康德

Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was an 18th-century German philosopher from the Prussian city of K?nigsberg (now Kaliningrad, Russia). He is regarded as one of the most influential thinkers of modern Europe and of the late Enlightenment.

伊曼努尔?康德(1724.4.22-1804.2.12),18世纪德国哲学家,家住哥尼斯堡【现在的俄国的加里宁格勒--Калининград】的普鲁士城。他被公认为近代欧洲和后期启蒙运动的最有影响的思想家之一。

Kant created a new widespread perspective in philosophy which influenced philosophy through the 21st Century. He also published important works of epistemology, as well as works relevant to religion, law, and history. His most important work is the Critique of Pure Reason, an investigation into the limitations and structure of reason itself. It encompasses an attack on traditional metaphysics and epistemology, and highlights Kant's own contribution to these areas. The other main works of his maturity are the Critique of Practical Reason, which concentrates on ethics, and the Critique of Judgment, which investigates aesthetics and teleology.






康德开创了一种影响直到21哲学的哲学观点。他出版重要的认识论著述,也发表与认识论、法律和历史有关的著述。他最重要的作品《纯粹理性批判》,是对理性自身的限制与结构的研究。其中包含对传统形而上学和认识论的批判,也彰显了康德对这些领域的贡献。他壮年期的其他主要著作是《实践理性批判》--主要研究伦理学—和《判断力批判》—研究美学和目的论。

Pursuing metaphysics involves asking questions about the ultimate nature of reality. Kant suggested that metaphysics can be reformed through epistemology. He suggested that by understanding the sources and limits of human knowledge we can ask fruitful metaphysical questions. He asked if an object can be known to have certain properties prior to the experience of that object. He concluded that all objects about which the mind can think must conform to its manner of thought. Therefore if the mind can think only in terms of causality – which he concluded that it does – then we can know prior to experiencing them that all objects we experience must either be a cause or an effect. However, it follows from this that it is possible that there are objects of such nature which the mind cannot think, and so the principle of causality, for instance, cannot be applied outside of experience: hence we cannot know, for example, whether the world always existed or if it had a cause. And so the grand questions of speculative metaphysics cannot be answered by the human mind, but the sciences are firmly grounded in laws of the mind.

他研究形而上学涉及到对实在终极性质问题的追问。康德表示,形而上学可通过认识论得以重建。他认为,通过领悟人类知识的来源和限制,我们能够求索丰富的形而上学问题。他追问是否可先于对对象的经验而直到其具有某些性质。他断言,所有思想可以思考的对象一定与思考方式相一致。因此,如果思想只根据因果关系思考—他断言就是这样,那么我们就能先验地知道,我们经验的所有对象一定非因即果。可是,从此亦可推论出:可能存在其性质不可想象的对象,比如因果关系的原理就不能应用于经验之外,比方说,我们不可能知道世界是始终存在的还是产生的。所以,重要的思辨形而上学问题是人的思想不能回答的,而科学则牢牢地立足于思想定律。

Kant believed himself to be creating a compromise between the empiricists and the rationalists. The empiricists believed that knowledge is acquired through experience alone, but the rationalists maintained that such knowledge is open to Cartesian doubt and that reason alone provides us with knowledge. Kant argues, however, that using reason without applying it to experience will only lead to illusions, while experience will be purely subjective without first being subsumed under pure reason.

康德认为自己是在经验主义者与理性主义者之间进行折衷。经验主义者认为知识只能通过经验获得,而理性主义者则坚持这样知识受到笛卡尔的怀疑,只有理性才为我们提供知识。可是,康德主张,不诉诸于经验而使用理性只能导致幻觉,而经验若非首先归之于纯粹理性之下就是纯粹主观的。

Kant’s thought was very influential in Germany during his lifetime, moving philosophy beyond the debate between the rationalists and empiricists. The philosophers Fichte, Schelling, Hegel and Schopenhauer each saw themselves as correcting and expanding the Kantian system, thus bringing about various forms of German idealism. Kant continues to be a major influence on philosophy to this day, influencing both analytic and continental philosophy.

康德的思想在其一生在德国十分有影响,他让哲学走出了理性主义者与经验主义者的争论。费希特、谢林、黑格尔和叔本华等哲学家每个人都认为自己是在纠正并扩展康德的体系,从而产生了各种形式的德国唯心主义。直至今日,康德依然对哲学有重大影响,他对分析哲学和大陆哲学都有影响。

Biography 生平

Immanuel Kant was born in 1724 in K?nigsberg, the capital of Prussia at that time, today the city of Kaliningrad in the Russian exclave of Kaliningrad Oblast. He was the fourth of eleven children (five of them reached adulthood). Baptized 'Emanuel', he changed his name to 'Immanuel'  after learning Hebrew. In his entire life, he never traveled more than a hundred miles from K?nigsberg. His father Johann Georg Kant (1682–1746) was a German craftsman from Memel, at the time Prussia's most northeastern city (now Klaip?da, Lithuania). His mother Anna Regina Porter (1697–1737) was German, the daughter of a Scottish saddle maker. Johann Georg Kant was born in Memel, a harness maker like his grandfather (who had emigrated from Scotland) and his great grandfather before him. Kant's grandfather immigrated from Scotland to East Prussia and even his father spelled their family name "Cant.". In his youth, Kant was a solid, albeit unspectacular, student. He was raised in a Pietist household that stressed intense religious devotion, personal humility, and a literal interpretation of the Bible.

伊曼努尔?康德1724年生于当时的普鲁士首府哥尼斯堡—而今加里宁格勒省俄国特区的加里宁格勒城。他是家里11个孩子(其中5个成人)中的老四。学习希伯来文以后,他把教名“Emanuel”--伊曼纽尔改成“Immanuel”--伊曼努尔。在他的整个一生中,他从未离开格尼斯堡超过100英里。其父约翰?乔治?康德(1682-1746)是梅梅尔—那时普鲁士最东北部的城市---现在立陶宛的克莱佩达—的手工艺人。其母安娜?瑞加纳?波特(1697-1737)是德国人,英格兰马鞍制造商的女儿。约翰?乔治?康德生在梅梅尔,和其从苏格兰迁居的祖父、曾祖父一样是马具制造商。康德的祖父从苏格兰迁居东普鲁士,他父亲甚至把其家姓拼写为“Cant”。年轻时,康德虽然不引人注意,但他是个很好的学生。他在强调强烈宗教献身、个人谦恭以及对《圣经》进行文字解释的虔信派教徒家庭长大。

Consequently, Kant received a stern education – strict, punitive, and disciplinary – that preferred Latin and religious instruction over mathematics and science.

所以,康德受的是苛刻的教育—严厉的、惩罚的和戒律的教育,这种教育偏爱拉丁文和宗教教育胜过数学和科学。

The Young Scholar  年轻学者

Kant showed a great aptitude to study at an early age. He was first sent to Collegium Fredericianum and then enrolled at the University of K?nigsberg (where he would spend his entire career) in 1740, at the age of 16. He studied the philosophy of Leibniz and Wolff under Martin Knutzen, a rationalist who was also familiar with developments in British philosophy and science and who introduced Kant to the new mathematical physics of Newton. Knutzen dissuaded Kant from the theory of pre-established harmony, which he regarded as "the pillow for the lazy mind". He also dissuaded the young scholar from idealism, which was negatively regarded by most philosophers in the 18th century. The theory of transcendental idealism that Kant developed in the "Critique of Pure Reason" is not traditional idealism, i.e. the idea that reality is purely mental. In fact, Kant produced arguments against traditional idealism in the second part of the "Critique of Pure Reason". His father's stroke and subsequent death in 1746 interrupted his studies. Kant became a private tutor in the smaller towns surrounding K?nigsberg, but continued his scholarly research. 1749 saw the publication of his first philosophical work, Thoughts on the True Estimation of Living Forces.

年少时康德展现出巨大的学习天赋。他一开始被送到菲特烈中学,后来1740年他16岁时被格尼斯堡大学录取,他在次大学度过了他的整个职业生涯。他在马丁?克努岑的指导下学习莱布尼茨与沃尔夫哲学,克努岑是以为理性主义者,他熟悉哲学与科学在英国的发展并向康德介绍牛顿的新精确物理学。克努岑劝阻康德从事先定和谐论,他认为这种理论是“懒惰思想的枕头”。他也劝阻这位年轻的学子从事唯心主义,此中哲学受到绝大部分18世纪哲学家的否定。康德在《纯粹理性批判》中提出的先验唯心主义理论并非传统的唯心主义,即实在是纯粹精神的思想。事实上,康德在《纯粹理性批判》的第二部分对传统唯心主义进行了反驳。父亲中风以及后来1746年的死中断了他的研究。康德在格尼斯堡周边的小镇当私人家庭教师,但仍然继续学术研究。1749年他的第一部哲学作品--《对生命力的基本评价》出版。

Kant is best known for his transcendental idealist philosophy that time and space are not materially real but merely the ideal a priori condition of our internal intuition. But what is not well known is that Kant is responsible for an important astronomical discovery, namely the discovery of the retardation of the rotation of the Earth, for which he won the Berlin Academy Prize in 1754. Even more importantly, from this Kant concluded that time is not a thing in itself determined from experience, objects, motion, and change, but rather an illusion of the human mind that preconditions possible experience.

康德因其先验论哲学而最为知名,此哲学认为时空并非物质实在,而只不过是我们先验地内在直觉的观念形态。但是鲜为人知的是康德做出的重要天文学发现,即地球自转减速的发现,为此他1754年获得了柏林科学院奖。更重要的是康德从此得出结论,时间本质上并不是由经验、物体、运动和变化决定的东西,而是预处理可能经验之人的思想的幻觉。

According to Lord Kelvin:

"Kant pointed out in the middle of last century, what had not previously been discovered by mathematicians or physical astronomers, that the frictional resistance against tidal currents on the earth's surface must cause a diminution of the earth's rotational speed. This immense discovery in Natural Philosophy seems to have attracted little attention,--indeed to have passed quite unnoticed, --among mathematicians, and astronomers, and naturalists, until about 1840, when the doctrine of energy began to be taken to heart." -- Lord Kelvin, physicist, 1897

按照开尔文勋爵所说:康德在上个世纪中叶指出,对地球表面的潮汐的摩擦阻力必定导致地球自转速度的降低,这是数学家或物理天文学家原先没有发现的东西。这一自然哲学的重大发现几乎没有引起注意,实际上在数学家、天文学家和博物学家中直到1840前后年都是十分遭到忽视的,那时能量学说开始居于核心地位。

He became a university lecturer in 1755. The subject on which he lectured was "Metaphysics"; the course textbook was written by A.G. Baumgarten.

