笃学奖-Topic 3-B18463-Uband精读



Spin out of



■  noun

a person who is the first to explore or settle a new country or area.

an innovator or developer of new ideas or techniques.

a member of an infantry group preparing roads or terrain for the main body of troops.

■  verb

be a pioneer of.

open up (a road or terrain) as a pioneer.



•Tourists often get lost and stray intodangerous areas.

2.ADJ.走失的 (狗或猫)

•A stray dog came up to him.

3.N-COUNT 走失的宠物

•The dog was a stray which had been adopted.

4.V-I(思想或视线) 不集中

•Even with the simplest cases I find my mindstraying.


•An 8-year-old boy was killed by a straybullet.


In a dangerous manner.

perilous: meansfull of or exposed to danger or risk.

1. Some forecasters warn that the U.S. in the coming year will run perilously close to a contraction, too, if it allows existing tax cuts and other stimulus to end this year.


If you replicate someone's experiment, work, or research, you do it yourself in exactly the same way. 复制; 重做(试验、工作或研究)


V-T If you allay someone's fears or doubts, you stop them feeling afraid or doubtful. 消除 (恐惧、疑虑)

He did what he could to allay his wife's myriad fears.


1.N-COUNT理解; 看法

•He is interested in how our perceptions ofdeath affect the way we live.


•It did not require a lot of perception torealize the interview was over.

3.N-COUNT(尤指通过视觉的) 感知

Policy initiatives



1.to suddenly pull or twist something 捏,拧,扭

•She leant forward and tweaked both ends of his moustache.

2.to make small changes to a machine, vehicle, or system in order to improve the way it works 对〔机器、汽车或系统〕作小小的改进

•Maybe you should tweak a few sentences before you send in the report.

Bear on

 Be relevant to

- refer, pertain, relate, concern, come to, touch, touch on, have to do with

Have an effect upon

- affect, impact, bear upon, touch on, touch

Press, drive, or impel (someone) to action or completion of an action

- push

Keep or maintain in unaltered condition; cause to remain or last

- continue, uphold, carry on, preserve


ADJ If you say

that something is imminent, especially something unpleasant, you mean it is

almost certain to happen very soon. (尤指不好的事情) 即将发生的

•There appeared no imminent danger.


ADJ If you describe an activity as nefarious, you mean that it is wicked and immoral. 恶毒的;不道德的

•Why make a whole village prisoner if it wasnot to some nefarious purpose?


1.V-T If one thing incorporates another thing, it includes the other thing. 包含

•The new cars will incorporate a number ofmajor improvements.

2.V-T If someone or something is incorporated into a large group, system, or area, they become a part of it. 使并入

•The agreement would allow the rebels to beincorporated into a new national police force.

Trail and error


Love like life is an experiment , it moves on through trail and error.


1.And the approach was lessheavy-handedthan imposing quotas fro poorer pupils, an option previous governments had considered.


2.If BITdid notsave the government at least ten times its running cost, it was to beshut down after two years.


3.May worried about the idea of bureaucrats being given free rein to shape behaviorby imperceptibly tweaking government communications and environmental cues.


4.As long as that choice is made in a transparent manner, and is subject to democratically elected politicians, nudging offers policymakers an alternative to both the nanny state and the unintelligent one; a middle way that he describes as “libertarian paternalism”.



Financial aid 经济援助

Roll out the scheme 开展方案

Spin out of脱离……的控制

Pioneer the use of psychology开拓地使用心理学

The very idea provoked objections   这个想法激起了反对

Mass manipulation  公众操控

Gain ground 占有一席之地;取得进展

Shape brand perception 塑造品牌认知度

Mark the start of a global trend标志着全球性趋势的开端

Centrally directed policy initiatives中央指示的政治方案

Set the desired outcome as the default将预期的结果设为默认值

Opt out选择退出

Tackle corruption整治腐败