使用 memcached DRDoS 攻击 Github

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听说3月1日 GitHub 被DDoS攻击了,好像挺严重的。

来看看怎么使用mc攻击~

mc 首先通过cmd line指定UDP端口,然后初始化libevent实例,初始化线程,

int main (int argc, char **argv) {
...
  settings_init();
...
  while (-1 != (c = getopt(argc, argv,
    ...
    "U:"  /* UDP port number to listen on */
    ...
    case 'U':
            settings.udpport = atoi(optarg);
            udp_specified = true;
            break;
    ...
  ))) {
...
  if (tcp_specified && !udp_specified) {
      settings.udpport = settings.port;
   } else if (udp_specified && !tcp_specified) {
      settings.port = settings.udpport;
   }
...
  main_base = event_init();
...
  thread_init(settings.num_threads, main_base);
...
/* create unix mode sockets after dropping privileges */
    if (settings.socketpath != NULL) {
        errno = 0;
        if (server_socket_unix(settings.socketpath,settings.access)) {
            vperror("failed to listen on UNIX socket: %s", settings.socketpath);
            exit(EX_OSERR);
        }
    }

    /* create the listening socket, bind it, and init */
    if (settings.socketpath == NULL) {
        ...
        // TCP
        errno = 0;
        if (settings.port && server_sockets(settings.port, tcp_transport,
                                           portnumber_file)) {
            vperror("failed to listen on TCP port %d", settings.port);
            exit(EX_OSERR);
        }

        /*
         * initialization order: first create the listening sockets
         * (may need root on low ports), then drop root if needed,
         * then daemonise if needed, then init libevent (in some cases
         * descriptors created by libevent wouldn't survive forking).
         */

        /* create the UDP listening socket and bind it */
        errno = 0;
        if (settings.udpport && server_sockets(settings.udpport, udp_transport,
                                              portnumber_file)) {
            vperror("failed to listen on UDP port %d", settings.udpport);
            exit(EX_OSERR);
        }
        ...
        /* enter the event loop */
    if (event_base_loop(main_base, 0) != 0) {
        retval = EXIT_FAILURE;
    }
...
    }

在此之前初始化了一些设置,可以看到默认端口是11211,有4个worker线程。

static void settings_init(void) {
...
    settings.port = 11211;
    settings.udpport = 11211;
    /* By default this string should be NULL for getaddrinfo() */
    settings.inter = NULL;
    settings.maxbytes = 64 * 1024 * 1024; /* default is 64MB */
    ...
    settings.chunk_size = 48;         /* space for a modest key and value */
    settings.num_threads = 4;         /* N workers */
    ...
}

可以检查一下:

$ echo "stats settings" | nc localhost 11211
STAT maxbytes 67108864
STAT maxconns 1024
STAT tcpport 11211
STAT udpport 11211
STAT inter NULL
...
STAT chunk_size 48
STAT num_threads 4
...
END

随后线程初始化,main_base 是分发任务的主线程,创建管道用于libevent通知。主要调用了setup_thread初始化线程信息数据结构,最后创建并初始化线程,代码段都是 worker_libevent。

void thread_init(int nthreads, struct event_base *main_base) {
...
    threads = calloc(nthreads, sizeof(LIBEVENT_THREAD));
    if (! threads) {
        perror("Can't allocate thread descriptors");
        exit(1);
    }

    dispatcher_thread.base = main_base;
    dispatcher_thread.thread_id = pthread_self();

    for (i = 0; i < nthreads; i++) {
        int fds[2];
        if (pipe(fds)) {
            perror("Can't create notify pipe");
            exit(1);
        }

        threads[i].notify_receive_fd = fds[0];
        threads[i].notify_send_fd = fds[1];

        setup_thread(&threads[i]);
        /* Reserve three fds for the libevent base, and two for the pipe */
        stats.reserved_fds += 5;
    }

    /* Create threads after we've done all the libevent setup. */
    for (i = 0; i < nthreads; i++) {
        create_worker(worker_libevent, &threads[i]);
    }
...
}

这里看到了 thread_libevent_process 指针,在设置线程初始化数据时,设置为me->notify_receive_fd 管道的libevent读事件。

static void setup_thread(LIBEVENT_THREAD *me) {
    me->base = event_init();
    if (! me->base) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Can't allocate event base\n");
        exit(1);
    }