1755年,康德成为大学讲师。他讲的科目是“形而上学”,这门课的教材由A.G.鲍姆加滕撰写。

According to Thomas Huxley:

"The sort of geological speculation to which I am now referring (geological aetiology, in short) was created as a science by that famous philosopher, Immanuel Kant, when, in 1775 [1755], he wrote his General Natural History and Theory of the Celestial Bodies; or, an Attempt to Account for the Constitutional and Mechanical Origin of the Universe, upon Newtonian Principles." -- Thomas H. Huxley, 1869

按照托马斯?赫胥黎的说法:“我现在所指的这种地质学论段【简单地说,地质成因论】是由著名哲学家伊曼努尔?康德在1775【1755年】提出的,他撰写了他的《宇宙发展史概论》。”

In the General History of Nature and Theory of the Heavens (1755), Kant laid out the Nebular hypothesis, in which he deduced that the Solar System formed from a large cloud of gas, a nebula. He thus attempted to explain the order of the solar system, seen previously by Newton as being imposed from the beginning by God. Kant also correctly deduced that the Milky Way was a large disk of stars, which he theorized also formed from a (much larger) spinning cloud of gas. He further suggested the possibility that other nebulae might also be similarly large and distant disks of stars. These postulations opened new horizons for astronomy: for the first time extending astronomy beyond the solar system to galactic and extragalactic realms.

在《宇宙发展史概论》 中,康德提出了“星云假说”,认为太阳系源自一大团气体星云。他试图解释太阳系的秩序,这种秩序以前被牛顿看成是由上帝创世的。康德也正确地推论:银河系是庞大的星盘,他推断这些也源自更大的旋转的的气体云。他进一步揭示了其他星云形成类似的庞大而遥远的星盘的可能性。这些猜测为天文学开创了崭新的视角:第一次把天文学从太阳系扩展到银河与外银河领域。

From this point on, Kant turned increasingly to philosophical issues, although he continued to write on the sciences throughout his life. In the early 1760s, Kant produced a series of important works in philosophy. The False Subtlety of the Four Syllogistic Figures, a work in logic, was published in 1762. Two more works appeared the following year: Attempt to Introduce the Concept of Negative Magnitudes into Philosophy and The Only Possible Argument in Support of a Demonstration of the Existence of God. In 1764, Kant wrote Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime and then was second to Moses Mendelssohn in a Berlin Academy prize competition with his Inquiry Concerning the Distinctness of the Principles of Natural Theology and Morality (often referred to as "the Prize Essay"). In 1770, at the age of 45, Kant was finally appointed Professor of Logic and Metaphysics at the University of K?nigsberg. Kant wrote his Inaugural Dissertation in defense of this appointment. This work saw the emergence of several central themes of his mature work, including the distinction between the faculties of intellectual thought and sensible receptivity. Not to observe this distinction would mean to commit the error of subreption, and, as he says in the last chapter of the dissertation, only in avoidance of this error will metaphysics flourish.

从到这一点出发,康德日益转向哲学问题,虽然他继续在有生之年撰写科学作品。1760年代早期,康德创作了一系列重要的哲学著述。《四种演绎模式的虚假性质》是一部逻辑作品,发表于1762年。次年出版了另外两部作品:《把负数概念引入哲学的尝试》与《支持上帝存在证明的唯一可能论据》。1764年,康德撰写了《对美感与崇高感的考察》,后来与摩西?门德尔松的《自然神学与道德原则差异之研究》【通常成为获奖论文】在柏林科学院奖上竞争,得第二名。1770年45岁之时,康德终于被委任为格尼斯堡大学的逻辑学与形而上学教授。他写了“就职论文”作为职位答辩。在这一作品中出现了他成熟期著述的几个核心主题,包括理智与知觉感受能力之间区分。看不到这一区分就会犯“偷换”的错误,他在论文的最后一章认为,只有避免这一错误,形而上学才能得以兴盛。

The issue that vexed Kant was central to what twentieth century scholars termed "the philosophy of mind." The flowering of the natural sciences had led to an understanding of how data reaches the brain. Sunlight may fall upon a distant object, whereupon light is reflected from various parts of the object in a way that maps the surface features (color, texture, etc.) of the object. The light reaches the eye of a human observer, passes through the cornea, is focused by the lens upon the retina where it forms an image similar to that formed by light passing through a pinhole into a camera obscura. The retinal cells next send impulses through the optic nerve and thereafter they form a mapping in the brain of the visual features of the distant object. The interior mapping is not the exterior thing being mapped, and our belief that there is a meaningful relationship between the exterior object and the mapping in the brain depends on a chain of reasoning that is not fully grounded. But the uncertainty aroused by these considerations, the uncertainties raised by optical illusions, misperceptions, delusions, etc., are not the end of the problems.

困扰康德的问题是20世纪学者们叫做“心灵哲学”的东西的核心。自然科学的兴起让我们理解了数据如何进入大脑。阳光照射在遥远的物体上,于是光就会以此物体的表面特征(颜色、质地等)图谱样式在物体的各部分进行反射。光到达观察者的眼睛,通过视网膜,由视网膜上的水晶体聚焦而形成图像,这似于光通过小孔进入暗箱而形成的图像。接下来,视网膜细胞通过视神经传送冲动,此后在形成此遥远物体可视特征在大脑中的映像。内部映像并非被映射的外部对象,我们在外部对象和脑中映射之间存在有意义的联系的信念依靠的是并不完全可靠的推理链。但是,这些考虑引发的不可靠性,由幻视、误解、错觉等引起的不可靠性还不是问题的全部。

Kant saw the mind could not function as an empty container that simply receives data from the outside. Something had to be giving order to the incoming data. Images of external objects have to be kept in the same sequence in which they were received. This ordering occurs through the mind's intuition of time. The same considerations apply to the mind's function of constituting space for ordering mappings of visual and tactile signals arriving via the already described chains of physical causation.

康德认为心灵并非从外部单纯接受数据的空容器。必定存在赋予进入数据只需的某种东西。外部物体的图像必须与被接受的序列保持一致。这种排序是通过心灵的时间感而发生的。同样的考虑也适用于心灵为分类进入的视觉和触觉映射经过已述的自然因果链构建空间的功能。

The Silent Decade  十年沉默

At the age of 46, Kant was an established scholar and an increasingly influential philosopher. Much was expected of him. In response to a letter from his student, Markus Herz, Kant came to recognize that in the Inaugural Dissertation, he had failed to account for the relation and connection between our sensible and intellectual faculties, i.e., he needed to explain both how humans acquire data and how they process data—related but very different processes. He also credited David Hume with awakening him from "dogmatic slumber". Kant did not publish any work in philosophy for the next eleven years.

46岁的时候,康德已是一位稳健的学者和影响日增的哲学家。有许多事要发生。通过他的学生马库斯?赫兹的一封信,康德开始意识到,在“就职论文”中,他未能说清我们的感知能力与理智能力之间的关系,即他有必要解释人是如何获得数据、处理数据的—这两个过程相关但是迥然不同的过程。他赞扬大为?休谟把他从“教条主义的迷梦”中唤醒。后来的11年中康德没有发表任何哲学著述。

Kant spent his silent decade working on a solution to the problem mentioned above. Although fond of company and conversation with others, Kant isolated himself. He resisted friends' attempts to bring him out of his isolation.

他沉默10年来致力于解决上述问题。虽然喜欢他人陪伴并与他人对话,但他甘愿孤独。他避开了了朋友把他带出孤独的努力。

When Kant emerged from his silence in 1781, the result was the Critique of Pure Reason. Although now uniformly recognized as one of the greatest works in the history of philosophy, this Critique was largely ignored upon its initial publication. The book was long, over 800 pages in the original German edition, and written in what some considered a convoluted style. It received few reviews, and these granted no significance to the work. Its density made it, as Johann Gottfried Herder put it in a letter to Johann Georg Hamann, a "tough nut to crack," obscured by "…all this heavy gossamer." Its reception stood in stark contrast, to the praise Kant had received for earlier works such as his "Prize Essay" and other shorter works that precede the first Critique. These well-received and readable tracts include one on the earthquake in Lisbon which was so popular that it was sold by the page. Prior to the change in course documented in the first Critique, his books sold well, and by the time he published Observations On the Feeling of the Beautiful and the Sublime in 1764 he had become a popular author of some note. Kant was disappointed with the first Critique's reception. Recognizing the need to clarify the original treatise, Kant wrote the Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysics in 1783 as a summary of its main views. He also encouraged his friend, Johann Schultz, to publish a brief commentary on the Critique of Pure Reason.

康德1781年打破沉默之时,《纯粹理性批判》面世。虽然现在人们一致认为它是哲学史上最伟大的著作之一,但初版时深遭忽视。此书很长,德国原版800多页,而且是以晦涩的写作风格撰写的。没有什么评论,没人意识到这部作品的真正重要性。正如约翰?戈特弗里德?赫德尓在致约翰?乔治?哈曼的信中所说,其复杂性使其成为“硬骨头”,被“所有的厚厚的蛛网”所隐藏。对它的接受与康德因“获奖论文”与其他之前的短论所受到的赞扬形成十分鲜明的对照。这些广受欢迎的易读之作包括十分流行以至于按页卖的“论里斯本地震”。在第一本批判经历的过程变化之前,他的书很畅销,到他1764年出版《对美感与崇高感的考察》的时候,他已成为某文摘的受欢迎作者。康德对第一本批判的遭遇很失望。认识到需要使原作明晰易懂,康德1783年以《未来形而上学导论》作为对《批判》主要思想的总结。他也鼓励好友约翰?舒尔兹发表对《纯粹理性批判》的短评。

Kant's reputation gradually rose through the 1780s, sparked by a series of important works: the 1784 essay, "Answer to the Question: What is Enlightenment?"; 1785s Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals (his first work on moral philosophy); and, from 1786, Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science. But Kant's fame ultimately arrived from an unexpected source. In 1786, Karl Reinhold began to publish a series of public letters on the Kantian philosophy. In these letters, Reinhold framed Kant's philosophy as a response to the central intellectual controversy of the era: the Pantheism Dispute. Friedrich Jacobi had accused the recently deceased G. E. Lessing (a distinguished dramatist and philosophical essayist) of Spinozism. Such a charge, tantamount to atheism, was vigorously denied by Lessing's friend Moses Mendelssohn, and a bitter public dispute arose among partisans. The controversy gradually escalated into a general debate over the values of the Enlightenment and the value of reason itself. Reinhold maintained in his letters that Kant's Critique of Pure Reason could settle this dispute by defending the authority and bounds of reason. Reinhold's letters were widely read and made Kant the most famous philosopher of his era.

