Android Gradle Plugin源码分析

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1.8 2018.07.17 17:05 字数 2645

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原作者:ShinyZeng
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前言:这篇文章在一个月之前已经发布到玉刚说微信公众号。Gradle 这一块对于我们Android开发来说,一直是比较无人问津的一块,平日的开发中也比较少涉及,即使涉及也是网上查查资料就可以解决,并不会深入理解原理,即使深入了,过一段时间不接触也容易忘记,譬如我今日再看这篇文章,就发现有很多已经忘记了...真是汗颜啊...所以简书中再发出来,做个备忘吧。

一、源码依赖

本文基于:
android gradle plugin版本:com.android.tools.build:gradle:2.3.0
gradle 版本:4.1

Gradle源码总共30个G,为简单起见,方便大家看源码,此处通过gradle依赖的形式来查看源码,依赖源码姿势:

创建一个新工程,app 项目目录中删除所有文件,仅留下gradle文件,依赖

apply plugin: 'java'
sourceCompatibility = 1.8

dependencies {
    compile gradleApi()
    compile 'com.android.tools.build:gradle:2.3.0'
}

将跟目录下的gradle文件,删除掉gradle依赖

buildscript {
    
    repositories {
        google()
        jcenter()
    }
    dependencies {
//        compile 'com.android.tools.build:gradle:2.3.0'
    }
}

然后rebuild一下,就可以在External Libraries中查看到android gradle的源码已经依赖了


二、Android Gradle Plugin简介

我们知道Android gradle plugin是用来构建Android工程的gradle插件,在Android gradle 插件中,可以看到app工程和library工程所依赖的plugin是不一样的

// app 工程
apply plugin: 'com.android.application'
// library 工程
apply plugin: 'com.android.library'

而对应填写andorid块中所填写的配置也不同,这就是区分Application和Library的插件的extension块
分别为:

app工程 -> AppPlugin -> AppExtension
librar工程 -> LibraryPlugin -> LibraryExtension

对应的是AppPlugin和AppExtension,这两个插件构建的流程大抵是相同的,只是各自插件生成的任务不同,接下来我们着重分析Application插件是如何构建我们的Android应用的

三、AppPlugin的构建流程

我们先看下app工程中gradle的文件格式

apply plugin: 'com.android.application'

android {
    compileSdkVersion 25
    buildToolsVersion '26.0.2'
    defaultConfig {
        applicationId "com.zengshaoyi.gradledemo"
        minSdkVersion 15
        targetSdkVersion 25
        versionCode project.ext.versionCode
        versionName project.ext.versionName
        testInstrumentationRunner "android.support.test.runner.AndroidJUnitRunner"
    }
    buildTypes {
        release {
            minifyEnabled false
            proguardFiles getDefaultProguardFile('proguard-android.txt'), 'proguard-rules.pro'
        }
    }

    lintOptions {
        abortOnError false
    }
}

跟踪apply方法,其实是进入到
AppPlugin的apply的方法,我们可以看到内部实现是直接调用父类BasePlugin的apply方法

protected void apply(@NonNull Project project) {
        checkPluginVersion();

        this.project = project;
        ExecutionConfigurationUtil.setThreadPoolSize(project);
        checkPathForErrors();
        checkModulesForErrors();

        ProfilerInitializer.init(project);
        threadRecorder = ThreadRecorder.get();

        ProcessProfileWriter.getProject(project.getPath())
                .setAndroidPluginVersion(Version.ANDROID_GRADLE_PLUGIN_VERSION)
                .setAndroidPlugin(getAnalyticsPluginType())
                .setPluginGeneration(GradleBuildProject.PluginGeneration.FIRST);

        threadRecorder.record(
                ExecutionType.BASE_PLUGIN_PROJECT_CONFIGURE,
                project.getPath(),
                null,
                this::configureProject);

        threadRecorder.record(
                ExecutionType.BASE_PLUGIN_PROJECT_BASE_EXTENSION_CREATION,
                project.getPath(),
                null,
                this::configureExtension);

        threadRecorder.record(
                ExecutionType.BASE_PLUGIN_PROJECT_TASKS_CREATION,
                project.getPath(),
                null,
                this::createTasks);

        // Apply additional plugins
        for (String plugin : AndroidGradleOptions.getAdditionalPlugins(project)) {
            project.apply(ImmutableMap.of("plugin", plugin));
        }
    }

threadRecoirder.recode()是记录最后一个参数的路径和执行的时间点,前面做了一些必要性的信息检测之前,其实主要做了以下几件事情:

// 配置项目,设置构建回调
this::configureProject
// 配置Extension
this::configureExtension
// 创建任务
this::createTasks

::是java 8引入的特性,详情可以查看java8特性 ,这里就是方法的调用

configureProject

直接来看源码

private void configureProject() {
        extraModelInfo = new ExtraModelInfo(project);
        checkGradleVersion();
        AndroidGradleOptions.validate(project);
        // Android SDK处理类
        sdkHandler = new SdkHandler(project, getLogger());
        // 设置项目评估阶段回调
        project.afterEvaluate(p -> {
            // TODO: Read flag from extension.
            if (!p.getGradle().getStartParameter().isOffline()
                    && AndroidGradleOptions.getUseSdkDownload(p)) {
                // 相关配置依赖的下载处理 
                SdkLibData sdkLibData =
                        SdkLibData.download(getDownloader(), getSettingsController());
                dependencyManager.setSdkLibData(sdkLibData);
                sdkHandler.setSdkLibData(sdkLibData);
            }
        });
        // 创建AndroidBuilder
        androidBuilder = new AndroidBuilder(
                project == project.getRootProject() ? project.getName() : project.getPath(),
                creator,
                new GradleProcessExecutor(project),
                new GradleJavaProcessExecutor(project),
                extraModelInfo,
                getLogger(),
                isVerbose());
        // dataBinding的相关处理
        dataBindingBuilder = new DataBindingBuilder();
        dataBindingBuilder.setPrintMachineReadableOutput(
                extraModelInfo.getErrorFormatMode() ==
                        ExtraModelInfo.ErrorFormatMode.MACHINE_PARSABLE);

