《语法俱乐部》| 第二十一章:简化从句练习

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句子简化的原则:一、对等从句中,重复主语或动词择一省略;二、从属从句中,省略主语与be动词两个部分,留下补语。

例1:

句1:The patient had not responded to the standard treatment.

句2:This fact greatly puzzled the medical team.

这里句2中的this fact就是句1中的内容,经过这里的联系可以把两句联合起来:

The patient had not responded to the standard treatment, which greatly puzzled the medical team.

这里是有which的话,容易指代不明,可以当做是the fact还可以当做是前一句的the stand treatment,不妨改成名词从句:

That the patient had not responded to the standard treatment greatly puzzled the medical team.

这个句子依然不够精简,我们使用简化通用三原则来看一下:1.有be动词的省略be动词;2.有助动词的改写成to V;3.除此以外的动词一律加上-ing保留。

that引导的名词从句中,动词是had not responded属于第三种情况,所以改写成:not having responded,原来的主语改成所有格:

The patient's not having responded to the standard treatment greatly puzzled the medical team.

例2:

句1:The summer tourists are all gone.

句2:The resort town has resumed its air of tranquillity.

这两句没有元素间的重复,但是逻辑上是有关联的,加入now that以后改成:

Now that the summer tourists are all gone, the resort town has resumed its air of tranquillity.

连接词now that可以改写成with:

With the summer tourists all gone, the resort town has resumed its air of tranquillity.

例3:

句1:Confucius must have written on pieces of bamboo.

句2:Confucius lived in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty.

句3:Paper was not available until the Eastern Han Dynasty.

句1和句2经由Confucius建立联系:

Confucius, who lived in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, must have written on pieces of bamboo.

简化:

Confucius, living in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, must have written on pieces of bamboo.

句3标识原因,我们加入连接词because后,形成合句:

Confucius, living in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, must have written on pieces of bamboo, because paper was not available until the Eastern Han Dynasty.

由于because后面引导的从句主语同主句的主语不同,不能省略,我们只能省略掉be动词was,将动词变成-ing形式,副词从句中必须要有分词配合,这里就需要加入being:

Confucius, living in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, must have written on pieces of bamboo, paper being not available until the Eastern Han Dynasty.

例4:

句1:The movable-type press was invented by Gutenberg.

句2:The movable-type press was introduced to England in 1482.

句3:This event marked the end of the Dark Ages there.

句1和句2中the movable-type press是重复的内容,建立联系:

The movable-type press, which was invented by Gutenberg, was introduced to England in 1482.

简化后:

The movable-type press, invented by Gutenberg, was introduced to England in 1482.

句3中的this event就是前两句话的整个内容,我们用which作连接词:

The movable-type press, invented by Gutenberg, was introduced to England in 1482,an event which marked the end of the Dark Ages there.

进一步简化为:

The movable-type press, invented by Gutenberg, was introduced to England in 1482, marking the end of the Dark Ages there.

例5:

句1:Ben Kook was educated in an art college.

句2:Ben Kook acts unusual at times.

句3:Ben Kook deals with economic matters at these times.

句1和句2之间的因果联系构成一个合句:

Because he was educated in an art college. Ben Kook acts unusual at times.

简化连接词主语和be动词以后:

Educated in an art college, Ben Kook acts unusual at times.

简化后的句子和句3联系的点在于at these times,经过这个交叉点我们使用when连接词:

Educated in an art college, Ben Kook acts unusual (at times) when he deal with economic matters.

程前省却了at times,这时候简化的时候就要将when保留:

Educated in an art college, Ben Kook acts unusual when dealing with economic matters.

例6:

句1:I'd like something.

句2:You will meet some people.

句3: Then you can leave.

句1中的something就是整个句2的内容,连接在一起:

I'd like that you will meet some people.

简化:

I'd like you to meet some people.

句3是表示时间的,加上以后:

I'd like you to meet some people before you can leave.

这个句子在进一步简化形成:

I'd like you to meet some people before leaving.

例7:

句1:I have not practiced very much.

句2:I should have practiced very much.

句3:I am worried about something.

句4:I might forget something.

句5:What should I say during the speech contest?

句1和句2可以经由比较级as……as连接:

I have not practiced as much as I should. (have practiced)

这正是句3我担心的原因:

Because I have not practiced as much as I should, I am worried about something.

简化为:

Not having practiced as much as I should, I am worried about something.

这个句子中担心的something正是句4中可能忘记的something,由于上句的something放在介词about后面必须先改写成about the possibility,然后在加入that连接词:

Not having practiced as much as I should, I am worried (about the possibility) that I might forget something.

简化that从句:

Not having practiced as much as I should, I am worried about forgetting something.

现在这个句子所担心的something,就是句5中的演讲比赛该说些什么,加入到上一句中替代something的位置:

Not having practiced as much as I should, I am worried about forgetting what I should say during the speech contest.

最后简化what从句:

Not having practiced as much as I should, I am worried about forgetting what to say during the speech contest.

例8:

句1:A. Fries was the leader of the College football team then.

句2:A. Fries is the director of a football club now.

句3:A. Fries saw something.

句4:The college football team lost in the important game.

句5:A. Fries offered something.

句6:He would assume responsibility.

句7:He would tender his resignation.

要逐步完成这7个句子的组合和简化是一个不小的挑战,我们一步一步的来:

句1和句2对仗工整,分别说明Fries现在和以前的身份,我们使用对等连接词连接:

(A)A. Fries was the leader of the College football team then and he is the director of a football now.

and右边的he is可以省略,因为说的是同一个人。

我们再来看看句3和句4的组合,Fries看到一件事,正是句4的全部内容:

(B)A. Fries saw that the College football team lost in the important game.

这里的that引导的从句的主语不同于主句的主语,省略的时候我们使用所有格:

A. Fries saw the College football team's loss in the important game.

然后我们再来看看句5和句6的组合,句5中Fries提出的something就是句6,他愿意承担责任:

A. Fries offered that he would assume responsibility.

简化后:

A. Fries offered to assume responsibility.

我们现在加入变形后的句A,将A.Fries提出来用作主语:

A. Fries , who was the leader of the College football team then and the director of a football club now, offered to assume responsibility.

这里的主语who和be动词was可以简化省略掉。上一句的Fries要负责,是由于句B的内容,我们加入句B:

Because he saw the College football team's loss in the important game, A Fries, the leader of the College football team then and the director of a football club now, offered to assume responsibility.

简化because从句为:

Seeing the College football team's loss in the important game, A Fries, the leader of the College football team then and the director of a football club now, offered to assume responsibility.

我们还有句7没有加入进去,提出辞呈是assume的方式,最佳的介词短语是使用by,不过由于by是介词后面必须跟名词,我们的动词也要作一定的改变:

Seeing the College football team's loss in the important game, A Fries, the leader of the College football team then and the director of a football club now, offered to assume responsibility by tendering his resignation.

大功告成!

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