通过1780年代,康德的声誉由于一系列重要作品的触发而逐步上升:1784年的论文—“对什么是启蒙问题的回答”;1785年的《道德形而上学基础》(他的第一部道德哲学作品);1786年的《自然科学形而上学基础》。可是康德的声誉最终是意外得到的。1786年,卡尔?莱因霍尔德开始发表一系列论康德哲学的公开信,在这些信件中,莱因霍尔德说康德哲学是对那个时代核心思想争论—泛神论争论的回应。弗里德里希?雅克布指责最近去世的G.F.莱辛(著名剧作家、哲学评论家)“斯宾诺莎主义”,这样的指责,就等于对无神论的指责,受到了莱辛挚友摩西?门德尔松的强烈驳斥,各方展开了激烈的公开争论。这场争论逐步升级到对启蒙的意义与理性本身价值的普遍争论。莱因霍尔德在信中坚持,康德的《纯粹理性批判》通过为理性的权威和限制的辩护解决此争论。莱因霍尔德的信被广为阅读而使康德成为他那时代最著名的哲学家。

Kant's Early Work  康德的早期著述

A variety of popular beliefs have arisen concerning Kant's life. It is often held, for instance, that Kant was a late bloomer, that he only became an important philosopher in his mid-50s after rejecting his earlier views. While it is true that Kant wrote his greatest works relatively late in life, there is a tendency to underestimate the value of his earlier works. Recent Kant scholarship has devoted more attention to these "pre-critical" writings and has recognized a degree of continuity with his mature work.

对康德生平有各种不同的流行看法。比如,人们常认为康德大器晚成的人,在放弃了自己的早期观点之后,他才在50岁多岁的时候成为重要的哲学家。虽然康德的确是在生命中较晚的时候才撰写其最伟大的作品,但是有一种低估他早期作品的倾向。进来康德研究更注意那些“前批判”作品,并意识到与他成熟期作品的连续性程度。

Many of the common myths concerning Kant's personal mannerisms are enumerated, explained, and refuted in Goldthwait's introduction to his translation of Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime. It is often held that Kant lived a very strict and predictable life, leading to the oft-repeated story that neighbors would set their clocks by his daily walks.

有许多有关康德个人怪癖的普遍故事,在理查德?高德斯威特的《对美感与崇高感的考察》的译本导言中进行了列举、解释和反驳。人们也常认为康德过着十分严格并有规则的生活,以致产生了邻居们都根据他每天的散步校对钟表的日常故事。

Kant's later work  康德的后期作品

Kant published a second edition of the Critique of Pure Reason in 1787, heavily revising the first parts of the book. Most of his subsequent work focused on other areas of philosophy. He continued to develop his moral philosophy, notably in 1788's Critique of Practical Reason (known as the second Critique) and 1797’s Metaphysics of Morals. The 1790 Critique of Judgment (the third Critique) applied the Kantian system to aesthetics and teleology. He also wrote a number of semi-popular essays on history, religion, politics and other topics. These works were well received by Kant's contemporaries and confirmed his preeminent status in eighteenth century philosophy. There were several journals devoted solely to defending and criticizing the Kantian philosophy. But despite his success, philosophical trends were moving in another direction. Many of Kant's most important disciples (including Reinhold, Beck and Fichte) transformed the Kantian position into increasingly radical forms of idealism. The progressive stages of revision of Kant's teachings marked the emergence of German Idealism. Kant opposed these developments and publicly denounced Fichte in an open letter in 1799. It was one of his final philosophical acts. In 1800, a student of Kant, named Gottlob Benjamin J?sche, published a manual of logic for teachers called Logik, which he had prepared at the request of Kant. J?sche prepared the Logik using a copy of a text book in logic by Georg Freidrich Meier entitled Auszug aus der Vernunftlehre, in which Kant had written copious notes and annotations. The Logik has been considered to be of fundamental importance to Kant's philosophy, and the understanding of it. For, the great nineteenth century logician Charles Sanders Peirce remarked, in an incomplete review of Thomas Kingsmill Abbott's English translation of the introduction to the Logik, that "Kant's whole philosophy turns upon his logic." Also, Robert Schirokauer Hartman and Wolfgang Schwarz, wrote in the translators' introduction to their English translation of the Logik, "Its importance lies not only in its significance for the Critique of Pure Reason, the second part of which is a restatement of fundamental tenets of the Logic, but in its position within the whole of Kant's work." Kant's health, long poor, took a turn for the worse and he died at K?nigsberg on 12 February 1804 uttering "Genug" [enough] before expiring. His unfinished final work, the fragmentary Opus Postumum, was published posthumously.

1787年,康德出版了《纯粹理性批判》的第二版,对该书的前面部分进行了大刀阔斧的修正。他多数后来的工作都聚焦于其他哲学领域。他继续发展他的道德哲学,著名的是1788年的《实践理性批判》(被称之为第二《批判》)和1797年的《道德形而上学》。1790年的《判断力批判》(第三批判)把康德的体系运用到美学与目的论中来。他也撰写了一系列有关历史、宗教、政治等的半通俗读物。这些作品得到了康德同时代人的普遍认可并确立了他在18世纪哲学中的突出地位。有几份专门保卫和批判康德哲学的杂志。但是,尽管他很成功,哲学走向正在转变。康德很多重要信徒(包括莱因霍尔德、贝克和费希特)把康德的立场变得愈加激进的唯心主义形式。对康的学说的修正的不断累积标志着德国唯心主义的产生。在1799年的一封公开信中,康德反对这些改变并公开谴责费希特。这是他最后的哲学举动之一。1800年,康德的一位名叫戈特布?本杰明?贾施的学生, 出版了一本老师们教学用的手册--《逻辑学》,他是应康德的请求而准备此书的。贾施搞《逻辑学》使用了一本乔治?弗里德里希?迈尔的逻辑教科书《逻辑学大纲》 ,其中就有康德撰写的大量的注解和注释。《逻辑学》被认为对康德哲学及其解读具有根本重要性。伟大的19世纪逻辑学家查尔斯?桑德斯?皮尔士在对托马斯?金斯米尔?阿伯特的《逻辑学》英译本导言的不完整的评论中评论道:“其重要性不仅在于对《纯粹理性批判》,其中第二部分就是对逻辑基本原则的重述,而且在于其立场也和康德是一致的。”康德的健康状况长期不佳,后来恶化并于1804年2月12日逝世,咽气之前说了句“足够了”。他的未完成的最后作品—不完整的《遗著》是死后出版的。

Kant never concluded that one could form a coherent account of the universe and of human experience without grounding such an account in the "thing in itself." Many of those who followed him argued that since the "thing in itself" was unknowable its existence could not simply be assumed. Rather than arbitrarily switching to an account that was ungrounded in anything supposed to be the "real," as did the German Idealists, another group arose to ask how our (generally reliable) accounts of a coherent and rule-abiding universe were actually grounded. This new kind of philosophy became known as Phenomenology, and its preeminent spokesman was Edmund Husserl.

康德断言,如果不以“自在之物(物自体)”说明为基础,我们就不能形成对宇宙和人类经验的一致说明。很多追随康德的人主张,由于“物自体”是不可知的,所以我们不能就假定其存在。和德国唯心主义者不同,另一哲学派别不是任意转向不以“实在的”东西为基础的说明,相反,他们开始追问:我们对一致有规则的宇宙(普遍可靠)的说明的基础究竟怎样。这一新的哲学类型被称之为现象学,其杰出代表是埃德蒙德?胡塞尔。

Kant's philosophy  康德哲学

In Kant's essay "Answering the Question: What is Enlightenment?," Kant defined the Enlightenment as an age shaped by the Latin motto Sapere aude ("Dare to Know"). Kant maintained that one ought to think autonomously, free of the dictates of external authority. His work reconciled many of the differences between the rationalist and empiricist traditions of the 18th century. He had a decisive impact on the Romantic and German Idealist philosophies of the 19th century. His work has also been a starting point for many 20th century philosophers.

在康德的论文“对什么是启蒙问题的回答”中,他把启蒙定义为受拉丁格言“敢于认知”影响的时代。康德坚持,我们应该独立思考,不受外部权威规定的约束。他的工作调和了许多18世纪理性主义和经验主义传统的分歧。他对19世纪的浪漫主义哲学和德国哲学具有决定性影响。他的工作也是很多20世纪哲学家的出发点。

Kant asserted that, because of the limitations of argumentation in the absence of irrefutable evidence, no one could really know whether there is a God and an afterlife or not. For the sake of society and morality, Kant asserted, people are reasonably justified in believing in them, even though they could never know for sure whether they are real or not. He explained:

康德宣称,由于论证没有不可反驳证据的限制,没有人真正知道是否存在上帝或死后生活。康德断言,由于社会和道德,人们相信这些是相当合理的,尽管他们从不确切地知道这些是否真实。他解释道:

All the preparations of reason, therefore, in what may be called pure philosophy, are in reality directed to those three problems only [God, the soul, and freedom]. However, these three elements in themselves still hold independent, proportional, objective weight individually. Moreover, in a collective relational context; namely, to know what ought to be done: if the will is free, if there is a God, and if there is a future world. As this concerns our actions with reference to the highest aims of life, we see that the ultimate intention of nature in her wise provision was really, in the constitution of our reason, directed to moral interests only.

所以,被称之为纯粹哲学中的所有理性基础,实际上都只会走向这样三个问题【上帝、灵魂和自由】。不过,其中的这三种成分依然保持各自独立、彼此和谐与客观的作用。还有,在整个关系情境中;即知道应该做什么:如果意志自由,如果上帝存在,如果有来世。由于这关系到我们有关生命最高目的的行动,我们明白在其英明规定中自然的根本意图,在我们理性的结构中就会实际上只能走向道德关注。

The sense of an enlightened approach and the critical method required that "If one cannot prove that a thing is, he may try to prove that it is not. And if he succeeds in doing neither (as often occurs), he may still ask whether it is in his interest to accept one or the other of the alternatives hypothetically, from the theoretical or the practical point of view. Hence the question no longer is as to whether perpetual peace is a real thing or not a real thing, or as to whether we may not be deceiving ourselves when we adopt the former alternative, but we must act on the supposition of its being real." The presupposition of God, soul, and freedom was then a practical concern, for "Morality, by itself, constitutes a system, but happiness does not, unless it is distributed in exact proportion to morality. This, however, is possible in an intelligible world only under a wise author and ruler. Reason compels us to admit such a ruler, together with life in such a world, which we must consider as future life, or else all moral laws are to be considered as idle dreams… ."

