人教版|高中英语必修3Unit3解析(二)

资讯|教学|备课|语法|答疑

每一个爱孩子的外语老师

都置顶了外语教师联盟

教学背景

本单元的主要内容是根据马克·吐温的名著《百万英镑》改编而成的剧本中的几个片断以及马克·吐温的生平简介。

疑难追踪

1.He was brought up in Hannibal, Missouri along the Mississippi River.(P17)

难句解读

他是在密西西比河边的密苏里州的汉尼拔长大的。

bring up

意为“抚养,教育”,常用于被动语态;它还有一层意思是“提出(议题)”。

例如:

Her parents died when she was a baby and she was brought up by her aunt.

她出生后不久父母双亡,是由姑母抚养大的。

In my day children were brought up to respect the law.

在我小时候,孩子们都被教育说要遵守法律。

In my opinion, you shouldn’t bring up the question at the next meeting.

依我看,你不应该在下次会议上提出这个问题。

难点深究

bring相关的短语还有:

bring about引起,导致,造成;

bring back拿回来,使想起,使恢复;

bring down使下降;

bring in引入,带来,引进;

bring together使言和,使和解。

bring,take,carry,fetch的区别:

bring 是指“(从别处朝向说话者或被提到的人)带来;领来;取来”; take 是指“拿走;取走”(活动方向常常是离开说话者或被谈到的人或某个具体的位置);carry 是指“拿动;搬动;携带”,不管移动方向是朝向说话者,还是离开说话者;fetch 是指“去拿来”,也就是说,既包括“去”的意思,又包括“来”的意思。

例如:

Bring your friends to the party.

请带你的朋友来参加聚会。

Take the letter to the post office.

把这封信送到邮局去。

The mother carries her baby in her arms.

那位母亲怀里抱着她的孩子。

I asked her to fetch me an evening paper.

我要她去给我拿一份晚报来。

2.Imagine that somebody gives you a large sum of money to spend as you like. What would you do with it?(P17)

难句解读

假设有人给你一大笔钱让你随意花。你会拿去干什么?

a large sum of

意为“很多,大量的”,相当于a great/good amount of。

例如:

Vincent was left a large sum of money by his aunt.

温斯特的姑母给他遗留下了一大笔钱。

难点深究

下面短语都表示“大量,许多”,但其搭配关系有所不同。只用于修饰不可数名词的有:a large sum of,a great/good deal of,a quantity of;

只用于修饰可数名词的有:dozens of,scores of,a great many,a large/great number of, large/great numbers of;

既可修饰可数名词又可修饰不可数名词的有:a lot of,lots of,plenty of,quantities of。

do with与deal with 的区别:

两个都有 “处理,对付”之意,但do with中的do是及物动词;而deal with中的deal是不及物动词,所以do with用what提问,deal with用how提问。

例如:

How are you going to deal with the polluted food?

你打算如何处理那些受污染的食品?

What are you going to do with the old clothes?

你打算怎样处理那些旧衣服?

3.Two old and wealthy brothers, Roderick and Oliver, have made a bet.(P17)

难句解读

一对年老又富有的兄弟,罗德里克和奥利弗,打了一个赌。

bet

在句中作名词,意为“打赌”。make a bet意为“下赌注,打赌”,后接on sth. with sb.。bet作名词构成的短语还有:have a bet on打赌;place a bet下赌注;a good bet可能成功的行为(情况);a safe bet比较稳妥的行为(情况);do sth. for a bet为打赌而做某事。bet还可以作动词,意为“下赌注,与……打赌”,常用“bet+that从句”和“bet (sth.) on”。

例如:

He bet that I won’t pass my exam.

他打赌说我考试不会及格。

They bet all money on a horse that came last.

他们把赌注都压在跑在最后的那匹马上面。

4.Permit me to lead the way,sir.(P18)

难句解读

先生,请让我来带路吧。

permit

意为“准许,允许”,尤指根据正式命令来决定。常用于permit sb. sth.,permit sb. to do sth.,permit sth. near/in的结构;它还有一层意思是“容许,许可”。

例如:

You are not permitted access to confidential files.

你不准翻查机密档案。

I’m afraid I cannot permit my daughter to marry you.

恐怕我不会允许我的女儿嫁给你。

Dogs are not permitted near the shop.

狗不允许停留在超市附近。

We’ll have a picnic in the woods, weather permitting.

