Messenger实现进程间通信

为什么Messenger能进行进程间通信

Messenger翻译为信使,他可以在不同的进程中传递Message对象

  1. 首先我们看下这个类的构造方法,发现,他的底层实现其实就是AIDL。
 /**
     * Create a new Messenger pointing to the given Handler.  Any Message
     * objects sent through this Messenger will appear in the Handler as if
     * {@link Handler#sendMessage(Message) Handler.sendMessage(Message)} had
     * been called directly.
     * 
     * @param target The Handler that will receive sent messages.
     */
    public Messenger(Handler target) {
        mTarget = target.getIMessenger();
    }
/**
     * Create a Messenger from a raw IBinder, which had previously been
     * retrieved with {@link #getBinder}.
     * 
     * @param target The IBinder this Messenger should communicate with.
     */
    public Messenger(IBinder target) {
        mTarget = IMessenger.Stub.asInterface(target);
    }

我们在跟一下Handler的getIMessenger方法,发现就是我们所熟悉的aidl的写法。

final IMessenger getIMessenger() {
        synchronized (mQueue) {
            if (mMessenger != null) {
                return mMessenger;
            }
            mMessenger = new MessengerImpl();
            return mMessenger;
        }
    }

    private final class MessengerImpl extends IMessenger.Stub {
        public void send(Message msg) {
            msg.sendingUid = Binder.getCallingUid();
            Handler.this.sendMessage(msg);
        }
    }

使用Messenger如何实现进程间通信

  1. 首先我们先写一个远程服务端
public class MessengerService extends Service {
    
    private static class MessengerHandler extends Handler {

        @Override
        public void handleMessage(@NonNull Message msg) {
            switch (msg.what) {
                case 1:
                    //接收到客户端发来的消息
                    Log.d("MessengerService", msg.getData().getString("msg"));
                    //拿到客户端的信使
                    Messenger reply = msg.replyTo;
                    Message replyMsg = Message.obtain(null,2);
                    Bundle bundle = new Bundle();
                    bundle.putString("reply","server receive this message");
                    replyMsg.setData(bundle);
                    try {
                        //给客户端回消息
                        reply.send(replyMsg);
                    } catch (RemoteException e) {
                        e.printStackTrace();
                    }
                    break;
                default:
                    super.handleMessage(msg);
                    break;
            }
        }
    }
    //创建一个服务端的信使,同时传入处理消息的handler对象
    private final Messenger messenger = new Messenger(new MessengerHandler());

    @Nullable
    @Override
    public IBinder onBind(Intent intent) {
        //返回给客户端binder对象
        return messenger.getBinder();
    }
}

  1. 在AndroidManifest.xml配置服务,process=":remote"使这个服务处于remote进程。
        ...
        <service
            android:name=".MessengerService"
            android:process=":remote" />
        ...
  1. 编写客户端逻辑
public class MessengerActivity extends AppCompatActivity {

    private static class ClientMessengerHandler extends Handler {

        @Override
        public void handleMessage(@NonNull Message msg) {
            switch (msg.what) {
                case 2:
                    //接收到服务端回的消息
                    Log.d("MessengerService", msg.getData().getString("reply"));

                    break;
                default:
                    super.handleMessage(msg);
                    break;
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * 客户端处理消息的信使
     */
    private final Messenger clientMessengerHandler = new Messenger(new ClientMessengerHandler());


    private Messenger serviceMessenger;

    private ServiceConnection serviceConnection = new ServiceConnection() {
        @Override
        public void onServiceConnected(ComponentName name, IBinder service) {
            //通过IBinder对象,创建出服务端的信使
            serviceMessenger = new Messenger(service);
            Message msg = Message.obtain(null, 1);
            Bundle bundle = new Bundle();
            bundle.putString("msg","hello this is client");
            msg.setData(bundle);
            //通过这种方式,把客户端的信使传递给服务端,用于服务端给客户端回消息
            msg.replyTo = clientMessengerHandler;
            try {
                //给服务端发送消息
                serviceMessenger.send(msg);
            } catch (RemoteException e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
            }
        }

        @Override
        public void onServiceDisconnected(ComponentName name) {

        }
    };

    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_messenger);
        Intent it = new Intent(this,MessengerService.class);
        bindService(it,serviceConnection, Context.BIND_AUTO_CREATE);
    }
}

Messenger工作原理图

Messenger工作原理图

总结

  • Messenger对AIDL进行了封装,由于他一次处理一个请求,因此在服务端我们不需要考虑线程同步问题
  • Messenger进行数据传递必须将数据放到Message里面
  • 由于Messenger一次处理一个请求,所有不适用于大量并发的请求
  • Messenger作用主要是为了传递消息,如果我们需求需要调用服务端的具体方法,Messenger无法做到。(需要使用AIDL,自己定义接口来实现此类需求)

Thanks

链接: Android开发艺术探索.