对启蒙方法与批判方法的认识要求,“如果一个人不能证明一个东西存在,那么他就可能试图证明它不存在。如果他皆失败了(常常是这样),那么他还可能问:从理论或实际的观点看,设想为自己的利益是接受一个或另一个选择呢?因此,问题不再是关于永久安宁是实在的或不实在的东西的问题,也不是关于是否当我们采纳前一个选择时没有自欺欺人的问题,而是我们必须其实在性的假设行动的问题。”预设上帝、灵魂与自由就是实际关注,因为“道德本身构成一个体系,但幸福并非如此,除非它的存在与道德有精确的比例关系”。可是,只有在一个智慧的创造者与统治者控制下,世界才有可能是可理解的。理性迫使我们承认这样一个与生命共存的统治者,我们必须把这个世界看成来世,否则所有道德律都会被看成是空想…

The two interconnected foundations of what Kant called his "critical philosophy" that created the "Copernican revolution" that he claimed to have wrought in philosophy were his epistemology of Transcendental Idealism and his moral philosophy of the autonomy of practical reason. These teachings placed the active, rational human subject at the center of the cognitive and moral worlds. With regard to knowledge, Kant argued that the rational order of the world as known by science could never be accounted for merely by the fortuitous accumulation of sense perceptions. It was instead the product of the rule-based activity of "synthesis." This activity consisted of conceptual unification and integration carried out by the mind through concepts or the "categories of the understanding" operating on the perceptual manifold within space and time, which are not concepts, but are forms of sensibility that are a priori necessary conditions for any possible experience. Thus the objective order of nature and the causal necessity that operates within it are dependent upon the mind. There is wide disagreement among Kant scholars on the correct interpretation of this train of thought. The 'two-world' interpretation regards Kant's position as a statement of epistemological limitation, that we are never able to transcend the bounds of our own mind, meaning that we cannot access the "thing-in-itself". Kant, however, also speaks of the thing in itself or transcendental object as a product of the (human) understanding as it attempts to conceive of objects in abstraction from the conditions of sensibility. Following this line of thought, some interpreters have argued that the thing in itself does not represent a separate ontological domain but simply a way of considering objects by means of the understanding alone – this is known as the two-aspect view. With regard to morality, Kant argued that the source of the good lies not in anything outside the human subject, either in nature or given by God, but rather is only the good will itself. A good will is one that acts from duty in accordance with the universal moral law that the autonomous human being freely gives itself. This law obliges one to treat humanity – understood as rational agency, and represented through oneself as well as others – as an end in itself rather than (merely) as means to other ends the individual might hold. These ideas have largely framed or influenced all subsequent philosophical discussion and analysis. The specifics of Kant's account generated immediate and lasting controversy. Nevertheless, his theses – that the mind itself necessarily makes a constitutive contribution to its knowledge, that this contribution is transcendental rather than psychological, that philosophy involves self-critical activity, that morality is rooted in human freedom, and that to act autonomously is to act according to rational moral principles – have all had a lasting effect on subsequent philosophy.

康德称他的在哲学中产生“哥白尼革命”的“批判哲学”的两个贯通的基础是他的“先验唯心主义”认识论和实践理性自治的“道德哲学”。这些学说把主动理性的人类主体置于认知与道德世界的核心。至于知识,康德认为科学所知的世界合理秩序不能只凭感觉的偶然累积而得以说明。相反,它是按规则进行的“综合”活动的产物。这种活动由思想通过概念或在时空中利用直觉摹本的“知性范畴”进行的概念统一和整合构成,知性范畴不是概念,而是对于任何可能经验的先验必备条件的感性形式。因此,自然的客观秩序与其中起作用的因果必然性取决于思想。如何正确理解这一连串思想,在康德研究者之间存在广泛的争议。“两个世界”解释把康德的观点看成是对认识论限制的说明,认识论限制就是:我们不可能超越自身思想的限度,即我们不能接近“物自体”。可是,康德也说过物自体或超验对象是人类知性的产物,因为它试图从感性状态抽象地理解对象。沿着这条思想线索,有些解释者主张,物自体不代表一个独立的本体论领域,而只是单独使用知性考虑对象的简单方式—这称之为“两个方面”观点。至于道德,康德主张,善的来源并不外在于人类主体,既不存在于自然也不是由上帝赋予的,而只是善意本身。善意就是按照自治的人类自由赋予自身的普遍道德律履行义务。道德律强制他把被理解为理性力量并通过自身和他人体现的博爱理性作为自在目的而不是(仅仅)作为人们其他目的的手段。这些思想对所有后来的哲学讨论和分析产生了极大的影响。康德说明的细节引起了迅速而持久的争论。尽管如此,他的观点—思想本身必然对其知识起到“构成性”作用,这种作用是超验的而非心理的,哲学包括“自批判”活动,道德根植于人的自由,自治行动就是按照理性道德原则行动—对后世哲学产生了持久的影响。

Kant's theory of perception 康德的感觉论

Kant defines his theory of perception in his influential 1781 work The Critique of Pure Reason, which has often been cited as the most significant volume of metaphysics and epistemology in modern philosophy. Kant maintains that our understanding of the external world had its foundations not merely in experience, but in both experience and a priori concepts, thus offering a non-empiricist critique of rationalist philosophy, which is what he and others referred to as his "Copernican revolution."

康德在他颇具影响的1781年著作《纯粹理性批判》中对他的感觉理论进行了说明,这部著作经常被作为近代哲学中最重要的的形而上学与认识论典籍来引用。康德认为,我们对外部世界的理解不止有其经验基础,而是既有经验基础也有先验概念基础,所以,他提供了一种对理性主义哲学的非经验主义批判,这就是他和别人所说的他的“哥白尼革命”。

Before discussing his theory, it is necessary to explain Kant's distinction between analytic and synthetic propositions.

讨论康德的理论之前,有必要解释一下康德在分析命题与综合命题之间的区分。

1. Analytic proposition: a proposition whose predicate concept is contained in its subject concept; e.g., "All bachelors are unmarried," or, "All bodies take up space." 分析命题:谓词概念包含于主词概念之中;例如,“所有单身都未婚”或“所有物体都占空间”。

2. Synthetic proposition: a proposition whose predicate concept is not contained in its subject concept ; e.g., "All bachelors are happy," or, "All bodies have mass." 综合命题:谓词概念不包含于主词概念之中;如,“所有单身都幸福”或“所有物体都有质量”。

Analytic propositions are true by nature of the meaning of the words involved in the sentence—we require no further knowledge than a grasp of the language to understand this proposition. On the other hand, synthetic statements are those that tell us something about the world. The truth or falsehood of synthetic statements derives from something outside of their linguistic content. In this instance, mass is not a necessary predicate of the body; until we are told the heaviness of the body we do not know that it has mass. In this case, experience of the body is required before its heaviness becomes clear. Before Kant's first Critique, empiricists (cf. Hume) and rationalists (cf. Leibniz) assumed that all synthetic statements required experience in order to be known.

分析命题按照句子中词的含义就可以判断它是真的—除了对理解这种命题的语言的把握我们不需要别的知识。另一方面,综合命题是这样一些命题:他们对我们讲述世界上的事情。综合命题的真或假并不来源于这些命题的语言内容。这种情况下,质量不必然是物体的谓词;除非我们知道物体的重量我们就不知道其质量。这样,在知道物体的重量之前我们需要对物体的经验。在康德的第一批判之前,经验主义者(=confer比较休谟)和理性主义者(比较莱布尼茨)认为要明确综合命题都需要经验。

Kant, however, contests this: he claims that elementary mathematics, like arithmetic, is synthetic a priori, in that its statements provide new knowledge, but knowledge that is not derived from experience. This becomes part of his over-all argument for transcendental idealism. That is, he argues that the possibility of experience depends on certain necessary conditions—which he calls a priori forms—and that these conditions structure and hold true of the world of experience. In so doing, his main claims in the "Transcendental Aesthetic" are that mathematic judgments are synthetic a priori and in addition, that Space and Time are not derived from experience but rather are its preconditions.

不过,康德挑战这一点:他主张,基础数学和算数一样,是先验综合的,其陈述提供并不来源于经验的新知识。这成为他对超验唯心主义总体论证的组成部分。即,他主张经验的可能性取决于某些必要条件—他称之为先验的形式,这些条件构成并支持经验世界的真理。这样做的时候,他在“先验美学”中的主要主张是:数学判断是先验综合的,另外,空间和时间并非得自经验而是其前提。

Once we have grasped the concepts of addition, subtraction or the functions of basic arithmetic, we do not need any empirical experience to know that 100 + 100 = 200, and in this way it would appear that arithmetic is in fact analytic. However, that it is analytic can be disproved thus: if the numbers five and seven in the calculation 5 + 7 = 12 are examined, there is nothing to be found in them by which the number 12 can be inferred. Such it is that "5 + 7" and "the cube root of 1,728" or "12" are not analytic because their reference is the same but their sense is not—that the mathematic judgment "5 + 7 = 12" tells us something new about the world. It is self-evident, and undeniably a priori, but at the same time it is synthetic. And so Kant proves a proposition can be synthetic and known a priori.

一旦我们掌握了加减法或基本算术运算的概念,要知道100+100=200,我们不需要经验体验,这样好像算术实际上是分析的。但是,可以这样反驳它是分析的:如果考察运算5+7=12中的数字5和7,在其中我们找不到得出数字12的根据。这样,“5+7”和“1728的立方根或12”就不是分析的,因为它们所指的虽然是同一个数字但其含义不同---数学判断“5+7=12”告诉我们有关世界的新东西。它是自明的,无疑是先验的,但同时也是综合的。所以康德证明了一个命题可以是综合的但也是先验的。

Kant asserts that experience is based both upon the perception of external objects and a priori knowledge. The external world, he writes, provides those things which we sense. It is our mind, though, that processes this information about the world and gives it order, allowing us to comprehend it. Our mind supplies the conditions of space and time to experienced objects. According to the "transcendental unity of apperception", the concepts of the mind (Understanding) and the perceptions or intuitions that garner information from phenomena (Sensibility) are synthesized by comprehension. Without the concepts, intuitions are nondescript; without the intuitions, concepts are meaningless—thus the famous quotation, "Thoughts without content are empty, intuitions without concepts are blind."

康德断言,经验以对外部对象的感觉和先验知识为基础。他写道,外部世界为我们提供感觉的素材。虽然是我们的思想处理有关世界的信息并赋予其秩序而让我们理解它。我们的思想提供体验对象的时空条件。按照“先验统觉”,从现象(感知)存储的信息的思想概念(知性)和感觉或直觉由于理解而得以综合。没有概念,直觉就难以归类;没有直觉,概念就是无意义的—因而就有了引语:“没有内容的思想是空洞的,没有概念的直觉是盲目的。”

Kant’s Categories of the Faculty of Understanding 康德的知性能力范畴

In studying the work of Kant one must realize that there is a distinction between "understanding" as the general concept and the "understanding" as a faculty of the human mind. In much English language scholarship, the word "understanding" is used in both senses.