如果天气好,我们将在树林里野餐。

难点深究

promise与permit的区别:

promise作“答应”讲时,含有“保证”之意,用于说话人答应或保证自己要做某一件事;permit通常含有积极地、从正面地“允许”的意义,如通过法令式正式条文“允许”某件事。

例如:

I promised him to attend to the matter promptly.

我答应他立即处理这件事。

Such hydropower stations have been set up in all places where conditions permit.

在条件允许的地方都建了这样的水电站。

特别注意promise sb. to do sth.与permit sb. to do sth.的区别:

promise sb.to do sth.意为“向某人许诺做某事”,其中sb.to do sth.不是复合宾语(由“宾语+宾语补足语”构成),sb.是间接宾语,to do sth.是直接宾语,to do的执行者是主语而不是sb.;permit sb.to do sth.意为“允许某人做某事”,其中sb.to do sth.是复合宾语,to do sth.的执行者是sb.。

例如:

He promised me to buy a bike.

他答应我会去买辆自行车。(买自行车的人是他而不是我)

He permitted me to buy a bike.

他允许我去买一辆自行车。(买自行车的人是我而不是他)

5.Not at all. Go right ahead.(P18)

难句解读

不介意,请问吧。

go ahead

常用于交际英语中,表示可以干某事。go ahead还可表示“着手做(某事)”,后接with sth.

例如:

—I was wondering if I could use your typewriter.

我可以用你的打印机吗?

—Sure, go ahead.

当然可以,请用吧。

Kate will be late but we’ll go ahead with the meeting anyway.

凯特晚些时候到,不过,我们还是先开会。

难点深究

与ahead相关的短语有:

ahead of time/schedule提前,率先;

be ahead of its time走在时代之前;

get ahead取得进步,获得成功;get/keep ahead(of the game)(在比赛中)领先/处于支配地位。

6.As a matter of fact,I landed in Britain  by accident.(P18)

难句解读

事实上,我在英国上岸是偶然的。

by accident

意为“偶然地,意外地”,相当于by chance。

例如:

I met her this morning quite by accident.

我今天中午碰到她颇为偶然。

难点深究

注意accident与incident的区别:

accident 可以表示“事故”的意思,通常指不幸的意外事件,它还可以表示偶然的事件;incident 的意思是“事件”,尤指与较为重大的事件相比显得不重要的“事件”,它还用以表示引起国际争端或战争等事件。

例如:

Twenty people were killed in the railway accident.

在这次火车事故中,有20人死亡。

He met with an accident in riding.

他在骑马时出了事。

It was quite an accident.

这完全是偶然的事。

It is a quite common incident.

这是很普通的事。

The Lugouqiao incident occured on July 7, 1937.

芦沟桥事变发生于1937年7月7日。

7.About a month ago I was sailing out of the bay—(his eyes stare at what is left of the brothers’ dinner on the table)(P18)

难句解读

大约一个月前,我扬帆驶出了海湾——(他的眼睛盯在桌子上兄弟俩剩下的残羹剩菜上)。

stare at

意为“盯着看;凝视”。

例如:

It is not polite to stare at other people.

盯着别人看是不礼貌的。

难点深究

stare at,glare at,glance at,gaze at的区别:

stare at指由于好奇、无礼傲慢而睁大眼睛“凝视”;glare at指由于愤怒而“瞪着”或“怒视”;glance at意为“迅速的一看;一瞥”;gaze at指由于兴趣、感慨、喜欢或惊奇而目不转睛的“凝视”。

例如:

The noble stared at the blank sheet of paper for a few seconds.

那位贵族对着那张空白纸凝视了几秒钟。

Men in shirt sleeves stood outside their houses and glared at us.

穿着衬衣的男人站在屋子外面瞪着我们。


He glanced at the audience, and began to speak.

他环视了一下听众,便开始讲话。

She gazed at the carpet for some time, then added, “You don't need bookcases at all.”

她对着地毯凝视了一会儿,然后补充说:“你根本不需要书柜”。

8.It was all my fault.(P18)

难句解读

这都是我的过错。

fault

意为“缺点,毛病,缺陷;错误,(过失的)责任”,常用搭配有:find fault with找……的岔子,对……吹毛求疵,挑剔;It’s one’s fault.是某人的过错。

难点深究

mistake,error,fault和wrong四个词都可表示“错误”,但侧重点不同:mistake强调日常生活中判断和看法的错误,是可数名词;error强调违反某一标准做的错事,包括道德上的错误;wrong作名词时,指“坏事;冤屈;不道德;犯罪”;fault强调过错的责任或性格上的弱点。

例如:

It was a mistake buying that house.

