HashMap源码分析

HashMap是一个很经典的键值对集合,从它的广泛应用程度和源码的学习角度上我们不得不去解析它。
我们先看一下HashMap的存储结构((图片均来源于网络)),这有助于我们阅读源码

HashMap存储结构

HashMap的主干是一个Entry数组EntryHashMap的基本组成单元,每一个Entry包含一个key-value键值对以及指引的下一个Entry

 /** @hide */  // Android added.
    static class HashMapEntry<K,V> implements Map.Entry<K,V> {
        final K key;
        V value;
        HashMapEntry<K,V> next;
        int hash;

        /**
         * Creates new entry.
         */
        HashMapEntry(int h, K k, V v, HashMapEntry<K,V> n) {
            value = v;
            next = n;
            key = k;
            hash = h;
        }

        public final K getKey() {
            return key;
        }

        public final V getValue() {
            return value;
        }

        public final V setValue(V newValue) {
            V oldValue = value;
            value = newValue;
            return oldValue;
        }

        public final boolean equals(Object o) {
            if (!(o instanceof Map.Entry))
                return false;
            Map.Entry e = (Map.Entry)o;
            Object k1 = getKey();
            Object k2 = e.getKey();
            if (k1 == k2 || (k1 != null && k1.equals(k2))) {
                Object v1 = getValue();
                Object v2 = e.getValue();
                if (v1 == v2 || (v1 != null && v1.equals(v2)))
                    return true;
            }
            return false;
        }

        public final int hashCode() {
            return Objects.hashCode(getKey()) ^ Objects.hashCode(getValue());
        }

        public final String toString() {
            return getKey() + "=" + getValue();
        }

        /**
         * This method is invoked whenever the value in an entry is
         * overwritten by an invocation of put(k,v) for a key k that's already
         * in the HashMap.
         */
        void recordAccess(HashMap<K,V> m) {
        }

        /**
         * This method is invoked whenever the entry is
         * removed from the table.
         */
        void recordRemoval(HashMap<K,V> m) {
        }
    }

初始化过程

/**
     * Constructs an empty <tt>HashMap</tt> with the specified initial
     * capacity and load factor.
     *
     * @param  initialCapacity the initial capacity
     * @param  loadFactor      the load factor
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the initial capacity is negative
     *         or the load factor is nonpositive
     */
    public HashMap(int initialCapacity, float loadFactor) {
        if (initialCapacity < 0)
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Illegal initial capacity: " +
                                               initialCapacity);
        if (initialCapacity > MAXIMUM_CAPACITY) {
            initialCapacity = MAXIMUM_CAPACITY;
        } else if (initialCapacity < DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY) {
            initialCapacity = DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY;
        }

        if (loadFactor <= 0 || Float.isNaN(loadFactor))
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Illegal load factor: " +
                                               loadFactor);
        // Android-Note: We always use the default load factor of 0.75f.

        // This might appear wrong but it's just awkward design. We always call
        // inflateTable() when table == EMPTY_TABLE. That method will take "threshold"
        // to mean "capacity" and then replace it with the real threshold (i.e, multiplied with
        // the load factor).
        threshold = initialCapacity;
        init();
    }

/**
     * Initialization hook for subclasses. This method is called
     * in all constructors and pseudo-constructors (clone, readObject)
     * after HashMap has been initialized but before any entries have
     * been inserted.  (In the absence of this method, readObject would
     * require explicit knowledge of subclasses.)
     */
    void init() {
    }

主要就是进行一个赋值
put过程:

/**
     * Associates the specified value with the specified key in this map.
     * If the map previously contained a mapping for the key, the old
     * value is replaced.
     *
     * @param key key with which the specified value is to be associated
     * @param value value to be associated with the specified key
     * @return the previous value associated with <tt>key</tt>, or
     *         <tt>null</tt> if there was no mapping for <tt>key</tt>.
     *         (A <tt>null</tt> return can also indicate that the map
     *         previously associated <tt>null</tt> with <tt>key</tt>.)
     */
    public V put(K key, V value) {
        if (table == EMPTY_TABLE) {
            //初始化table
            inflateTable(threshold);
        }
        if (key == null)//put key==null的值
            return putForNullKey(value);
        //根据key得到hash
        int hash = sun.misc.Hashing.singleWordWangJenkinsHash(key);
        //根据hash得到下标
        int i = indexFor(hash, table.length);
        //进行next链表检测key是否已经存在
        for (HashMapEntry<K,V> e = table[i]; e != null; e = e.next) {
            Object k;
            //如果key已经存在  将重新赋值
            if (e.hash == hash && ((k = e.key) == key || key.equals(k))) {
                V oldValue = e.value;
                e.value = value;
                e.recordAccess(this);
                return oldValue;
            }
        }

        modCount++;
        //添加新的值
        addEntry(hash, key, value, i);
        return null;
    }