在研究康德的作品时,你必须意识到在作为通常概念的"understanding"和作为人类思想能力的"understanding"之间的不同。在很多英语语言学术中"understanding"在两种意义上使用。

Immanuel Kant deemed it obvious that we have some objective knowledge of the world, such as, say, Newtonian physics. But this knowledge relies on synthetic, a priori laws of nature, like causality and substance. The problem, then, is how this is possible. Kant’s solution was to reason that the subject must supply laws that make experience of objects possible, and that these laws are the synthetic, a priori laws of nature which we can know all objects are subject to prior to experiencing them. So to deduce all these laws, Kant examined experience in general, dissecting in it what is supplied by the mind from what is supplied by the given intuitions. This which has just been explicated is commonly called a transcendental reduction.

依曼努尔?康德认为我们显然拥有对世界的客观知识,比如说牛顿物理学。但是这种知识依靠像因果关系和实体这样的先验综合自然律。然后问题就是“这何以可能”。康德的办法是推断主体必须提供使得对客体的经验成为可能的定律,这些定律是我们能够知道的所有对象都先验地服从的先验综合自然律。所以,为了推演出这些定律,康德全面考察经验、解剖思想从中在特定的直觉所提供的东西中提供了什么。这种说明一般被称之为“先验还原”。

To begin with, Kant’s distinction between the a posteriori being contingent and particular knowledge, and the a priori being universal and necessary knowledge, must be kept in mind. For if we merely connect two intuitions together in a perceiving subject, the knowledge will always be subjective because it is derived a posteriori, when what is desired is for the knowledge to be objective, that is, for the two intuitions to refer to the object and hold good of it necessarily universally for anyone at anytime, not just the perceiving subject in its current condition. Now what else is equivalent to objective knowledge besides the a priori, that is to say, universal and necessary knowledge? Nothing else, and hence before knowledge can be objective, it must be incorporated under an a priori category of the understanding.

首先要记住康德在“后验”--具体偶然的知识---和---“先验”---普遍必然德知识---之间的区分。因为如果我们仅仅在一个感觉主体中连结两种直觉,那么,知识就总是主观的,因为它得自后验。如果我们要得到客观知识,即想让两种直觉指向对象并对任何人、在任何时间都保持很好的必然性与普遍性,不只是对当时情况的感觉主体是这样。那么,除了先验的即普遍必然的知识之外还有别的客观知识吗?没有,因此,在知识成为客观知识之前,它必须在先验知性范畴下加以整合。

For example, say a subject says, “The sun shines on the stone; the stone grows warm”, which is all he perceives in perception. His judgment is contingent and holds no necessity. But if he says, “The sunshine causes the stone to warm”, he subsumes the perception under the category of causality, which is not found in the perception, and necessarily synthesizes the concept sunshine with the concept heat, producing a necessarily universally true judgment.

比如,一个主体说:“阳光照在石头上;石头变热了”,就是他在感觉着感知的所有东西。他的判断是偶然的,没有非必然性。但是如果他说:“阳光让石头变热了”,他就把感觉包含于因果关系范畴之下,这种因果关系不存在于感觉之中,它必然综合阳光与热的概念,得出一个必然普遍的真判断。

To explain the categories in more detail, they are the preconditions of the construction of objects in the mind. Indeed, to even think of the sun and stone presupposes the category of subsistence, that is, substance. For the categories synthesize the random data of the sensory manifold into intelligible objects. This means that the categories are also the most abstract things one can say of any object whatsoever, and hence one can have an a priori cognition of the totality of all objects of experience if one can list all of them. To do so, Kant formulates another transcendental reduction.

更详细地解释一下范畴,它们是思想解释对象的前提条件。的确, 甚至思考太阳和石头都预设了存在物即实体的范畴。由于范畴把感觉摹本的随机数据综合成可理解的对象。这就意味着,范畴也是一个人可以谈论的任何对象的最为抽象的东西,从而他有对所有经验对象总体的先验认识(如果他能够列出对象的清单的话)。为此,康德表述了另一个先验的还原。

Judgments are, for Kant, the preconditions of any thought. Man thinks via judgments, so all possible judgments must be listed and the perceptions connected within them put aside, so as to make it possible to examine the moments when the understanding is engaged in constructing judgments. For the categories are equivalent to these moments, in that they are concepts of intuitions in general, so far as they are determined by these moments universally and necessarily. Thus by listing all the moments, one can deduce from them all of the categories.

对康德而言,判断是任何思想的先决条件。人通过判断进行思考,所以所有可能的判断都必须列示出来并把其中联系的感觉放在一边,以便于使考察知性构建判断的环节成为可能。只要范畴是由这些环节普遍必然地决定的,它们就相当于这些总体直觉概念的环节。所以,通过列示所有环节,一个人就能够从中推演所有范畴。

One may now ask: How many possible judgments are there? Kant believed that all the possible propositions within Aristotle’s syllogistic logic are equivalent to all possible judgments, and that all the logical operators within the propositions are equivalent to the moments of the understanding within judgments. Thus he listed Aristotle’s system in four groups of three: quantity (universal, particular, singular), quality (affirmative, negative, infinite), relation (categorical, hypothetical, disjunctive) and modality (problematic, assertoric, apodeictic). The parallelism with Kant’s categories is obvious: quantity (unity, plurality, totality), quality (reality, negation, limitation), relation (substance, cause, community) and modality (possibility, existence, necessity).

有人马上可能会问:究竟有多少可能的判断? 康德认为在亚里斯多德的演绎逻辑范围内的所有可能的命题就是所有可能的判断,这些命题中的所有逻辑运算符号都是判断中知性环节。因此,康德以四个三元组列出了亚里斯多德的体系:量(普遍的、特殊的、具体的),质(肯定的、否定的、无限的),关系(绝对的、假设的、选言的),模态(或然的、实然的、必然的)。这与康德范畴的对应很明显:量(单一、众多、总体),质(实在性、否定性、限制性),关系(实体、原因、交互),模态(可能性、存在性、必然性)。

The fundamental building blocks of experience, i.e. objective knowledge, are now in place. First there is the sensibility, which supplies the mind with intuitions, and then there is the understanding, which produces judgments of these intuitions and can subsume them under categories. These categories lift the intuitions up out of the subject’s current state of consciousness and place them within consciousness in general, producing universally necessary knowledge. For the categories are innate in any rational being, so any intuition thought within a category in one mind will necessarily be subsumed and understood identically in any mind.

经验即客观知识的基砖就位了。首先有感性,它为思想提供直觉,其次是知性,它产生对这些直觉的判断并把它们包容与范畴之中。这些范畴把直觉从主体的当前意识状态中提升出来,并把它们置于总体意识中,产生出普遍必然的知识。由于范畴内在于任何理性人,因此,思想中范畴内的任何知觉想法都必然包含于任何思想并它被完全理解。

Kant’s Schema  康德的图式

Kant ran into a problem with his theory that the mind plays a part in producing objective knowledge. Intuitions and categories are entirely disparate, so how can they interact? Kant’s solution is the schema: a priori principles by which the transcendental imagination connects concepts with intuitions through time. All the principles are temporally bound, for if a concept is purely a priori, as the categories are, then they must apply for all times. Hence there are principles such as substance is that which endures through time, and the cause must always be prior to the effect.

康德的思想在产生客观知识中起重要作用的理论遇到一个难题。直觉和范畴是全然不同的,他们何以相互作用?康德的解决办法是这一图式:先验原则通过时间联结先验想象与直觉。所有原则都是在时间上的限定,因为如果一个该概念是纯粹先验的,正像范畴一样,那么,它们就必须总是适用的。因此存在诸如此类的原则:实体在时间上是不朽的,原因必须总是在结果之前。

Moral philosophy  道德哲学

Kant developed his moral philosophy in three works: Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals (1785), Critique of Practical Reason (1788), and Metaphysics of Morals (1797) .

康德在三部论著中发展他的道德哲学,这三部著作是:《道德形而上学基础》(1785)、《纯粹理性批判》(1788)和《道德形而上学》(1797).

In the Groundwork, Kant's method involves trying to convert our everyday, obvious, rational knowledge of morality into philosophical knowledge. The latter two works followed a method of using "practical reason", which is based only upon things about which reason can tell us, and not deriving any principles from experience, to reach conclusions which are able to be applied to the world of experience (in the second part of The Metaphysic of Morals).

在《基础》中,康德的方法试图把我们的日常的理性道德知识转化为哲学知识。后两本著作遵循使用“实践理性”的方法,这种方法只以理性能够告诉我们的东西为基础,而不是从经验推演出原则,以得出我们可以到经验世界的结论(《道德形而上学》第二部分)。

Kant is known for his theory that there is a single moral obligation, which he called the "Categorical Imperative", and is derived from the concept of duty. Kant defines the demands of the moral law as "categorical imperatives." Categorical imperatives are principles that are intrinsically valid; they are good in and of themselves; they must be obeyed in all situations and circumstances if our behavior is to observe the moral law. It is from the Categorical Imperative that all other moral obligations are generated, and by which all moral obligations can be tested. Kant also stated that the moral means and ends can be applied to the categorical imperative, that rational beings can pursue certain "ends" using the appropriate "means." Ends that are based on physical needs or wants will always give for merely hypothetical imperatives. The categorical imperative, however, may be based only on something that is an "end in itself". That is, an end that is a means only to itself and not to some other need, desire, or purpose. He believed that the moral law is a principle of reason itself, and is not based on contingent facts about the world, such as what would make us happy, but to act upon the moral law which has no other motive than "worthiness of being happy". Accordingly, he believed that moral obligation applies to all and only rational agents.