        // Apply the Java and Jacoco plugins.
        project.getPlugins().apply(JavaBasePlugin.class);
        project.getPlugins().apply(JacocoPlugin.class);
        // 给assemble任务添加描述
        project.getTasks()
                .getByName("assemble")
                .setDescription(
                        "Assembles all variants of all applications and secondary packages.");
        ...

可以看到 configureProject 方法中在 project.afterEvaluate 设置了回调,当项目评估结束时,根据项目配置情况,设置 dependece 依赖;创建了 AndroidBuilder 对象,这个对象是用来合并manifest 和创建 dex 等作用,后面在创建任务的过程中会使用到,结下来继续看 configureProject 的源码

    // call back on execution. This is called after the whole build is done (not
    // after the current project is done).
    // This is will be called for each (android) projects though, so this should support
    // being called 2+ times.
    // 设置构建回调
    project.getGradle()
            .addBuildListener(
                    new BuildListener() {
                        private final LibraryCache libraryCache = LibraryCache.getCache();

                        @Override
                        public void buildStarted(Gradle gradle) {}

                        @Override
                        public void settingsEvaluated(Settings settings) {}

                        @Override
                        public void projectsLoaded(Gradle gradle) {}

                        @Override
                        public void projectsEvaluated(Gradle gradle) {}

                        @Override
                        public void buildFinished(BuildResult buildResult) {
                            ExecutorSingleton.shutdown();
                            sdkHandler.unload();
                            threadRecorder.record(
                                    ExecutionType.BASE_PLUGIN_BUILD_FINISHED,
                                    project.getPath(),
                                    null,
                                    () -> {
                                        // 当任务执行完成时,清楚dex缓存
                                        PreDexCache.getCache()
                                                .clear(
                                                        FileUtils.join(
                                                                project.getRootProject()
                                                                        .getBuildDir(),
                                                                FD_INTERMEDIATES,
                                                                "dex-cache",
                                                                "cache.xml"),
                                                        getLogger());
                                        JackConversionCache.getCache()
                                                .clear(
                                                        FileUtils.join(
                                                                project.getRootProject()
                                                                        .getBuildDir(),
                                                                FD_INTERMEDIATES,
                                                                "jack-cache",
                                                                "cache.xml"),
                                                        getLogger());
                                        libraryCache.unload();
                                        Main.clearInternTables();
                                    });
                        }
                    });
    // 设置创建有向图任务回调
    project.getGradle()
            .getTaskGraph()
            .addTaskExecutionGraphListener(
                    taskGraph -> {
                        for (Task task : taskGraph.getAllTasks()) {
                            //  TransformTask是class编译成dex的重要任务
                            if (task instanceof TransformTask) {
                                Transform transform = ((TransformTask) task).getTransform();
                                if (transform instanceof DexTransform) {
                                    PreDexCache.getCache()
                                            .load(
                                                    FileUtils.join(
                                                            project.getRootProject()
                                                                    .getBuildDir(),
                                                            FD_INTERMEDIATES,
                                                            "dex-cache",
                                                            "cache.xml"));
                                    break;
                                } else if (transform instanceof JackPreDexTransform) {
                                    JackConversionCache.getCache()
                                            .load(
                                                    FileUtils.join(
                                                            project.getRootProject()
                                                                    .getBuildDir(),
                                                            FD_INTERMEDIATES,
                                                            "jack-cache",
                                                            "cache.xml"));
                                    break;
                                }
                            }
                        }
                    });

这里在添加了 BuildListener,在 buildFinished 的时候清楚了dex缓存,而在任务有向图创建的回调中,判断是否是 DexTransfrom,从而从缓存中加载dex。

总结一下 configureProject 做的事情,主要是进行版本有效性的判断,创建了 AndroidBuilder 对象,并设置了构建流程的回调来处理依赖和dex的加载和缓存清理。

configureExtension

这个阶段就是配置 extension 的阶段,就是创建我们 android 块中的可配置的对象

private void configureExtension() {
        final NamedDomainObjectContainer<BuildType> buildTypeContainer =
                project.container(
                        BuildType.class,
                        new BuildTypeFactory(instantiator, project, project.getLogger()));
        final NamedDomainObjectContainer<ProductFlavor> productFlavorContainer =
                project.container(
                        ProductFlavor.class,
                        new ProductFlavorFactory(
                                instantiator, project, project.getLogger(), extraModelInfo));
        final NamedDomainObjectContainer<SigningConfig> signingConfigContainer =
                project.container(SigningConfig.class, new SigningConfigFactory(instantiator));

        extension =
                createExtension(
                        project,
                        instantiator,
                        androidBuilder,
                        sdkHandler,
                        buildTypeContainer,
                        productFlavorContainer,
                        signingConfigContainer,
                        extraModelInfo);
        ...