    /* Listen for notifications from other threads */
    event_set(&me->notify_event, me->notify_receive_fd,
              EV_READ | EV_PERSIST, thread_libevent_process, me);
    event_base_set(me->base, &me->notify_event);

    if (event_add(&me->notify_event, 0) == -1) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Can't monitor libevent notify pipe\n");
        exit(1);
    }

    me->new_conn_queue = malloc(sizeof(struct conn_queue));
    if (me->new_conn_queue == NULL) {
        perror("Failed to allocate memory for connection queue");
        exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
    }
    cq_init(me->new_conn_queue);
...
}

当管道可读时回调此函数。从队列中取出一个任务,随后调conn_new。

static void thread_libevent_process(int fd, short which, void *arg) {
    LIBEVENT_THREAD *me = arg;
    CQ_ITEM *item;
    char buf[1];

    if (read(fd, buf, 1) != 1)
        if (settings.verbose > 0)
            fprintf(stderr, "Can't read from libevent pipe\n");

    switch (buf[0]) {
    case 'c':
    item = cq_pop(me->new_conn_queue);

    if (NULL != item) {
        conn *c = conn_new(item->sfd, item->init_state, item->event_flags,
                           item->read_buffer_size, item->transport, me->base);
...
    }
}

conn_new为新的请求建立一个连接结构体。这里只填充conn结构体。主要在 libevent 中注册函数指针event_handler。

conn *conn_new(const int sfd, enum conn_states init_state,
                const int event_flags,
                const int read_buffer_size, enum network_transport transport,
                struct event_base *base) {
    {
        /* data */
    };
    conn *c = conn_from_freelist();

    if (NULL == c) {
        if (!(c = (conn *)calloc(1, sizeof(conn)))) {
            fprintf(stderr, "calloc()\n");
            return NULL;
        }

        MEMCACHED_CONN_CREATE(c);

        c->rbuf = c->wbuf = 0;
        c->rbuf = (char *)malloc((size_t)c->rsize);
        c->wbuf = (char *)malloc((size_t)c->wsize);
...
        c->msglist = (struct msghdr *)malloc(sizeof(struct msghdr) * c->msgsize);
...
    }// if
....
    c->sfd = sfd;
...
    c->item = 0;
...
    event_set(&c->event, sfd, event_flags, event_handler, (void *)c);

    event_base_set(base, &c->event);

    c->ev_flags = event_flags;

    if (event_add(&c->event, 0) == -1) {
...
    }
...
    return c;
}

当有新的连接的时候将会回调此函数。

void event_handler(const int fd, const short which, void *arg) {
    conn *c;

    c = (conn *)arg;
    assert(c != NULL);

    c->which = which;

    /* sanity */
...
    drive_machine(c);
    return;
}

client connect 后,memcached server主线程被唤醒,然后调用event_handler()->drive_machine(),进入这个状态机。从别处代码看,只有tcp或UNIX域套接字才会进行conn_listening,即accept过程。conn_waiting等待新的命令请求,conn_read 为读取数据,读完请求后转换 conn 的状态,然后就是解析执行命令咯。在conn_mwrite状态下回复数据;在transmit中最终调用sendmsg写给套接字。

static void drive_machine(conn *c) {
    bool stop = false;
    int sfd, flags = 1;
    socklen_t addrlen;
    struct sockaddr_storage addr;
    int nreqs = settings.reqs_per_event;
    int res;
    const char *str;

    assert(c != NULL);

    while (!stop) {
        switch(c->state) {
        case conn_listening:
            addrlen = sizeof(addr);

            if ((sfd = accept(c->sfd, (struct sockaddr *)&addr, &addrlen)) == -1) {
...
            }
...
        case conn_waiting:
            if (!update_event(c, EV_READ | EV_PERSIST)) {
                if (settings.verbose > 0)
                    fprintf(stderr, "Couldn't update event\n");
                conn_set_state(c, conn_closing);
                break;
            }

            conn_set_state(c, conn_read);
            stop = true;
            break;

        case conn_read:
            res = IS_UDP(c->transport) ? try_read_udp(c) : try_read_network(c);
            switch (res) {
            case READ_NO_DATA_RECEIVED:
                conn_set_state(c, conn_waiting);
                break;
                ...
            }
            break;

        case conn_parse_cmd :
            if (try_read_command(c) == 0) {
                /* we need more data! */
                conn_set_state(c, conn_waiting);
            }

            break;
        ...
        case conn_nread:
            if (c->rlbytes == 0) {
                complete_nread(c);
                break;
            }