康德因他存在统一的道德义务的理论而闻名,他把这种道德义务称之为“绝对命令”,源自“责任”(duty)概念。康德把道德律要求叫做“绝对命令”。绝对命令是内在有效的原则,它们实质就是善。如果我们的行为遵守道德律,它们就必须在所有情形和环境中得到遵守。所有其他道德义务是从道德命令产生的,而且所有道德义务都通过它得以检验。康德也指出,道德手段和目的也适用于绝对命令,理性人可用适当手段追求某些“目的”。基于生理需要或欲望的目的只不过总是牺牲假言命令。可是,绝对命令仅仅以自在目的的东西为基础。即,只是对自身而非其他需要、愿望或目标来说的手段的目的。他认为,道德律就是理性自身的原则,它不以世界的偶然事实为基础,比如让我们幸福的东西,而是唯一地根据“应得幸福”的道德律行动。因此,康德认为道德义务适用于而且仅仅适用于理性行动者。

A categorical imperative is an unconditional obligation; that is, it has the force of an obligation regardless of our will or desires (Contrast this with hypothetical imperative). In Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals (1785) Kant enumerated three formulations of the categorical imperative which he believed to be roughly equivalent:

道德命令式无条件的义务,即它具有义务强制力而不管我们的意志或欲望(把此与假言命令相比较)。在《道德形而上学基础》中,康德列出了三种他认为大致相同的绝对命令的表述:

Kant believed that if an action is not done with the motive of duty, then it is without moral value. He thought that every action should have pure intention behind it; otherwise it was meaningless. He did not necessarily believe that the final result was the most important aspect of an action, but that how the person felt while carrying out the action was the time at which value was set to the result.

康德认为,如果行动不按义务动机来进行,那么,这样的行动就没有道德价值。他认为,每个行动都应该有背后的纯粹意图,否则就是无意义的。他认为最终结果并不必然是行动的最重要方面,但他认为行动者如何感觉完成行动的时间就是赋予结果价值的时间最为紧要。

In Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals, Kant also posited the "counter-utilitarian idea that there is a difference between preferences and values and that considerations of individual rights temper calculations of aggregate utility", a concept that is an axiom in economics:

在《道德形而上学基础》中,康德也提出了“反功利主义”思想,反功利主义思想是这样一种观念:在偏好和价值之间有差别,对个体权利的考虑影响总效用的计算,这是一个经济学中的公理性观念:

Everything has either a price or a dignity. Whatever has a price can be replaced by something else as its equivalent; on the other hand, whatever is above all price, and therefore admits of no equivalent, has a dignity. But that which constitutes the condition under which alone something can be an end in itself does not have mere relative worth, i.e., price, but an intrinsic worth, i.e., a dignity.

一切皆有价格或尊严。有价格的东西可用其他等价物来替换;另一方面,超越一切价格因而没有等价物的东西有尊严。某物只是自在目的下所构成的情况就不仅仅具有相对价值,即价格,而且具有内在价值,即尊严。

A phrase quoted by Kant, which is used to summarize the counter-utilitarian nature of his moral philosophy, is Fiat justitia, pereat mundus, ("Let justice be done, though the world perish"), which he translates loosely as "Let justice reign even if all the rascals in the world should perish from it". This appears in his 1795 Perpetual Peace. 康德引用一句话来总结他都道德哲学的反功利主义性质,这句话就是“即使世界毁灭,也要实现正义”【天可灭,义长存】,康德大致把这句话译成“人可亡,义长久。”这句话出现在他1795年的《永久和平》中。

The first formulation  第一表述

The first formulation (Formula of Universal Law) of the moral imperative "requires that the maxims be chosen as though they should hold as universal laws of nature". This formulation in principle has as its supreme law the creed "Always act according to that maxim whose universality as a law you can at the same time will" and is the "only condition under which a will can never come into conflict with itself [....]"

道德命令的第一表述(普遍律公式)“要求选择格律就仿佛它们作为普遍的自然律”。这一原则表述作为最高律令—“像遵循普遍性的自然律那样一如既往按格律行事”,它是“意志不与自身冲突的唯一条件”。

One interpretation of the first formulation is called the "universalisability test". An agent's maxim, according to Kant, is his "subjective principle of human actions": that is, what the agent believes is his reason to act. The universalisability test has five steps: 对第一表述的一种解释被称之为“普遍化检验”。对康德而言,行动者的格律是他的“人的行动的主体原则”:即行动者认为他行动理性的东西。普遍化检验有5个步骤:

1. Find the agent's maxim (i.e., an action paired with its motivation). Take for example the declaration "I will lie for personal benefit." Lying is the action; the motivation is to fulfil some sort of desire. Paired together, they form the maxim. 找出行动者的格律(即行动与其动机成对)。用这样一个声明为例:“为自己的利益我会撒谎。”撒谎是行动,动机是实现某种愿望。把它们成对放在一起,就形成格律。

2. Imagine a possible world in which everyone in a similar position to the real-world agent followed that maxim. 想象一个可能的世界,其中与真实世界的行动者处于类似位置的每个人都遵循这一格律。

3. Decide whether any contradictions or irrationalities arise in the possible world as a result of following the maxim. 确定由于遵循此格律这一可能世界是否会引起任何矛盾或不合理之处。

4. If a contradiction or irrationality arises, acting on that maxim is not allowed in the real world. 如果产生矛盾或不合理性,那么在真实世界中就不允许按此格律行动。

5. If there is no contradiction, then acting on that maxim is permissible, and in some instances required. 如果没有矛盾,那么,按此格律行动就是允许的,而且在某些情况下是必须的。

(For a modern parallel, see John Rawls' hypothetical situation, the original position.)

The second formulation  第二表述

The second formulation (or Formula of the End in Itself) holds that "the rational being, as by its nature an end and thus as an end in itself, must serve in every maxim as the condition restricting all merely relative and arbitrary ends." The principle dictates that you "[a]ct with reference to every rational being (whether yourself or another) so that it is an end in itself in your maxim", meaning that the rational being is "the basis of all maxims of action" and "must be treated never as a mere means but as the supreme limiting condition in the use of all means, i.e., as an end at the same time."

第二表述(或自在目的公式)认为,“理性人,其自身就是目的,因此亦是自在目的,必须在每一格律中作为限制所有仅仅相对和任意的目的的条件。”此原则规定,你“针对每一个理性人(不论自己还是他人)行动以便于自在目的处于你的格律之中”,意思是说,理性人是“所有行动格律的基础”,“不能只是作为手段而是作为使用所有手段的至高限制条件,即同时作为目的”。

The third formulation 第三表述

The third formulation (Formula of Autonomy) is a synthesis of the first two and is the basis for the "complete determination of all maxims". It says "that all maxims which stem from autonomous legislation ought to harmonize with a possible realm of ends as with a realm of nature." In principle, "So act as if your maxims should serve at the same time as the universal law (of all rational beings)", meaning that we should so act that we may think of ourselves as "a member in the universal realm of ends", legislating universal laws through our maxims (Code of Conduct), in a "possible realm of ends."

第三表述(自律公式)是对前两个公式的综合,也是“完全决定所有格律的基础”。它规定“所有源于自律立法的格律都应该与可能的目的王国协调一致,就像与自然王国相协调一样”。原则上,“这样行动就好像格律同时也是(所有理性人的)普遍法则”,意思是,我们应该这样行动以便于我们把自己看成是“普遍目的王国的一员”,通过我们的格律(行为准则)在“可能的目的王国”制定普遍法则。

Idea of God 上帝的概念

Kant stated the practical necessity for a belief in God in his Critique of Practical Reason. As an idea of pure reason, "we do not have the slightest ground to assume in an absolute manner… the object of this idea…", but adds that the idea of God cannot be separated from the relation of happiness with morality as the "ideal of the supreme good." The foundation of this connection is an intelligible moral world, and "is necessary from the practical point of view"; compare Voltaire: "If God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent him." In the J?sche Logic (1800) he wrote "One cannot provide objective reality for any theoretical idea, or prove it, except for the idea of freedom, because this is the condition of the moral law, whose reality is an axiom. The reality of the idea of God can only be proved by means of this idea, and hence only with a practical purpose, i.e., to act as though there is a God, and hence only for this purpose”.

康德在他的《实践理性批判》中规定了信仰上帝的实践必要性。作为纯粹理性的概念,“我们没有一点点基础以任何绝对的方式假定…这一概念的对象..”,但是康德又补充说,上帝概念不能脱离开幸福与作为“至善理想的”道德的关系。这一联系的基础是可理解道德世界,“从实践的观点来看是必须的”。与伏尔泰比较一下:“如果上帝不存在,就有必要创造他”。康德在《贾施逻辑学》(1800)中写道:“一个人不可能为任何理论概念提供客观本体或证明它,自由概念除外,因为它是道德律的情况,其本体是格律。上帝概念的本体只能以这一概念得以证明,因此只能用于实践的目的,即,行动起来就好像存在上帝,从而也只能用于此目的。”

Along with this idea over reason and God, Kant places thought over religion and nature, i.e. the idea of religion being natural or naturalistic. Kant saw reason as natural, and as some part of Christianity is based on reason and morality, as Kant points out this is major in the scriptures, it is inevitable that Christianity is 'natural'. However, it is not 'naturalistic' in the sense that the religion does include supernatural or transcendent belief. Aside from this, a key point is that Kant saw that the Bible should be seen as a source of natural morality no matter whether there is/was any truth behind the supernatural factor. Meaning that it is not necessary to know whether the supernatural part of Christianity has any truth to abide by and use the core Christian moral code.

与此关于理性和上帝的概念一起,康德重新考虑了宗教和自然,即自然的或自然主义的宗教概念。康德把理性看成是自然的,基督教的某些地方就是以理性与道德为基础的,康德指出,这在经文中是显然的,所以基督教必然是“自然的”的。不过,在宗教包含超自然和先验信仰的意义上说,它又是非“自然主义的”。除此之外,关键的是康德认为,《圣经》被视为自然道德的来源,不管是否在超自然背后有没有实在存在。意思是说,没必要知道基督教的超自然部分遵循任何真理并使用核心的基督教道德信条。

Kant articulates in Book Four some of his strongest criticisms of the organization and practices of Christianity that encourage what he sees as a religion of counterfeit service to God. Among the major targets of his criticism are external ritual, superstition and a hierarchical church order. He sees all of these as efforts to make oneself pleasing to God in ways other than conscientious adherence to the principle of moral rightness in the choice of one's actions. The severity of Kant's criticisms on these matters, along with his rejection of the possibility of theoretical proofs for the existence of God and his philosophical re-interpretation of some basic Christian doctrines, have provided the basis for interpretations that see Kant as thoroughly hostile to religion in general and Christianity in particular.

在【religion】第四卷中,康德表达了一些他对基督教组织和实践的强烈批判,在他看来这些做法是伪装供奉上帝的宗教。他批判的主要对象是外在仪式、迷信和等级教会秩序。他认为所有这些都是想以某些方式取悦上帝,而不是在选择行动中恪守道德正义原则。康德对这些事情的严肃批判,再加上他拒绝理论上证明上帝存在的可能性,还有他对某些基本基督教信条的哲学再解释,都为把康德看成对总体宗教特别是基督教完全是敌对的解释提供基础。

Idea of freedom  自由的概念

In the Critique of Pure Reason, Kant distinguishes between the transcendental idea of freedom, which as a psychological concept is "mainly empirical" and refers to "the question whether we must admit a power of spontaneously beginning a series of successive things or states" as a real ground of necessity in regard to causality, and the practical concept of freedom as the independence of our will from the "coercion" or "necessitation through sensuous impulses." Kant finds it a source of difficulty that the practical concept of freedom is founded on the transcendental idea of freedom, but for the sake of practical interests uses the practical meaning, taking "no account of… its transcendental meaning", which he feels was properly "disposed of" in the Third Antinomy, and as an element in the question of the freedom of the will is for philosophy "a real stumbling-block" that has "embarrassed speculative reason".