首先创建了 BuildType、ProductFlavor、SigningConfig 三个类型的Container,接着传入到了createExtension方法中,点入查看是个抽象的方法,各自的实现在子类中,这里也就是我们的AppPlugin 中

@NonNull
    @Override
    protected BaseExtension createExtension(
            @NonNull Project project,
            @NonNull Instantiator instantiator,
            @NonNull AndroidBuilder androidBuilder,
            @NonNull SdkHandler sdkHandler,
            @NonNull NamedDomainObjectContainer<BuildType> buildTypeContainer,
            @NonNull NamedDomainObjectContainer<ProductFlavor> productFlavorContainer,
            @NonNull NamedDomainObjectContainer<SigningConfig> signingConfigContainer,
            @NonNull ExtraModelInfo extraModelInfo) {
        return project.getExtensions()
                .create(
                        "android",
                        AppExtension.class,
                        project,
                        instantiator,
                        androidBuilder,
                        sdkHandler,
                        buildTypeContainer,
                        productFlavorContainer,
                        signingConfigContainer,
                        extraModelInfo);
    }

这里也就是可以看到我们android块配置是如何来的了,对应的Extension也确实是AppExtension,继续查看 configureExtension 的源码

        dependencyManager = new DependencyManager(
                project,
                extraModelInfo,
                sdkHandler);

        ndkHandler = new NdkHandler(
                project.getRootDir(),
                null, /* compileSkdVersion, this will be set in afterEvaluate */
                "gcc",
                "" /*toolchainVersion*/);

        taskManager =
                createTaskManager(
                        project,
                        androidBuilder,
                        dataBindingBuilder,
                        extension,
                        sdkHandler,
                        ndkHandler,
                        dependencyManager,
                        registry,
                        threadRecorder);

        variantFactory = createVariantFactory(instantiator, androidBuilder, extension);

        variantManager =
                new VariantManager(
                        project,
                        androidBuilder,
                        extension,
                        variantFactory,
                        taskManager,
                        instantiator,
                        threadRecorder);

        // Register a builder for the custom tooling model
        ModelBuilder modelBuilder = new ModelBuilder(
                androidBuilder,
                variantManager,
                taskManager,
                extension,
                extraModelInfo,
                ndkHandler,
                new NativeLibraryFactoryImpl(ndkHandler),
                getProjectType(),
                AndroidProject.GENERATION_ORIGINAL);
        registry.register(modelBuilder);

        // Register a builder for the native tooling model
        NativeModelBuilder nativeModelBuilder = new NativeModelBuilder(variantManager);
        registry.register(nativeModelBuilder);

这一部分主要是创建一些管理类,其中 createTaskManager、createVariantFactory 都是抽象方法,对应的实现类

createTaskManager
AppPlugin -> ApplicationTaskManager
LibraryPlugin -> LibraryTaskManager

createVariantFactory
AppPlugin -> ApplicationVariantFactory
LibraryPlugin -> LibraryVariantFactory

这里简单介绍一下 TaskManager 就是创建具体任务的管理类,app 工程和库 library 工程所需的构建任务是不同的,后面我们会介绍 app 工程创建的构建任务;VariantFactory 就是我们常说的构建变体的工厂类,主要是生成Variant(构建变体)的对象。我们回到 createExtension 的源码中

        // map the whenObjectAdded callbacks on the containers.
        signingConfigContainer.whenObjectAdded(variantManager::addSigningConfig);

        buildTypeContainer.whenObjectAdded(
                buildType -> {
                    SigningConfig signingConfig =
                            signingConfigContainer.findByName(BuilderConstants.DEBUG);
                    buildType.init(signingConfig);
                    variantManager.addBuildType(buildType);
                });

        productFlavorContainer.whenObjectAdded(variantManager::addProductFlavor);

        ...

        // create default Objects, signingConfig first as its used by the BuildTypes.
        variantFactory.createDefaultComponents(
                buildTypeContainer, productFlavorContainer, signingConfigContainer);

这一部分做得事情,配置了 BuildTypeContainer、ProductFlavorContainer、SigningConfigContainer 这三个配置项的 whenObjectAdded 的回调,每个配置的添加都会加入到 variantManager 中;创建默认配置,下面是 ApplicationVariantFactory 的 createDefaultComponents 代码

    @Override
    public void createDefaultComponents(
            @NonNull NamedDomainObjectContainer<BuildType> buildTypes,
            @NonNull NamedDomainObjectContainer<ProductFlavor> productFlavors,
            @NonNull NamedDomainObjectContainer<SigningConfig> signingConfigs) {
        // must create signing config first so that build type 'debug' can be initialized
        // with the debug signing config.
        signingConfigs.create(DEBUG);
        buildTypes.create(DEBUG);
        buildTypes.create(RELEASE);
    }

总结一下 configureExtension 方法的作用,主要是创建 Android 插件的扩展对象,对配置项 BuildType、ProductFlavor、SigningConfig 做了统一的创建和回调处理, 创建taskManager、variantFactory、variantManager。

createTasks

private void createTasks() {
        threadRecorder.record(
                ExecutionType.TASK_MANAGER_CREATE_TASKS,
                project.getPath(),
                null,
                () -> // 在项目评估之前创建任务  
                        taskManager.createTasksBeforeEvaluate(
                                new TaskContainerAdaptor(project.getTasks())));

        project.afterEvaluate(
                project ->
                        threadRecorder.record(
                                ExecutionType.BASE_PLUGIN_CREATE_ANDROID_TASKS,
                                project.getPath(),
                                null,
                                // 在项目评估完成之后创建 androidTask
                                () -> createAndroidTasks(false)));
    }