            /* first check if we have leftovers in the conn_read buffer */
            if (c->rbytes > 0) {
                int tocopy = c->rbytes > c->rlbytes ? c->rlbytes : c->rbytes;
                if (c->ritem != c->rcurr) {
                    memmove(c->ritem, c->rcurr, tocopy);
                }
                ...
            }

            /*  now try reading from the socket */
            res = read(c->sfd, c->ritem, c->rlbytes);
...
        case conn_write:
            ...
            /* fall through... */

        case conn_mwrite:

          if (IS_UDP(c->transport) && c->msgcurr == 0 && build_udp_headers(c) != 0) {
            if (settings.verbose > 0)
              fprintf(stderr, "Failed to build UDP headers\n");
            conn_set_state(c, conn_closing);
            break;
          }
            switch (transmit(c)) {
            case TRANSMIT_COMPLETE:
                if (c->state == conn_mwrite) {
                    ...
                    /* XXX:  I don't know why this wasn't the general case */
                    if(c->protocol == binary_prot) {
                        conn_set_state(c, c->write_and_go);
                    } else {
                        ...
                    }

            case TRANSMIT_INCOMPLETE:
            case TRANSMIT_HARD_ERROR:
                break;                   /* Continue in state machine. */

            case TRANSMIT_SOFT_ERROR:
                stop = true;
                break;
            }
            break;
        ...
        case conn_closing:
            if (IS_UDP(c->transport))
                conn_cleanup(c);
            else
                conn_close(c);
            stop = true;
            break;
          ...
    }
    return;
}

上文用到的读取UDP,直接调recvfrom,此处从客户端接受数据,将读取到的指令放到rbuf中。

static enum try_read_result try_read_udp(conn *c) {
    int res;

    assert(c != NULL);

    c->request_addr_size = sizeof(c->request_addr);

    res = recvfrom(c->sfd, c->rbuf, c->rsize,
                   0, &c->request_addr, &c->request_addr_size);
...
        memmove(c->rbuf, c->rbuf + 8, res);

        c->rbytes = res;
        c->rcurr = c->rbuf;
        return READ_DATA_RECEIVED;
    }
    return READ_NO_DATA_RECEIVED;
}

主函数中配置的模式,允许客户端以几种方式向mc server发请求 UDP只要绑定之后,直接读取 sfd 就OK,在这里看出它 conn 初始状态应为 conn_read,而 TCP 对应的 conn 初始状态应该为 conn_listening。

static int server_sockets(int port, enum network_transport transport,
                          FILE *portnumber_file) {
    if (settings.inter == NULL) {
        return server_socket(settings.inter, port, transport, portnumber_file);
    } else {
        // tokenize them and bind to each one of them..
        char *b;
        int ret = 0;

        char *list = strdup(settings.inter);

        if (list == NULL) {
            fprintf(stderr, "Failed to allocate memory for parsing server interface string\n");
            return 1;
        }

        for (char *p = strtok_r(list, ";,", &b);
            ...
            ret |= server_socket(p, the_port, transport, portnumber_file);
        }
        free(list);
        return ret;
    }
}

针对每个interface绑定。

static int server_socket(const char *interface,
                         int port,
                         enum network_transport transport,
                         FILE *portnumber_file) {
...
    hints.ai_socktype = IS_UDP(transport) ? SOCK_DGRAM : SOCK_STREAM;

    if (port == -1) {
        port = 0;
    }
    snprintf(port_buf, sizeof(port_buf), "%d", port);

    error= getaddrinfo(interface, port_buf, &hints, &ai);
    ...
    for (next= ai; next; next= next->ai_next) {
        conn *listen_conn_add;

        if ((sfd = new_socket(next)) == -1) {
            ...
            continue;
        }

