of learning necessary?Psychological Review, 57(4), 193-216.
Steffe, L. P., & Gale, J. (Eds.) (1995).Constructivism in education. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.