首先检测是否是空的装HashMapEntry数组table,如果是空的将调用inflateTable进行初始化

/**
     * Inflates the table.
     */
    private void inflateTable(int toSize) {
        // Find a power of 2 >= toSize
        int capacity = roundUpToPowerOf2(toSize);

        // Android-changed: Replace usage of Math.min() here because this method is
        // called from the <clinit> of runtime, at which point the native libraries
        // needed by Float.* might not be loaded.
        float thresholdFloat = capacity * loadFactor;
        if (thresholdFloat > MAXIMUM_CAPACITY + 1) {
            thresholdFloat = MAXIMUM_CAPACITY + 1;
        }
        threshold = (int) thresholdFloat;
        table = new HashMapEntry[capacity];
    }

接着检测key==null,如果为null,将调用putForNullKey函数给key==nullkey赋值

/**
     * Offloaded version of put for null keys
     */
    private V putForNullKey(V value) {
        for (HashMapEntry<K,V> e = table[0]; e != null; e = e.next) {
            if (e.key == null) {
                V oldValue = e.value;
                e.value = value;
                e.recordAccess(this);
                return oldValue;
            }
        }
        modCount++;
        addEntry(0, null, value, 0);
        return null;
    }

从这就可以看出 HashMapkey可以为null
接下来就到了HashMap的关键地方,HashMap自己实现了一个keyHash值计算,然后根据计算出的hash值和当前容器的table的长度进行&运算得到index,然后根据这个index确定需要放置的位置。

  int hash = sun.misc.Hashing.singleWordWangJenkinsHash(key);
  int i = indexFor(hash, table.length);
 /**
     * Returns index for hash code h.
     */
    static int indexFor(int h, int length) {
        // assert Integer.bitCount(length) == 1 : "length must be a non-zero power of 2";
        return h & (length-1);
    }

这样计算的目的是为了根据hash值和table.length进行分组,也就是上面图示那样,然后通过链式的结构链接,这样的话就缩短了大量的查询时间。
拿到了所在的组,也就是下标位置,就拿到这个下标的HashMapEntry,然后进行next遍历,如果有存在的key就重新赋值返回即可。

 for (HashMapEntry<K,V> e = table[i]; e != null; e = e.next) {
            Object k;
            if (e.hash == hash && ((k = e.key) == key || key.equals(k))) {
                V oldValue = e.value;
                e.value = value;
                e.recordAccess(this);
                return oldValue;
            }
        }

如果没有存在的key,那么先判断是否扩容

/**
     * Adds a new entry with the specified key, value and hash code to
     * the specified bucket.  It is the responsibility of this
     * method to resize the table if appropriate.
     *
     * Subclass overrides this to alter the behavior of put method.
     */
    void addEntry(int hash, K key, V value, int bucketIndex) {
           //判断扩容
        if ((size >= threshold) && (null != table[bucketIndex])) {
            resize(2 * table.length);//扩容以及数据重组
            hash = (null != key) ? sun.misc.Hashing.singleWordWangJenkinsHash(key) : 0;
            bucketIndex = indexFor(hash, table.length);
        }
      //创建一个新的Entry添加
        createEntry(hash, key, value, bucketIndex);
    }

扩容的方式为当前容量的两倍

/**
     * Rehashes the contents of this map into a new array with a
     * larger capacity.  This method is called automatically when the
     * number of keys in this map reaches its threshold.
     *
     * If current capacity is MAXIMUM_CAPACITY, this method does not
     * resize the map, but sets threshold to Integer.MAX_VALUE.
     * This has the effect of preventing future calls.
     *
     * @param newCapacity the new capacity, MUST be a power of two;
     *        must be greater than current capacity unless current
     *        capacity is MAXIMUM_CAPACITY (in which case value
     *        is irrelevant).
     */
    void resize(int newCapacity) {
        HashMapEntry[] oldTable = table;
        int oldCapacity = oldTable.length;
        if (oldCapacity == MAXIMUM_CAPACITY) {
            threshold = Integer.MAX_VALUE;
            return;
        }

        HashMapEntry[] newTable = new HashMapEntry[newCapacity];
        transfer(newTable);
        table = newTable;
        threshold = (int)Math.min(newCapacity * loadFactor, MAXIMUM_CAPACITY + 1);
    }

我们分组(下标)是根据table.lengthkeyhash值来决定的,所以在扩容之后,table.length变化了对应的分组(下标)就变化了,所以这时候需要重新组装数据

/**
     * Transfers all entries from current table to newTable.
     */
    void transfer(HashMapEntry[] newTable) {
        int newCapacity = newTable.length;
        for (HashMapEntry<K,V> e : table) {
            while(null != e) {
                HashMapEntry<K,V> next = e.next;
                int i = indexFor(e.hash, newCapacity);
                e.next = newTable[i];
                newTable[i] = e;
                e = next;
            }
        }
    }

组装的方式如下图所示


jdk1.8 hashMap扩容例图

最后根据hash key value index得到一个新的HashMapEntry对象,将原来组(下标)的HashMapEntry作为这个新的对象的next指向即可。