这里主要是分两块,一个是在 beforeEvaluate 创建任务;一个是在 afterEvaluate 创建任务。这里的区别是 AndroidTask 是依赖配置项的配置才能生成相应任务,所以是需要在 afterEvaluate 之后创建,如果对项目评估回调不理解的话,可以查阅Project文档。beforeEvaluate 创建的任务跟我们编译没有太大关系,我们重点查看一下 afterEvaluate 创建的任务 createAndroidTasks

    @VisibleForTesting
    final void createAndroidTasks(boolean force) {
        ...
        threadRecorder.record(
                ExecutionType.VARIANT_MANAGER_CREATE_ANDROID_TASKS,
                project.getPath(),
                null,
                () -> {
                    // 创建AndroidTasks
                    variantManager.createAndroidTasks();
                    ApiObjectFactory apiObjectFactory =
                            new ApiObjectFactory(
                                    androidBuilder, extension, variantFactory, instantiator);
                    for (BaseVariantData variantData : variantManager.getVariantDataList()) {
                        apiObjectFactory.create(variantData);
                    }
                });
        ...
      }

我们主要看下variantManager的createAndroidTasks的方法

    /**
     * Variant/Task creation entry point.
     *
     * Not used by gradle-experimental.
     */
    public void createAndroidTasks() {
        variantFactory.validateModel(this);
        variantFactory.preVariantWork(project);

        final TaskFactory tasks = new TaskContainerAdaptor(project.getTasks());
        if (variantDataList.isEmpty()) {
            recorder.record(
                    ExecutionType.VARIANT_MANAGER_CREATE_VARIANTS,
                    project.getPath(),
                    null /*variantName*/,
                    this::populateVariantDataList);
        }

        // Create top level test tasks.
        recorder.record(
                ExecutionType.VARIANT_MANAGER_CREATE_TESTS_TASKS,
                project.getPath(),
                null /*variantName*/,
                () -> taskManager.createTopLevelTestTasks(tasks, !productFlavors.isEmpty()));

        for (final BaseVariantData<? extends BaseVariantOutputData> variantData : variantDataList) {
            recorder.record(
                    ExecutionType.VARIANT_MANAGER_CREATE_TASKS_FOR_VARIANT,
                    project.getPath(),
                    variantData.getName(),
                    () -> createTasksForVariantData(tasks, variantData));
        }

        taskManager.createReportTasks(tasks, variantDataList);
    }

首先判断 variantDataList 是否是空,如果是空的就会进入到 populateVariantDataList 方法中

/**
     * Create all variants.
     */
    public void populateVariantDataList() {
        if (productFlavors.isEmpty()) {
            createVariantDataForProductFlavors(Collections.emptyList());
        } else {
            List<String> flavorDimensionList = extension.getFlavorDimensionList();

            // Create iterable to get GradleProductFlavor from ProductFlavorData.
            Iterable<CoreProductFlavor> flavorDsl =
                    Iterables.transform(
                            productFlavors.values(),
                            ProductFlavorData::getProductFlavor);

            // Get a list of all combinations of product flavors.
            List<ProductFlavorCombo<CoreProductFlavor>> flavorComboList =
                    ProductFlavorCombo.createCombinations(
                            flavorDimensionList,
                            flavorDsl);

            for (ProductFlavorCombo<CoreProductFlavor>  flavorCombo : flavorComboList) {
                //noinspection unchecked
                createVariantDataForProductFlavors(
                        (List<ProductFlavor>) (List) flavorCombo.getFlavorList());
            }
        }
    }

从方法注释可以看到,这个方法主要的作用就是创建所有的 variants,试想一下该段代码会做哪些事情,是否是解析 buildType、productFlavor 配置?

创建构建变体(BuildVariant)

继续观察上面的代码,可以看到无论是否有配置productFlavor 子项,都会进入到 createVariantDataForProductFlavors 方法。如果有配置的话,通过获取配置的 flavorDimension 和 productFlavor 数组,调用 ProductFlavorCombo.createCombinations 组合出最后的产品风味数组 flavorComboList ,最后通过遍历调用 createVariantDataForProductFlavors 方法

    /**
     * Creates VariantData for a specified list of product flavor.
     *
     * This will create VariantData for all build types of the given flavors.
     *
     * @param productFlavorList the flavor(s) to build.
     */
    private void createVariantDataForProductFlavors(
              @NonNull List<ProductFlavor> productFlavorList) {
        ...
        for (BuildTypeData buildTypeData : buildTypes.values()) {
            boolean ignore = false;
            ...
            if (!ignore) {
                BaseVariantData<?> variantData = createVariantData(
                        buildTypeData.getBuildType(),
                        productFlavorList);
                variantDataList.add(variantData);
            ...
            }
        }
      ...
}

看上述代码,通过 creatVariantData 方法,将 buildType 和 productFlavor 的作为参数传入,创建了 variantData,并且加入到了 variantDataList 集合中,这里我们就是将所有的构建变体集合到了 variantDataList 中。

