使用docker安装mysql,并挂载本地目录到容器中

  • 拉取镜像(mysql:5.7)

$ docker pull mysql:5.7

  • 查看镜像

$ docker images

REPOSITORY          TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
mysql               5.7                 84164b03fa2e        11 days ago         456MB
  • 创建一个临时的mysql,以便复制出my.cnf等数据
docker run --rm \
--name mysqlTemp \
-it \
-v /usr/local/mysql/:/var/lib/mysql \
-e MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=123456  \
mysql:5.7 \
/bin/bash

命令说明:
1. -v /usr/local/mysql/:/var/lib/mysql  将主机目录/usr/local/mysql/映射到Docker中的/var/lib/mysql目录
2. -- rm 退出后就删除该容器
3. -it 交互模式
4. /bin/bash 进入 bash 命令模式
  • 复制出docker中的配置文件

复制docker容器中的配置到/var/lib/mysql目录中,也就是/usr/local/mysql中,因为这两个目录已经作了映射

cp /etc/mysql/my.cnf /var/lib/mysql
cp -R /etc/mysql/conf.d/ /var/lib/mysql/
cp -R /etc/mysql/mysql.conf.d/ /var/lib/mysql/
  • 到/usr/local/mysql目录中修改mysql配置(略)
  • 运行镜像

-v 挂载本地目录到docker中
-d 表示以守护进程模式运行
-m 限制容器可以使用的内存

docker run \
--name mysql \
-p 3306:3306 \
-e MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=123456 \
-m 512M --memory-swap=1024M \
-v /usr/local/mysql/data:/var/lib/mysql \
-v /usr/local/mysql/my.cnf:/etc/mysql/my.cnf \
-v /usr/local/mysql/conf.d:/etc/mysql/conf.d \
-v /usr/local/mysql/mysql.conf.d:/etc/mysql/mysql.conf.d \
-d mysql:5.7
  • 进入运行着的mysql容器
#查询当前 mysql 容器id
[root@xiaodxserver local]# docker ps
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND                  CREATED             STATUS              PORTS                               NAMES
2ee0aadc1cc2        mysql:5.7           "docker-entrypoint.s…"   12 minutes ago      Up 12 minutes       0.0.0.0:3306->3306/tcp, 33060/tcp   mysql

#进入容器中执行命令
[root@xiaodxserver local]# docker exec -it 2ee0aadc1cc2 /bin/bash
root@2ee0aadc1cc2:/#
root@2ee0aadc1cc2:/# mysql -uroot -p123456
  mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
  Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
  Your MySQL connection id is 2
  Server version: 5.7.29 MySQL Community Server (GPL)

  Copyright (c) 2000, 2020, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

  Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
  affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
  owners.

  Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> show databases;
  +--------------------+
  | Database           |
  +--------------------+
  | information_schema |
  | mysql              |
  | performance_schema |
  | sys                |
  +--------------------+
  4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> exit
参考https://www.runoob.com/docker/docker-install-mysql.html

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