/**
     * Like addEntry except that this version is used when creating entries
     * as part of Map construction or "pseudo-construction" (cloning,
     * deserialization).  This version needn't worry about resizing the table.
     *
     * Subclass overrides this to alter the behavior of HashMap(Map),
     * clone, and readObject.
     */
    void createEntry(int hash, K key, V value, int bucketIndex) {
        HashMapEntry<K,V> e = table[bucketIndex];
        table[bucketIndex] = new HashMapEntry<>(hash, key, value, e);
        size++;
    }

/**
         * Creates new entry.
         */
        HashMapEntry(int h, K k, V v, HashMapEntry<K,V> n) {
            value = v;
            next = n;
            key = k;
            hash = h;
        }

有了put的分析,get过程理解就比较轻松了

/**
     * Returns the value to which the specified key is mapped,
     * or {@code null} if this map contains no mapping for the key.
     *
     * <p>More formally, if this map contains a mapping from a key
     * {@code k} to a value {@code v} such that {@code (key==null ? k==null :
     * key.equals(k))}, then this method returns {@code v}; otherwise
     * it returns {@code null}.  (There can be at most one such mapping.)
     *
     * <p>A return value of {@code null} does not <i>necessarily</i>
     * indicate that the map contains no mapping for the key; it's also
     * possible that the map explicitly maps the key to {@code null}.
     * The {@link #containsKey containsKey} operation may be used to
     * distinguish these two cases.
     *
     * @see #put(Object, Object)
     */
    public V get(Object key) {
        if (key == null)
            return getForNullKey();
        Entry<K,V> entry = getEntry(key);

        return null == entry ? null : entry.getValue();
    }

/**
     * Offloaded version of get() to look up null keys.  Null keys map
     * to index 0.  This null case is split out into separate methods
     * for the sake of performance in the two most commonly used
     * operations (get and put), but incorporated with conditionals in
     * others.
     */
    private V getForNullKey() {
        if (size == 0) {
            return null;
        }
        for (HashMapEntry<K,V> e = table[0]; e != null; e = e.next) {
            if (e.key == null)
                return e.value;
        }
        return null;
    }

/**
     * Returns the entry associated with the specified key in the
     * HashMap.  Returns null if the HashMap contains no mapping
     * for the key.
     */
    final Entry<K,V> getEntry(Object key) {
        if (size == 0) {
            return null;
        }

        int hash = (key == null) ? 0 : sun.misc.Hashing.singleWordWangJenkinsHash(key);
        for (HashMapEntry<K,V> e = table[indexFor(hash, table.length)];
             e != null;
             e = e.next) {
            Object k;
            if (e.hash == hash &&
                ((k = e.key) == key || (key != null && key.equals(k))))
                return e;
        }
        return null;
    }

先判断key值是否是null,如果是null的话那么将在第0组(下标)查找,如果不是的话就通过keyhashtable.length得到对应的组(下标)查找,查找的过程就是对其HashMapEntry进行next遍历查找判断即可。

remove过程

/**
     * Removes the mapping for the specified key from this map if present.
     *
     * @param  key key whose mapping is to be removed from the map
     * @return the previous value associated with <tt>key</tt>, or
     *         <tt>null</tt> if there was no mapping for <tt>key</tt>.
     *         (A <tt>null</tt> return can also indicate that the map
     *         previously associated <tt>null</tt> with <tt>key</tt>.)
     */
    public V remove(Object key) {
        Entry<K,V> e = removeEntryForKey(key);
        return (e == null ? null : e.getValue());
    }
 /**
     * Removes and returns the entry associated with the specified key
     * in the HashMap.  Returns null if the HashMap contains no mapping
     * for this key.
     */
    final Entry<K,V> removeEntryForKey(Object key) {
        if (size == 0) {
            return null;
        }
        int hash = (key == null) ? 0 : sun.misc.Hashing.singleWordWangJenkinsHash(key);
        int i = indexFor(hash, table.length);
        HashMapEntry<K,V> prev = table[i];
        HashMapEntry<K,V> e = prev;

        while (e != null) {
            HashMapEntry<K,V> next = e.next;
            Object k;
            if (e.hash == hash &&
                ((k = e.key) == key || (key != null && key.equals(k)))) {
                modCount++;
                size--;
                if (prev == e)
                    table[i] = next;
                else
                    prev.next = next;
                e.recordRemoval(this);
                return e;
            }
            prev = e;
            e = next;
        }

        return e;
    }

remove过程也是先得到对应的组(下标),然后申明一个HashMapEntry零时变量prev记录上一个指标,对当前组的HashMapEntry进行next遍历,在遍历过程中将值赋予prev,然后判断key相同重新将其prevnext指向接下来的哪个HashMapEntry即可。
如图所示:

remove

参考链接:
HashMap实现原理及源码分析
HashMap的扩容机制---resize()

水平有限,文中有什么不对或者有什么建议希望大家能够指出,谢谢!

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