#ifdef IPV6_V6ONLY
      ...
#endif

        setsockopt(sfd, SOL_SOCKET, SO_REUSEADDR, (void *)&flags, sizeof(flags));

        if (IS_UDP(transport)) {
            maximize_sndbuf(sfd);
        } else {
            ...
        }

        if (bind(sfd, next->ai_addr, next->ai_addrlen) == -1) {
            ...
        } else {
            success++;
            if (!IS_UDP(transport) && listen(sfd, settings.backlog) == -1) {
              ...
            }

        if (IS_UDP(transport)) {
            // UDP
            int c;

            for (c = 0; c < settings.num_threads_per_udp; c++) {
                /* this is guaranteed to hit all threads because we round-robin */
                dispatch_conn_new(sfd, conn_read, EV_READ | EV_PERSIST,
                                  UDP_READ_BUFFER_SIZE, transport);
            }
        } else {
            if (!(listen_conn_add = conn_new(sfd, conn_listening,
                                             EV_READ | EV_PERSIST, 1,
                                             transport, main_base))) {
               ...
            }

            listen_conn_add->next = listen_conn;
            listen_conn = listen_conn_add;
        }
    }

    freeaddrinfo(ai);

    /* Return zero iff we detected no errors in starting up connections */
    return success == 0;
}

设置了socket的发送缓冲大小为,取默认值,然后和设置的最大值二分查找,取最后的最大值。

/*
 * Sets a socket's send buffer size to the maximum allowed by the system.
 */
// defined somewhere else
#define MAX_SENDBUF_SIZE (256 * 1024 * 1024)

static void maximize_sndbuf(const int sfd) {
    ...
    if (getsockopt(sfd, SOL_SOCKET, SO_SNDBUF, &old_size, &intsize) != 0) {
      ...
    }

    min = old_size;
    max = MAX_SENDBUF_SIZE;

    while (min <= max) {
        avg = ((unsigned int)(min + max)) / 2;
        if (setsockopt(sfd, SOL_SOCKET, SO_SNDBUF, (void *)&avg, intsize) == 0) {
            last_good = avg;
            min = avg + 1;
        } else {
            max = avg - 1;
        }
    }
    ...
}

然后分发新的连接到线程池中的一个线程中,就是在一个线程的wq中加入一个任务,并通过管道给相应的线程发信,向一个休眠线程写字符,已注册事件会被触发,随后调thread_libevent_process(上文setup_thread 中线程pd被设置到 event 中)

void dispatch_conn_new(int sfd, enum conn_states init_state, int event_flags,
                       int read_buffer_size, enum network_transport transport) {
    // CQ_ITEM connection queue item
    CQ_ITEM *item = cqi_new();
    char buf[1];

    int tid = (last_thread + 1) % settings.num_threads;

    LIBEVENT_THREAD *thread = threads + tid;
    ...

    cq_push(thread->new_conn_queue, item);

    MEMCACHED_CONN_DISPATCH(sfd, thread->thread_id);

    buf[0] = 'c';
    if (write(thread->notify_send_fd, buf, 1) != 1) {
        ...
    }

}

这里看到mc可通过UDP模式将放大的数据返回给client,所以可以利用这个特性执行攻击,利用网络上的mc放大攻击效果。

看一下协议:RFC768

                         User Datagram Protocol
                         ----------------------
...
protocol  is transaction oriented, and delivery and duplicate protection
are not guaranteed.  Applications requiring ordered reliable delivery of
streams of data should use the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) [2].
Format
------


                  0      7 8     15 16    23 24    31
                 +--------+--------+--------+--------+
                 |     Source      |   Destination   |
                 |      Port       |      Port       |
                 +--------+--------+--------+--------+
                 |                 |                 |
                 |     Length      |    Checksum     |
                 +--------+--------+--------+--------+
                 |
                 |          data octets ...
                 +---------------- ...

                      User Datagram Header Format

Fields
------

Length字段占2字节。所以UDP协议单次最大发送数据为2 ^ 16 = 65535 = 64KB。UDP协议不基于连接,可直接发送数据报到目标机器。因为UDP协议无连接,直接发数据到target,不需三次握手。target也不好验证客户源IP。

我们先批量set 多一点大value到远程开放 memcached server上,过期也设置长一点,然后利用UDP伪造源地址在memcached server get 存储的value,请求时间段尽量集中,这样就将数据通过mc server Reflect 到target,实现DRDoS过程。

2月底,dormando Release了 1.5.6,该版本默认关闭了UDP启动:
https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/memcached/pu6LAIbL_Ks

若想预防,可以升级新版,也可以网络层做限制。也可以启动 memcached 加入 -U 0启动参数,表达式短路后就不会server_sockets,禁止监听udp协议。


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