在《纯粹理性批判》中,康德区分了先验自由的概念与实践自由的概念,先验自由概念作为一个心理学概念“主要是经验的”,它指向“我们是否必须承认自然始发的一系列先后相继的事物状态”是必然性的真正基础的问题;实践自由的概念则是作为我们的意志独立于“强迫”或“通过感官冲动的强制”的概念。康德发现实践自由概念以先验自由概念为基础是一个难点问题,但考虑到实践意义而使用实践的含义,“没有说明…其先验的含义”,他觉得这在第三背反中得到了恰当处理。因为自由意志问题中的要素对哲学是“困扰思辨理性真正的绊脚石”。

Kant calls practical "everything that is possible through freedom", and the pure practical laws that are never given through sensuous conditions but are held analogously with the universal law of causality are moral laws. Reason can give us only the "pragmatic laws of free action through the senses", but pure practical laws given by reason a priori dictate "what ought to be done".

康德称“通过自由可能的一切”为实践的,纯粹的实践律从来不是通过感觉状态得到的,而是类似于普遍因果律,它是道德律。理性只“通过判断”赋予我们“自由行动的实用法则”,而由理性赋予的纯粹实践律先验地规定“我们应该做什么”。

Aesthetic philosophy  审美哲学

Kant discusses the subjective nature of aesthetic qualities and experiences in Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime (1764). Kant's contribution to aesthetic theory is developed in the Critique of Judgment (1790) where he investigates the possibility and logical status of "judgments of taste." In the "Critique of Aesthetic Judgment," the first major division of the Critique of Judgment, Kant used the term "aesthetic" in its modern sense. Prior to this, in the Critique of Pure Reason, Kant had, in order to note the essential differences between judgments of taste, moral judgments, and scientific judgments, abandoned the use of the term "aesthetic" as "designating the critique of taste," noting that judgments of taste could never be "directed" by "laws a priori". After A. G. Baumgarten, who wrote Aesthetica (1750–58), Kant was one of the first philosophers to develop and integrate aesthetic theory into a unified and comprehensive philosophical system, utilizing ideas that played an integral role throughout his philosophy.

康德在《对美感与崇高感的考察》(1764)中讨论美学属性和经验的主观性质。康德对美学理论的贡献在《判断力批判》(1790)中得到发展,其中他研究“鉴赏判断”的可能性与逻辑地位。在《判断力批判》的第一大部分“美学判断力批判”中,康德从近代意义上使用“aesthetic”一词。在此之前,康德在《纯粹理性批判》中,为了解释鉴赏判断、道德判断和科学判断直接之间的本质区别,他放弃用“aesthetic”“表示鉴赏批判”,意味着鉴赏判断不受“先验的法则”的“指导”。在A.G.鲍姆加滕—他撰写了《美学》--之后,康德是发展并把美学理论整合为统一的综合哲学体系的哲学家之一,他这样做时,使用了整个哲学中起整合作用的概念。

In the chapter "Analytic of the Beautiful" of the Critique of Judgment, Kant states that beauty is not a property of an artwork or natural phenomenon, but is instead a consciousness of the pleasure which attends the 'free play' of the imagination and the understanding. Even though it appears that we are using reason to decide that which is beautiful, the judgment is not a cognitive judgment, "and is consequently not logical, but aesthetical". A pure judgement of taste is in fact subjective insofar as it refers to the emotional response of the subject and is based upon nothing but esteem for an object itself: it is a disinterested pleasure, and we feel that pure judgements of taste, i.e. judgements of beauty, lay claim to universal validity. It is important to note that this universal validity is not derived from a determinate concept of beauty but from common sense. Kant also believed that a judgement of taste shares characteristics engaged in a moral judgement: both are disinterested, and we hold them to be universal. In the chapter "Analytic of the Sublime" Kant identifies the sublime as an aesthetic quality which, like beauty, is subjective, but unlike beauty refers to an indeterminate relationship between the faculties of the imagination and of reason, and shares the character of moral judgments in the use of reason. The feeling of the sublime, itself comprised of two distinct modes (the mathematical sublime and the dynamical sublime), describe two subjective moments both of which concern the relationship of the faculty of the imagination to reason. The mathematical sublime is situated in the failure of the imagination to comprehend natural objects which appear boundless and formless, or which appear "absolutely great". This imaginative failure is then recuperated through the pleasure taken in reason's assertion of the concept of infinity. In this move the faculty of reason proves itself superior to our fallible sensible self. In the dynamical sublime there is the sense of annihilation of the sensible self as the imagination tries to comprehend a vast might. This power of nature threatens us but through the resistance of reason to such sensible annihilation, the subject feels a pleasure and a sense of the human moral vocation. This appreciation of moral feeling through exposure to the sublime helps to develop moral character.

在《判断力批判》的“对美的分析”一章中,康德认为美不是艺术品或自然现象的特性,而是一种愉快的感觉 ,这种感觉伴随着想象和理解的“自由作用”。尽管我们使用理性来确定何为美,但判断并非认知判断,“所以【它】不是逻辑的,而是审美的。”就其涉及到的主体情绪反应来说,纯粹的鉴赏判断实际上是主观的,它只以对对象自身的看法为基础:它是一种利害无关的快乐,我们认为纯粹的鉴赏判断即美的判断是普遍有效的。注意这一点十分重要:这一普遍有效性不是来自美的确定概念,而是来自“常识”。康德也认为,鉴赏判断与道德判断具有共同的特征:都是利害无关的,我们也认为它们是普遍的。在“对崇高的分析”一章中,康德把崇高看成是一种美得品质,和美一样是主观的,但不像美涉及到想象与理性能力之间的不确定关系,在理性使用中也有道德判断的特点。崇高感自身是由两种不同的样式构成的(量的崇高和力的崇高),它们刻画了两种涉及想象到理性的能力关系的主体价值。量的崇高意味着把握无限无形或“绝对伟大”的自然对象的想象失败。想象失败然后就会通过无限概念的理性判断中得到的快乐复原。在这种变化中,理性证明自己比易谬的感觉自我更优越。当想象试图理解崇高的力量时,在力的崇高中存在一种感觉自我毁灭感。

若非通过对如此感觉毁灭的理性抵抗,主体从中感觉到快乐和人的道德使命感,这种本能力量就会威胁我们。这种通过使用崇高对道德感的理解有助于发展道德品质。

Kant had developed the distinction between an object of art as a material value subject to the conventions of society and the transcendental condition of the judgment of taste as a "refined" value in the propositions of his Idea of A Universal History (1784). In the Fourth and Fifth Theses of that work he identified all art as the "fruits of unsociableness" due to men's "antagonism in society", and in the Seventh Thesis asserted that while such material property is indicative of a civilized state, only the ideal of morality and the universalization of refined value through the improvement of the mind of man "belongs to culture".

在他的《普遍史的理念》中的讨论中,康德揭示了作为受社会习俗影响的重要价值的艺术对象与作为“纯粹”价值的先验的鉴赏判断情况的区分。在这部著作的第四和第五论题中,他把所有艺术都看成是由于人们“在社会中的对立”的“孤僻的结果”,在第七论题中他声称,虽然这种重要性质预示着文明状态,但只有通过人的精神改善,道德理想与纯粹价值的普遍化才“属于文化”。

Political philosophy  政治哲学

In Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch (1795) Kant listed several conditions that he thought necessary for ending wars and creating a lasting peace. They included a world of constitutional republics. This was the first version of the democratic peace theory.

在《永久和平:哲学提纲》(1795)中,康德列举了他认为结束战争并创造永久和平的几个必要条件。这些条件存在于“立宪共和”的世界中。这是“民主和平论”的第一个版本。

He opposed "democracy," which at his time meant direct democracy, believing that majority rule posed a threat to individual liberty. He stated, "…democracy is, properly speaking, necessarily a despotism, because it establishes an executive power in which 'all' decide for or even against one who does not agree; that is, 'all,' who are not quite all, decide, and this is a contradiction of the general will with itself and with freedom."

他反对那时意味着“直接民主”的“民主”,认为多数人通知对个人自由构成威胁。他说道:“…民主,恰当地说,必然是一种专制,因为它建立这样的政府权力—‘所有人’决定支持甚至反对一个不同意的人,即根本就不是所有人的‘所有人’决策,这是普遍意志与其本身和自由的矛盾。”

Anthropology  人类学

Kant lectured on anthropology for over 25 years. His Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View was published in 1798. (This was the subject of Michel Foucault's doctoral dissertation.) Kant's Lectures on Anthropology were published for the first time in 1997 in German. They were translated into English and published by the Cambridge Texts in the History of Philosophy series in 2006.