买那套房子是个错误。

She can’t forget the errors of her youth.

她忘不了她年轻时犯的错误。

He is too young to know right from wrong.

他太年轻,不能辨别是非。

A friend without faults will never be found.

没有缺点的朋友是永远找不到的。

9.The next morning,I’d just about given myself up for lost when I was  spotted by a ship.(P18)

难句解读

第二天早晨,我正感到绝望的时候,一艘海船发现了我。

spot

既可作动词,表示“发现,认出”,也可作名词,表示“斑点,污点,地点”。其常用短语on the spot表示“在场,当场”。注意下列句中spot的词性和意义。

例如:

Which has spots, the leopard or the tiger?

豹和虎哪一个身上有斑点?

Did you feel a few spots of rain?

下了几滴雨,你感觉到了吗?

I can’t spot the difference between them.

我看不出他们的区别。

10.The fact is that I earned my passage by working as an unpaid hand,which  accounts for my  appearance.(P18)

难句解读

事实上,我靠做义工来顶替船费,这就是我衣冠不整的原因了。

主句是The fact is that I earned my passage by working as an unpaid hand…,句中的that引导表语从句,表语从句中又含有一个由which引导的非限定性定语从句。earn one’s passage意为“挣取旅费”:account for 意为“对……做出解释;说明原因”。

例如:

He couldn’t afford the fare, and so he had to earn his passage by doing jobs on the ship.

他交不起船费,只得靠在船上做些零活来挣取路费。

Nobody could account for his absence from school.

没人能对他旷课做出解释。

难点深究

与account相关的词组有:

take account of sth./take sth. into account把某事考虑在内;

on account of因为,由于;

pay/settle your account付账/结账;

by/from all accounts根据各方面所说;

on one’s account因为某人的缘故;

on one’s own account为自己,靠自己;

on no account/not on any account决不;

by one’s own account根据某人自己所说;

on that account/on this account考虑到那种情况/考虑到这种情况;

put/turn sth. to good account充分利用某物;

of no account/of little account不重要,没关系。

11.I went to the American embassy to seek help, but…(The brothers smile at each other.)(P18)

难句解读

我上美国大使馆求助,但是……(兄弟俩相视而笑。)。

seek

意为“寻找,寻求;设法得到”,seek sb./sth. out意为“找出(找到)某人或某物”。

例如:

New graduates are busy seeking employment at the moment.

新毕业生此时正忙于找工作。

Our mission is to seek out the enemy and destroy them.

我们的任务就是找到敌人并把他们消灭掉。

难点深究

seek,look for和find的区别:

seek 一般用于抽象意义,有时也表示渴望得到某一具体的东西,是比较正式的书面用法; look for 强调找的过程; find强调找的结果。

例如:

They seek information from various sources.

他们从各种来源收集信息。

He is looking for his dictionary bought yesterday.

他在找昨天买的那本词典。

Let’s hope we can find our  parking place.

但愿我们能找到一个停车的地方。

12.Patience, Mr.Adams.(P18)

难句解读

耐心点儿,亚当斯先生。

patience

意为“耐心”,其形容词形式为patient,其相关词组有:

with patience耐心地;

be patient with sb.对某人有耐心;

have no patience with不能容忍……;

be out of patience对……耐不住。

注意下列句子中红体部分的含义:

Just a little patience, we will finish it as soon as possible.

耐心点,我们会尽快地完成它。

Patience is the plaster for all sores.

忍耐可减轻一切痛苦。(谚语)

As a teacher you should be patient with your students.

作为老师,你应该对学生耐心点。

I’m sorry. I have no patience with all your complaints.

对不起,我可受不了你发牢骚。

13.Well, to be honest, I have none.(P18)

难句解读

哦,老实说,我一分钱也没有。

to be honest

意为“老实说”,相当于honestly speaking,类似的短语还有frankly speaking坦率地讲,generally speaking一般说来,personally speaking就个人来说,technically speaking从技术上来说。

例如:

Frankly speaking, I dislike you.

坦率地讲,我并不喜欢你。

Generally speaking, rural schools provide a better environment for the students.