接着我们返回继续看 createAndroidTasks 方法

    /**
     * Variant/Task creation entry point.
     *
     * Not used by gradle-experimental.
     */
    public void createAndroidTasks() {
        ...
        for (final BaseVariantData<? extends BaseVariantOutputData> variantData : variantDataList) {
            recorder.record(
                    ExecutionType.VARIANT_MANAGER_CREATE_TASKS_FOR_VARIANT,
                    project.getPath(),
                    variantData.getName(),
                    () -> createTasksForVariantData(tasks, variantData));
        }
        ...
    }

通过上面拿到的variantDataList,遍历该集合来创建任务

    /**
     * Create tasks for the specified variantData.
     */
    public void createTasksForVariantData(
            final TaskFactory tasks,
            final BaseVariantData<? extends BaseVariantOutputData> variantData) {

        final BuildTypeData buildTypeData = buildTypes.get(
                variantData.getVariantConfiguration().getBuildType().getName());
        if (buildTypeData.getAssembleTask() == null) {
            // 创建assemble + buildType任务
            buildTypeData.setAssembleTask(taskManager.createAssembleTask(tasks, buildTypeData));
        }

        // Add dependency of assemble task on assemble build type task.
        tasks.named("assemble", new Action<Task>() {
            @Override
            public void execute(Task task) {
                assert buildTypeData.getAssembleTask() != null;
                // 将 assemble 任务依赖于我们的 assemble + buildType 任务
                task.dependsOn(buildTypeData.getAssembleTask().getName());
            }
        });

        VariantType variantType = variantData.getType();
        // 根据 variantData 创建 assemble + flavor + buildType 任务
        createAssembleTaskForVariantData(tasks, variantData);
        if (variantType.isForTesting()) {
            ...
        } else {
            // 根据 variantData 创建一系列任务
            taskManager.createTasksForVariantData(tasks, variantData);
        }
    }

首先会先根据 buildType 信息创建 assemble + buildType 的任务,可以看下taskManager. createAssembleTask里的代码

    @NonNull
    public AndroidTask<DefaultTask> createAssembleTask(
            @NonNull TaskFactory tasks,
            @NonNull VariantDimensionData dimensionData) {
        final String sourceSetName =
                StringHelper.capitalize(dimensionData.getSourceSet().getName());
        return androidTasks.create(
                tasks,
                // 设置任务名字为 assembleXXX
                "assemble" + sourceSetName,
                assembleTask -> {
                    // 设置描述和任务组
                    assembleTask.setDescription("Assembles all " + sourceSetName + " builds.");
                    assembleTask.setGroup(BasePlugin.BUILD_GROUP);
                });
    }

创建完任务之后,将assemble任务依赖于我们的assembleXXX任务,随后调用 createAssembleTaskForVariantData 方法,此方法是创建 assemble + flavor + buildType 任务,流程多了 productFlavor 任务的创建,这里就不赘述了。后面会执 createTasksForVariantData,这个方法就是根据 variant 生成一系列 Android 构建所需任务(后面会详细介绍),回到 createAndroidTasks 方法中

threadRecorder.record(
                ExecutionType.VARIANT_MANAGER_CREATE_ANDROID_TASKS,
                project.getPath(),
                null,
                () -> {
                    variantManager.createAndroidTasks();
                    ApiObjectFactory apiObjectFactory =
                            new ApiObjectFactory(
                                    androidBuilder, extension, variantFactory, instantiator);
                    for (BaseVariantData variantData : variantManager.getVariantDataList()) {
                        // 创建variantApi,添加到extensions中
                        apiObjectFactory.create(variantData);
                    }
                });

最后就遍历 variantDataList 通过 ApiObjectFactory 创建 variantApi,添加到 extensions 中;
至此,我们就已经将配置的构建变种任务已经添加到我们的任务列表中,并形成了相关依赖。

Application 的编译任务

我们继续查看createTasksForVariantData的最后一行,
taskManager.createTasksForVariantData,发现 createTasksForVariantData 是抽象方法,这里的 taskManager 具体实现是 ApplicationTaskManager,查看 ApplicationTaskManager 的 createTasksForVariantData 方法

    /**
     * Creates the tasks for a given BaseVariantData.
     */
    @Override
    public void createTasksForVariantData(
            @NonNull final TaskFactory tasks,
            @NonNull final BaseVariantData<? extends BaseVariantOutputData> variantData) {
        assert variantData instanceof ApplicationVariantData;
        final VariantScope variantScope = variantData.getScope();
        //create sourceGenTask, resGenTask, assetGenTask
        createAnchorTasks(tasks, variantScope);
        createCheckManifestTask(tasks, variantScope);

        handleMicroApp(tasks, variantScope);

        // Create all current streams (dependencies mostly at this point)
        createDependencyStreams(tasks, variantScope);
        // Add a task to process the manifest(s)
        // Add a task to create the res values
        // Add a task to compile renderscript files.
        // Add a task to merge the resource folders
        // Add a task to merge the asset folders
        // Add a task to create the BuildConfig class
        // Add a task to process the Android Resources and generate source files
        // Add a task to process the java resources                   
        // Add a task to process this aidl file
        // Add a task to process shader source
        // Add NDK tasks
        // Add external native build tasks
        // Add a task to merge the jni libs folders
        // Add a compile task
        // Add data binding tasks if enabled
        // create packaging task      
        // create the lint tasks.
        ...
    }

