Swift进阶之泛型

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swift-generic.jpg

泛型Generic在swift中非常重要,它提升了代码的通用性和简洁性,很多开源的组件都是通过泛型来实现。泛型是什么呢?字面意思大概就是宽泛的类型,在swift中泛型非常灵活,涉及到的概念也相对较多,笔者写下这篇文章做一个小小的总结,有疏漏的地方以后会慢慢补全。读者朋友可以在文章底部,找到参考链接。

1. 写一个泛型函数



func addInts(x: Int, y: Int) -> Int {
    return x + y
}

let intSum = addInts(x: 1, y: 2)
print(intSum)

func addDoubles(x: Double, y: Double) -> Double {
    return x + y
}


func add1<T>(x: T, y: T) {
  return x + y
}

2. 标准库中的泛型引用

在swift中,标准库Array, Dictionary, Optional都是基于泛型实现的,按住键盘的option按键,鼠标点击下面的数组和字典变量,即可看到该变量是泛型类型,

let numbers = [1, 2, 3]
let firstNumber = numbers[0]


var numbersAagin: Array<Int> = []
numbersAagin.append(1)
numbersAagin.append(2)
numbersAagin.append(3)
//numbers.append("All hail load")



let countryCodes = ["Arendelle": "AR", "Genovia":"GN", "Freedonia": "FD"]
let countryCode = countryCodes["Freedonia"]


let optionalName = Optional<String>.some("Princess Moana")
if let name = optionalName {
    print(name)
}

3. 泛型类型

通过构造一个泛型队列Queue,来简单介绍泛型类型,如下代码所示,


struct Queue<Element> {
    fileprivate var elements: [Element] = []
    mutating func enqueue(newElement: Element) {
        elements.append(newElement)
    }
    
    mutating func dequeue() -> Element? {
        guard !elements.isEmpty else { return nil }
        return elements.remove(at: 0)
    }
}


var q = Queue<Int>()
q.enqueue(newElement: 4)
q.enqueue(newElement: 2)

print(q.dequeue())
print(q.dequeue())
print(q.dequeue())

在swift中定义class, struct, enum时,都可以通过泛型来进行定义,现在定义一个泛型结构体SquareMartrix,它表示一个n * n的矩阵,定义如下,

struct SquareMatrix<T> {
    var backingArray: [T] = []
    let size: Int
    func itemAt(row: Int, column: Int) -> T {
        return ...
    }
    
    init(size: Int, initial: T) {
        self.size = size
        backingArray = Array(repeating: initial, count: size * size)
    }
}

let a = SquareMatrix(size: 10, initial: 50)
let b : SquareMatrix<String?> = SquareMatrix(size: 5, initial: nil)

因为SquareMatrix是通过泛型定义,所以可以存放Int和String内容。

4. 泛型函数

下面的泛型函数,将字典内容转换为元组数组,


func pairs<Key, Value>(from dictionary: [Key: Value]) -> [(Key, Value)] {
    return Array(dictionary)
}

let somePairs = pairs(from: ["mininum": 199, "maxinum": 299])
print(somePairs)

let morePairs = pairs(from: [1: "swift", 2: "Generics", 3: "Rule"])
print(morePairs)

5. 泛型约束


func middle<T: Comparable>(array: [T]) -> T? {
    guard !array.isEmpty else { return nil }
    return array.sorted()[(array.count-1) / 2]
}

middle(array: [2, 5, 1, 3, 4])


protocol Summable {
    static func +(lhs: Self, rhs: Self) -> Self
}

extension Int: Summable {
    
}

extension Double: Summable {
    
}


func add2<T: Summable>(x: T, y: T) -> T {
    return x + y
}

let addIntSum = add2(x: 1, y: 2)
print(addIntSum)

let addDoubleSum = add2(x: 10.0, y: 14.0)
print(addDoubleSum)


extension String: Summable {
    
}

let addString = add2(x: "Generics", y: "Are awesome!")
print(addString)

6. 扩展泛型类型

在swift中通过extension来进行扩展,如下代码所示,为Queue扩展一个peek方法,该方法返回队列中的第一个元素,


extension Queue {
    func peek() -> Element? {
        return elements.first
    }
}

7. 继承泛型类型


class Box<T> {
    
}

class Gift<T>: Box<T> {
    func wrap() {
        
    }
}

class Rose {
    
}

class ValentinesBox: Gift<Rose> {
    override func wrap() {
        print("wrap with love paper")
    }
}

class Shoe {
    
}

class GlassSlipper: Shoe {
    
}

class ShoeBox: Box<Shoe> {
    
}

let box = Box<Rose>()
let gift = Gift<Rose>()
let shoeBox = ShoeBox()

let valentines = ValentinesBox()
gift.wrap()

8. 泛型定义枚举的关联值


enum Result<Value> {
    case success(Value)
    case failure(Error)
}

enum MathError: Error {
    case divisionByZero
}

func divide(_ x: Int, by y: Int) -> Result<Int> {
    guard y != 0 else { return .failure(MathError.divisionByZero) }
    return .success(x / y)
}

9. 在协议中使用关联类型associatedType作为泛型

在Protocol中不能使用泛型,但可以使用associatedType来替代泛型,如下代码所示,


protocol Animal {
    associatedtype Food
    func eat(food: Food)
}

struct Cow: Animal {
    typealias Food = String
    func eat(food: Food) {
        print("my food can be any string")
    }
}

let cow = Cow()
cow.eat(food: "corn")

struct Chicken: Animal {
    enum Food: String {
        case grass, corn
    }
    
    func eat(food: Food) {
        switch food {
        case .grass:
            print("My food is a grass enum")
        case .corn:
            print("my food is a corn enum")
        }
    }
}

let chicken = Chicken()
chicken.eat(food: .grass)

struct Dog: Animal {
    typealias Food = [String]
    func eat(food: Food) {
        food.forEach { print("I am eating an array of food, current is \($0)") }
    }
}

let dog = Dog()
dog.eat(food: ["cake", "treat", "bone"])

参考链接

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