一般说来,乡村学校给学生提供更好的环境。

14.On the contrary,in fact. If this is your idea of some kind of joke, I don’t think it is very funny.(P18)

难句解读

事实上,正好相反,如果你们认为这是一个笑话,我可一点儿也不觉得可笑。

on the contrary

意为“正相反”。观察下列句子红体部分的意思:

He had thought that she would give up soon.But on the contrary,she didn’t stop until she succeeded.

他本以为她很快会放弃的。 但相反,她一直到成功才停止。

You are wrong. On the contrary, the man in ordinary clothes is a rich man.

你错了。正相反,穿着普通的那个人才是有钱人。

15.What quality do you think is the most important for this job?(P21)

难句解读

你认为什么样的素质对这份工作最重要?

do you think为插入语。插入语在英语句子中比较常见,但通常与句中其他成分没有语法上的关系,只是用来表示说话者对句子所表达意思的态度。插入语可以是一个词、一个短语或一个句子。

例如:

Wonderful, we have won again.

太好了,我们又赢了。

You can’t wait any more—in other words, you should start at once.

你不能再等了——换言之,你得立即出发。

One day, I believe, my dream will come true.

我相信,总有一天我的梦想会实现的。

难点深究

含插入语的特殊疑问句的语序为:

疑问词+do you think/suppose /believe/hope/suggest/expect+主语+谓语+其他成分?

例如:

What should I do first?

我应该先做什么?

→What do you think I should do first? 你认为我应该先做什么?

16.Well,we’ll  take a chance.(P22)

难句解读

哦,我们要冒一点儿险了。

take a/the chance

意为“碰运气,冒风险”。与chance一词相关的词组还有:

take chances 碰运气,冒风险;

take a chance of doing sth.冒险干某事;

take a risk of doing sth.冒险干某事;

take a chance on sth.就某事赌一把,碰运气。

难点深究

chance,occasion,opportunity的区别:

chance/opportunity意为“(使达成某事成为可能)时机,良机”,强调可能性,chance尤指偶然性;occasion意为“(做某事的)适当时间,时机”,强调时间、场合上的恰当。注意以下短语动词:

fit/suit the occasion适合那种场合;

catch/seize/take/use the occasion to do sth.利用机会做某事;

celebrate/make/observe an occasion庆祝节日。

17.(in a rude manner)What’s there to wait for?(P22)

难句解读

(很不耐烦地)还等什么?

in a…manner

意为“以……的举止(态度),以……方式”。manner 作“方法,方式, 举止,态度”讲时常用单数;作“礼貌,风俗”讲时,常用复数。与manner相关的短语有:

well mannered 很有礼貌的;

ill mannered 没有礼貌的;

bad manners没有礼貌;

good manners 有礼貌。

18.But he is  in rags.(P22)

难句解读

但他穿的是一身破烂儿!

in rags

意为“衣衫褴褛的”。

例如:

The boy in rags has been begging there all the day.

那个衣衫褴褛的男孩整天在那里乞讨。

19.As for the bill, sir, please forget it.(P22)

难句解读

至于账单嘛,先生,请把它忘了吧。

as for(sb./sth.)

意为“至于,就(某人或某物)而言”。

例如:

Nick can stay, but as for you, you can get out of my sight.

尼克可以留下来,至于你,则可以从我眼前消失。

难点深究

forget to do与forget doing的区别:

forget to do是“忘记做什么”,具体说来,forget用于过去时或完成时表示“要做的事情而忘记做”;用于将来时或祈使句,通常用于否定式,表示“不要忘记做某件事”。forget doing是“做了某事而把它忘记了”,doing的动作发生在前,forget的动作发生在后,相当于and或but连接的并列句。

例如:

I have forgotten to bring my umbrella.

我忘了带伞。

I forgot to give my regards to them.

我忘了向他们问好。

Don’t forget to shake the bottle before use.

使用前别忘了先把瓶子摇一下。

I shall not forget to bring my pen with me.

我不会忘记把我的钢笔带来。

I forgot receiving her letter.=I had received her letter, but I forgot that.

我接到了她的来信,但忘了。

I shall never forget hearing her singing that song.=I heard her singing that song and I shall never forget that.

我永远不会忘记听她唱那首歌的情景。

参考书目(独家授权)

张鑫友. 高中《英语》教材讲与练: 人教课标版. 一年级[M]. 湖北科学技术出版社.

本文编辑:Joyce

编辑助理:Jane(搜索Jane_CFLA)


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