代码实在太长了,我只留下了每段代码的注释,注释也已经非常清楚了,这个主要就是生成 variantData 的一系列像 compileXXX、generateXXX、processXXX、mergeXXX的任务,这一系列 task 就是构建一个可运行的完整APK的所需的所有task。下面介绍在编译dex中的过程,涉及的几个task。

Dex的编译过程

        // Add a compile task
        recorder.record(
                ExecutionType.APP_TASK_MANAGER_CREATE_COMPILE_TASK,
                project.getPath(),
                variantScope.getFullVariantName(),
                () -> {
                    CoreJackOptions jackOptions =
                            variantData.getVariantConfiguration().getJackOptions();
                    // create data binding merge task before the javac task so that it can
                    // parse jars before any consumer
                    createDataBindingMergeArtifactsTaskIfNecessary(tasks, variantScope);
                    AndroidTask<? extends JavaCompile> javacTask =
                            // 创建 javac 任务
                            createJavacTask(tasks, variantScope);
                    if (jackOptions.isEnabled()) {
                        AndroidTask<TransformTask> jackTask =
                                createJackTask(tasks, variantScope, true /*compileJavaSource*/);
                        setJavaCompilerTask(jackTask, tasks, variantScope);
                    } else {
                        ...
                        addJavacClassesStream(variantScope);
                        setJavaCompilerTask(javacTask, tasks, variantScope);
                        getAndroidTasks()
                                .create(
                                        tasks,
                                        // 创建 AndroidJarTask ,生成classes.jar
                                        new AndroidJarTask.JarClassesConfigAction(variantScope));
                        createPostCompilationTasks(tasks, variantScope);
                    }
                });

我们直接查看 Add a compile task 注释下的代码,在执行 createPostCompilationTasks 之前,先创建了 javac 任务,任务名称为 compileXXXJavaWithJavac ,该任务是将 java 源文件编译成 class 文件,具体实现是在 JavaCompileConfigAction 类中。创建 javac 任务之后,接着创建了 AndroidJarTask 任务,该任务是将 class 文件整合输出 jar 包,具体实现就是在 AndroidJarTask 类中。

紧接着我们来看一下 createPostCompilationTasks 的方法

    /**
     * Creates the post-compilation tasks for the given Variant.
     *
     * These tasks create the dex file from the .class files, plus optional intermediary steps like
     * proguard and jacoco
     *
     */
    public void createPostCompilationTasks(
            @NonNull TaskFactory tasks,
            @NonNull final VariantScope variantScope) {

        checkNotNull(variantScope.getJavacTask());

        variantScope.getInstantRunBuildContext().setInstantRunMode(
                getIncrementalMode(variantScope.getVariantConfiguration()) != IncrementalMode.NONE);

        final BaseVariantData<? extends BaseVariantOutputData> variantData = variantScope.getVariantData();
        final GradleVariantConfiguration config = variantData.getVariantConfiguration();

        TransformManager transformManager = variantScope.getTransformManager();

        ...

        boolean isMinifyEnabled = isMinifyEnabled(variantScope);
        boolean isMultiDexEnabled = config.isMultiDexEnabled();
        // Switch to native multidex if possible when using instant run.
        boolean isLegacyMultiDexMode = isLegacyMultidexMode(variantScope);

        AndroidConfig extension = variantScope.getGlobalScope().getExtension();

        // ----- External Transforms -----
        // apply all the external transforms.
        ...
        // ----- Minify next -----
        if (isMinifyEnabled) {
            boolean outputToJarFile = isMultiDexEnabled && isLegacyMultiDexMode;
            // 内部会判断是否使用 proguard 来创建 proguard 任务和 shrinkResources 任务
            createMinifyTransform(tasks, variantScope, outputToJarFile);
        }
        // ----- 10x support
        ...
        // ----- Multi-Dex support

        Optional<AndroidTask<TransformTask>> multiDexClassListTask;
        // non Library test are running as native multi-dex
        if (isMultiDexEnabled && isLegacyMultiDexMode) {
            ...
        } else {
            multiDexClassListTask = Optional.empty();
        }
        // create dex transform
        // 从 extension 中获取 dexOptions 项的配置
        DefaultDexOptions dexOptions = DefaultDexOptions.copyOf(extension.getDexOptions());

        ...
        // 创建 DexTransform
        DexTransform dexTransform = new DexTransform(
                dexOptions,
                config.getBuildType().isDebuggable(),
                isMultiDexEnabled,
                isMultiDexEnabled && isLegacyMultiDexMode ? variantScope.getMainDexListFile() : null,
                variantScope.getPreDexOutputDir(),
                variantScope.getGlobalScope().getAndroidBuilder(),
                getLogger(),
                variantScope.getInstantRunBuildContext(),
                AndroidGradleOptions.getBuildCache(variantScope.getGlobalScope().getProject()));
        // 创建 dexTask
        Optional<AndroidTask<TransformTask>> dexTask =
                transformManager.addTransform(tasks, variantScope, dexTransform);
        // need to manually make dex task depend on MultiDexTransform since there's no stream
        // consumption making this automatic
        dexTask.ifPresent(t -> {
            t.optionalDependsOn(tasks, multiDexClassListTask.orElse(null));
            variantScope.addColdSwapBuildTask(t);
        });

        ...
    }

为了讲述主流程,我将一些 mutiDex 和 instantRun 判断的源码省略了,这里我们关注非mutiDex和非instantRun的情况。我们看到,如果我们设置了 minifyEnabled 为 true,那么这里就会去创建 createMinifyTransform ,如果use proguard,这里会创建 progruad 的任务和 shrinkResources 的任务。后面将创建 dexTask, 这个是 transfromTask 类型的任务,我们先来看下 transFromTask 类

/**
 * A task running a transform.
 */
@ParallelizableTask
public class TransformTask extends StreamBasedTask implements Context {

    private Transform transform;
    ...
    public Transform getTransform() {
        return transform;
    }

   ...