康德讲授人类学25年以上。他的 《实用视野中的人类学》出版于1798年。(这是迈克尔?福柯的博士论文主题。)康德的人类学演讲于1997年第一次以德语出版,2006年被译成英语并由剑桥哲学史原著丛书出版。

Influence  影响

The vastness of Kant's influence on Western thought is immeasurable. Over and above his specific influence on specific thinkers, Kant changed the framework within which philosophical inquiry has been carried out from his day through the present in ways that have been irreversible. In other words, he accomplished a paradigm shift: very little philosophy since Kant has been carried out as an extension of pre-Kantian philosophy or in the mode of thought and discourse of pre-Kantian philosophy. This shift consists in several closely related innovations that have become axiomatic to post-Kantian thought, both in philosophy itself and in the social sciences and humanities generally:

康德对西方思想的巨大影响是难以估量的。除了他对具体思想家的一些之外,康德还改变了哲学研究的框架,从他那个时代至今,这一哲学研究框架一直以不可逆转的方式进行着。换句话说,他完成了“范式转换”:康德以后几乎没有哲学作为前康德哲学的范畴或以前康德哲学的思想和讨论方式来展开。这一转换包括几个已成为后康德思想的不言自明的密切关联的创新,这些创新总体来说既涉及到哲学本身,也涉及到社会科学与人文科学:

? Kant's "Copernican revolution", that placed the role of the human subject or knower at the center of inquiry into our knowledge, such that it is impossible to philosophize about things as they are independently of us or of how they are for us; 康德的“哥白尼革命”。这场革命把人类主题或认识者的地位置于知识探究的核心位置,以至于离开我们讨论事情或离开这些事情对我们怎样进行哲学讨论是不可能的;

? his invention of critical philosophy, that is of the notion of being able to discover and systematically explore possible inherent limits to our ability to know through philosophical reasoning; 他的批评哲学的发明。批判哲学是可以发现并系统地研究我们通过哲学论证获得知识的可能的固有局限性的思想;

? his creation of the concept of "conditions of possibility" – that is that things, knowledge, and forms of consciousness rest on prior conditions that make them possible, so that to understand or know them we have to first understand these conditions; “可能性条件”概念的创造。事物、知识以及意识形式都以使它们可能的预先条件为基础,以便于为了理解或了解它们我们必须首先理解这些条件;

? his theory that objective experience is actively constituted or constructed by the functioning of the human mind; 他的客观经验是由人的思想机能主动构成或形成的理论;

? his notion of moral autonomy as central to humanity;  他的道德自律作为人性核心的思想;

? his assertion of the principle that human beings should be treated as ends rather than as means. 他的人类应该被视为目的而非手段的原则主张。

Some or all of these Kantian ideas can be seen in schools of thought as different from one another as German Idealism, Marxism, positivism, phenomenology, existentialism, critical theory, linguistic philosophy, structuralism, post-structuralism, and deconstructionism. Kant's influence also has extended to the social and behavioral sciences, as in the sociology of Max Weber, the psychology of Jean Piaget, and the linguistics of Noam Chomsky. Because of the thoroughness of the Kantian paradigm shift, his influence extends even to thinkers who do not specifically refer to his work or use his terminology.

这些康德的某些或所有思想可以在彼此不同的思想派别中看到,这些派别包括德国唯心主义、马克思主义、实证主义、现象学、存在主义、批判理论、语言哲学、结构主义、后结构主义和解构主义。康德的影响也延伸到了社会科学与行为科学,如马克斯?韦伯的社会学、让?皮亚杰的心理学和诺姆?乔姆斯基的语言学。由于康德范式转换的彻底性,他的影响甚至延伸到了不明确提及他的工作或使用他的术语的思想家。

During his own life, there was a considerable amount of attention paid to his thought, much of it critical, though he did have a positive influence on Reinhold, Fichte, Schelling, Hegel, and Novalis during the 1780s and 1790s. The philosophical movement known as German Idealism developed from Kant's theoretical and practical writings. The German Idealists Fichte and Schelling, for example, attempted to bring traditionally "metaphysically" laden notions like "the Absolute," "God," or "Being" into the scope of Kant's critical philosophy. In so doing, the German Idealists attempted to reverse Kant's establishment of the unknowableness of unexperiencable ideas.

在他有生之年,他的思想引起了极大关注,很多是批评的,虽然在1780到1790年代他对莱因霍尔德、费希特、谢林、黑格尔和诺瓦利斯有正面影响。由于康德的理论和实践著述产生了称之为“德国唯心主义”的哲学运动。如,德国唯心主义者费希特和谢林企图把载有传统形而上学的概念(如绝对、上帝或存在)引到康德批判哲学的领域。这样做的时候,德国唯心主义者试图颠覆康德确立的非经验概念不可知的思想。

Hegel was one of the first major critics of Kant's philosophy. Hegel thought Kant's moral philosophy was too formal, abstract and ahistorical. In response to Kant's abstract and formal account of morality, Hegel developed an ethics that considered the "ethical life" of the community.  But Hegel's notion of "ethical life" is meant to subsume, rather than replace, Kantian "morality." And Hegel's philosophical work as a whole can be understood as attempting to defend Kant's conception of freedom by means of reason. Thus, in contrast to later critics like Friedrich Nietzsche or Bertrand Russell, Hegel shares some of Kant's most basic concerns.

黑格尔是康德哲学的第一批主要批判者之一。黑格尔认为康德的道德哲学太刻板、太抽象、太与历史无关。作为对康德对道德的抽象和刻板的说明,黑格尔提出了一种考虑社区“伦理生活”的伦理学 。但是黑格尔的“伦理生活”概念的意思是要包含而非取代康德的“道德”概念。黑格尔的哲学工作在整体上可被看成是试图用理性为康德的自由概念辩护。所以,与后来的批判者如弗里德里希?尼采或贝特兰?罗素不同,黑格尔在多数基本关注上与康德相同。

Many British Roman Catholic writers, notably G. K. Chesterton and Hilaire Belloc, seized on Kant and promoted his work, with a view to restoring the philosophical legitimacy of a belief in God. Reaction against this, and an attack on Kant's use of language, is found in Ronald Englefield's article, Kant as Defender of the Faith in Nineteenth-century England. These criticisms of Kant were common in the anti-idealistic arguments of the logical positivism school and its admirers.

许多英国罗马天主教作家,著名的有G.K.切斯特顿与西莱尔?贝洛克, 用一种回复信仰上帝的哲学正统的观点理解康德并弘扬康德的作品。处于对这种作法的反应,罗纳德?英格菲尔德在其文章“康德作为19世纪英国的信誉保卫者”中,对康德的用语进行了批评。这样对康德的批评在逻辑实证主义学派及其追随者的反唯心主义论证中很普遍。

Arthur Schopenhauer was strongly influenced by Kant's transcendental idealism. He, like G. E. Schulze, Jacobi and Fichte before him, was critical of Kant's theory of the thing in itself. Things in themselves, they argued, are neither the cause of our representations nor are they something completely beyond our access. For Schopenhauer things in themselves do not exist independently of the non-rational will. The world, as Schopenhauer would have it, is the striving and largely unconscious will.

亚瑟?叔本华强烈受到了康德先验唯心主义的影响。他和在他之前的G.E. 舒尔兹、雅克比与费希特一样,对康德的“自在之物”理论进行批判。他认为,自在之物既非我们陈述的原因,也非完全不可及的东西。对叔本华而言,自在之物并不独立于非理性的意志而存在。正如叔本华所言,世界乃奋斗的大体无意识的意志。

With the success and wide influence of Hegel's writings, Kant's influence began to wane, though there was in Germany a brief movement that hailed a return to Kant in the 1860s, beginning with the publication of Kant und die Epigonen in 1865 by Otto Liebmann, whose motto was "Back to Kant". During the turn of the 20th century there was an important revival of Kant's theoretical philosophy, known as Marburg Neo-Kantianism, represented in the work of Hermann Cohen, Paul Natorp, Ernst Cassirer, and anti-Neo-Kantian Nicolai Hartmann.

随着黑格尔作品的成功和影响,康德的影响开始衰落,1860年代在德国出现过高呼回到康德口号的短期运动,这场运动始于奥托?李普曼1865年出版《康德及其追随者》,李普曼的口号是“回到康德去”。在20世纪之交也出现过所谓的马尔堡的康德理论哲学的重要复兴,具体体现在赫尔曼?科恩、保尔?那托普、恩斯特?卡西尔以及反新康德主义者尼古拉?哈特曼的作品中。

Jurgen Habermas and John Rawls are two significant political and moral philosophers whose work is strongly influenced by Kant's moral philosophy. They both, regardless of recent relativist trends in philosophy, have argued that universality is essential to any viable moral philosophy.

尤尔根?哈贝马斯与约翰?罗尔斯是两位重要的政治和道德哲学家,他们的作品受到了康德道德哲学的强烈影响。这两位学者都不管哲学中新近的相对主义思潮,主张普遍性对任何可行的道德哲学都是必要的。

With his Perpetual Peace, Kant is considered to have foreshadowed many of the ideas that have come to form the democratic peace theory, one of the main controversies in political science.

随着《永久和平》的发表,人们认为康德预示了许多开始形成的“民主和平论”思想--政治科学中的主要争论之一。

Kant's notion of "Critique" or criticism has been quite influential. The Early German Romantics, especially Friedrich Schlegel in his "Athenaeum Fragments", used Kant's self-reflexive conception of criticism in their Romantic theory of poetry. Also in Aesthetics, Clement Greenberg, in his classic essay "Modernist Painting", uses Kantian criticism, what Greenberg refers to as "immanent criticism", to justify the aims of Abstract painting, a movement Greenberg saw as aware of the key limitation—flatness—that makes up the medium of painting.

康德的“批判”思想也颇有影响。早期德国的浪漫主义者,特别是弗里德里希?施莱格尔在他的“雅典娜残片”中,在他们的浪漫主义诗歌理论中使用了康德的批判的自我反思思想。在美学中,克莱门特?格林伯格在其经典论文“现代主义绘画”中,使用康德的批判--格林伯格称之为“内在批判”—证明抽象绘画目的的合理性,格林伯格说抽象绘画是一场构成绘画方法的重要限制—平面性—的觉醒的运动。

Kant believed that mathematical truths were forms of synthetic a priori knowledge, which means they are necessary and universal, yet known through intuition. Kant’s often brief remarks about mathematics influenced the mathematical school known as intuitionism, a movement in philosophy of mathematics opposed to Hilbert’s formalism, and the logicism of Frege and Bertrand Russell.  康德认为,数学真理是先验综合知识,意思是它们是必然的和普遍的,更是通过直觉获得的。康德对数学的简要评论影响了直觉主义的数学学派,直觉主义是一场反对希尔伯特的形式主义、弗雷格和贝特兰?罗素的逻辑主义的数学哲学运动。

Kant's work on mathematics and synthetic a priori knowledge is also cited by theoretical physicist Albert Einstein as an early influence on his intellectual development.

阿尔伯特?爱因斯坦也把康德的数学和先验综合知识的作品作为对他的早期思想发展的影响。

Post-Kantian philosophy has yet to return to the style of thinking and arguing that characterized much of philosophy and metaphysics before Kant, although many British and American philosophers have preferred to trace their intellectual origins to Hume, thus bypassing Kant. The British philosopher P. F. Strawson is a notable exception, as is the American philosopher Wilfrid Sellars.

后康德哲学尚未复归表现康德之前的很多哲学与形而上学思考和论证方式,虽然很多英美哲学家喜欢把他们的思想追溯至休谟因而绕过康德。

Due in part to the influence of Strawson and Sellars, among others, there has been a renewed interest in Kant's view of the mind. Central to many debates in philosophy of psychology and cognitive science is Kant's conception of the unity of consciousness.

部分由于斯特劳森和塞勒斯的影响,人们对康德心智哲学的兴趣已经重新复兴。

The Emmanuel Kants, a drinking society at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, take their name from this eminent figure in Western philosophy.

剑桥大学伊曼努尔学院的品酒协会就是用西方哲学中这位杰出人物取的名字---伊曼努尔?康德。

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