    @TaskAction
    void transform(final IncrementalTaskInputs incrementalTaskInputs)
            throws IOException, TransformException, InterruptedException {

        ...
        recorder.record(
                ExecutionType.TASK_TRANSFORM,
                executionInfo,
                getProject().getPath(),
                getVariantName(),
                new Recorder.Block<Void>() {
                    @Override
                    public Void call() throws Exception {

                        transform.transform(
                                new TransformInvocationBuilder(TransformTask.this)
                                        .addInputs(consumedInputs.getValue())
                                        .addReferencedInputs(referencedInputs.getValue())
                                        .addSecondaryInputs(changedSecondaryInputs.getValue())
                                        .addOutputProvider(
                                                outputStream != null
                                                        ? outputStream.asOutput()
                                                        : null)
                                        .setIncrementalMode(isIncremental.getValue())
                                        .build());
                        return null;
                    }
                });
    }
}

我们知道,自定义任务中,在任务执行阶段会去执行被 @TaskAction 注解的方法,这里也就是执行 transfrom 方法,而 transfrom 方法中最后又会调用到 transform 的 transfrom 方法,在我们 dexTask 中传入的 transfrom 是DexTransfrom,那我们就去看下 DexTransfrom 的 transfrom 具体实现

public class DexTransform extends Transform {
    @Override
    public void transform(@NonNull TransformInvocation transformInvocation)
            throws TransformException, IOException, InterruptedException {
        ...
        try {
            // if only one scope or no per-scope dexing, just do a single pass that
            // runs dx on everything.
            if ((jarInputs.size() + directoryInputs.size()) == 1
                    || !dexOptions.getPreDexLibraries()) {

                // since there is only one dex file, we can merge all the scopes into the full
                // application one.
                File outputDir = outputProvider.getContentLocation("main",
                        getOutputTypes(),
                        TransformManager.SCOPE_FULL_PROJECT,
                        Format.DIRECTORY);
                FileUtils.mkdirs(outputDir);

                // first delete the output folder where the final dex file(s) will be.
                FileUtils.cleanOutputDir(outputDir);

                // gather the inputs. This mode is always non incremental, so just
                // gather the top level folders/jars
                final List<File> inputFiles =
                        Stream.concat(
                                jarInputs.stream().map(JarInput::getFile),
                                directoryInputs.stream().map(DirectoryInput::getFile))
                        .collect(Collectors.toList());
                // 通过 AndroidBuilder 转化为 byte
                androidBuilder.convertByteCode(
                        inputFiles,
                        outputDir,
                        multiDex,
                        mainDexListFile,
                        dexOptions,
                        outputHandler);

                for (File file : Files.fileTreeTraverser().breadthFirstTraversal(outputDir)) {
                    if (file.isFile()) {
                        instantRunBuildContext.addChangedFile(FileType.DEX, file);
                    }
                }
            } else {
            ...
    }

最后执行到androidBuilder.convertByteCode

    /**
     * Converts the bytecode to Dalvik format
     * @param inputs the input files
     * @param outDexFolder the location of the output folder
     * @param dexOptions dex options
     * @throws IOException
     * @throws InterruptedException
     * @throws ProcessException
     */
    public void convertByteCode(
            @NonNull Collection<File> inputs,
            @NonNull File outDexFolder,
            boolean multidex,
            @Nullable File mainDexList,
            @NonNull DexOptions dexOptions,
            @NonNull ProcessOutputHandler processOutputHandler)
            throws IOException, InterruptedException, ProcessException {checkNotNull(inputs, "inputs cannot be null.");
        checkNotNull(outDexFolder, "outDexFolder cannot be null.");
        checkNotNull(dexOptions, "dexOptions cannot be null.");
        checkArgument(outDexFolder.isDirectory(), "outDexFolder must be a folder");
        checkState(mTargetInfo != null,
                "Cannot call convertByteCode() before setTargetInfo() is called.");

        ImmutableList.Builder<File> verifiedInputs = ImmutableList.builder();
        for (File input : inputs) {
            if (checkLibraryClassesJar(input)) {
                verifiedInputs.add(input);
            }
        }
        //创建 DexProcessBuilder
        DexProcessBuilder builder = new DexProcessBuilder(outDexFolder);

        builder.setVerbose(mVerboseExec)
                .setMultiDex(multidex)
                .setMainDexList(mainDexList)
                .addInputs(verifiedInputs.build());

        runDexer(builder, dexOptions, processOutputHandler);
    }

创建了 DexProcessBuilder ,随后执行到了 runDexer 方法中

public void runDexer(
            @NonNull final DexProcessBuilder builder,
            @NonNull final DexOptions dexOptions,
            @NonNull final ProcessOutputHandler processOutputHandler)
            throws ProcessException, IOException, InterruptedException {
        initDexExecutorService(dexOptions);

        if (dexOptions.getAdditionalParameters().contains("--no-optimize")) {
            mLogger.warning(DefaultDexOptions.OPTIMIZE_WARNING);
        }
       
        if (shouldDexInProcess(dexOptions)) {
            dexInProcess(builder, dexOptions, processOutputHandler);
        } else {
            dexOutOfProcess(builder, dexOptions, processOutputHandler);
        }
    }

进入到dexInProcess方法

private void dexInProcess(
            @NonNull final DexProcessBuilder builder,
            @NonNull final DexOptions dexOptions,
            @NonNull final ProcessOutputHandler outputHandler)
            throws IOException, ProcessException {
        final String submission = Joiner.on(',').join(builder.getInputs());
        mLogger.verbose("Dexing in-process : %1$s", submission);
        try {
            sDexExecutorService.submit(() -> {
                Stopwatch stopwatch = Stopwatch.createStarted();
                ProcessResult result = DexWrapper.run(builder, dexOptions, outputHandler);
                result.assertNormalExitValue();
                mLogger.verbose("Dexing %1$s took %2$s.", submission, stopwatch.toString());
                return null;
            }).get();
        } catch (Exception e) {
            throw new ProcessException(e);
        }
    }
/**
 * Wrapper around the real dx classes.
 */
public class DexWrapper {

    /**
     * Runs the dex command.
     *
     * @return the integer return code of com.android.dx.command.dexer.Main.run()
     */
    public static ProcessResult run(
            @NonNull DexProcessBuilder processBuilder,
            @NonNull DexOptions dexOptions,
            @NonNull ProcessOutputHandler outputHandler) throws IOException, ProcessException {
        ProcessOutput output = outputHandler.createOutput();
        int res;
        try {
            DxContext dxContext = new DxContext(output.getStandardOutput(), output.getErrorOutput());
            // 构建 Main.Arguments 参数
            Main.Arguments args = buildArguments(processBuilder, dexOptions, dxContext);
            res = new Main(dxContext).run(args);
        } finally {
            output.close();
        }

        outputHandler.handleOutput(output);
        return new DexProcessResult(res);
    }
    ...
}

buildArguments方法通过传入的DexProcessBuilder、dexOptions、dxContext构建 arguments,后面使用的args的参数fileNames,outName,jarOutput都是从DexProcessBuilder来的,然后执行Main的run方法

package com.android.dx.command.dexer;
...
/**
 * Main class for the class file translator.
 */
public class Main {
    /**
     * Run and return a result code.
     * @param arguments the data + parameters for the conversion
     * @return 0 if success &gt; 0 otherwise.
     */
    public int run(Arguments arguments) throws IOException {

        // Reset the error count to start fresh.
        errors.set(0);
        // empty the list, so that  tools that load dx and keep it around
        // for multiple runs don't reuse older buffers.
        libraryDexBuffers.clear();

        args = arguments;
        args.makeOptionsObjects(context);

        OutputStream humanOutRaw = null;
        if (args.humanOutName != null) {
            humanOutRaw = openOutput(args.humanOutName);
            humanOutWriter = new OutputStreamWriter(humanOutRaw);
        }

        try {
            if (args.multiDex) {
                return runMultiDex();
            } else {
                return runMonoDex();
            }
        } finally {
            closeOutput(humanOutRaw);
        }
    }
}

这里我们关注非multiDex的情况,即执行了runMonoDex的方法

private int runMonoDex() throws IOException {

        ...
        // 内部会创建dexFile,并填充class
        if (!processAllFiles()) {
            return 1;
        }

        if (args.incremental && !anyFilesProcessed) {
            return 0; // this was a no-op incremental build
        }

        // this array is null if no classes were defined
        byte[] outArray = null;

        if (!outputDex.isEmpty() || (args.humanOutName != null)) {
            // 内部通过Dex类toDex 方法将 class 文件转化dex byte[]
            outArray = writeDex(outputDex);

            if (outArray == null) {
                return 2;
            }
        }

        if (args.incremental) {
            outArray = mergeIncremental(outArray, incrementalOutFile);
        }

        outArray = mergeLibraryDexBuffers(outArray);

        if (args.jarOutput) {
            // Effectively free up the (often massive) DexFile memory.
            outputDex = null;

            if (outArray != null) {
                // 输出的文件名为 classes.dex
                outputResources.put(DexFormat.DEX_IN_JAR_NAME, outArray);
            }
            if (!createJar(args.outName)) {
                return 3;
            }
        } else if (outArray != null && args.outName != null) {
            OutputStream out = openOutput(args.outName);
            out.write(outArray);
            closeOutput(out);
        }

        return 0;
    }

上面的代码中,填充class以及dex流转换,内部流程较为复杂,就不再继续深入,简单做下总结:
1.通过执行 processAllFiles ,内部创建 DexFile 也就是outputDex,并且填充 class 文件
2.通过 writeDex 方法,将 outputDex 传入,方法内部执行的是 outputDex.toDex 方法,将 outputDex 内部填充的 class 转化为 dex 的 byte[] 返回
3.最后将 byte[] 数组创建 classes.dex 输出

总结:
Android Gradle Plugin源码繁多,以上文章只是对整体流程的简单梳理,其中简要介绍了构建变体任务的解析和添加 ,最后对编译dex流程做了简单分析。个人精力有限,这里的源码解析也只是九牛一毛,如有纰漏,欢迎大家拍砖,希望这篇文章能帮助到想了解 Android Gradle Plguin 原理的同学。

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