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ROGOT_GRE

96
蕾娜漢默
2016.05.23 13:07* 字数 182895

[TOC]

Class I. Words Expressing Abstract Relations

Section I. Existence

1. Being, in The Abstract

existence 1

absolute a.绝对的,完全的; 无(条件)限制的 [ab-so-lute]
authentic a.真正的;法律证实的 [au-then-tic]
essential a.本质的;n.要素,实质 [es-sen-tial]
extant a.现存的,传世的 [ex-tant]
substantial a.坚固的,结实的;实质的 [sub-stan-tial]
substantive a.根本的;独立存在的 [sub-stan-tive]
entity n.实体,统一体 [en-ti-ty]
subsistence n.生存,生计;存在 [sub-sist-ence]
abide v.容忍,忍受 [a-bide]
endure v.忍受,忍耐 [en-dure]
prevail v.战胜;盛行 [pre-vail]

inexistence 2

extinct a.绝种的,不存在的 [ex-tinct]
insubstantial a.非实体的;薄弱的 [in-sub-stan-tial]
potential a.潜在的,有可能性的 [po-ten-tial]
spectral a.幽灵的 [spec-tral]
vain a.自负的;徒劳的 [vain]
virtual a.实质上的,实际上的 [vir-tu-al]
visionary a.有远见的;幻想的;n.空想家 [vi-sion-ar-y]
abeyance n.中止,搁置 [a-bey-ance]
die n.金属模子,印模 [die]
extinction n.熄灭;消灭 [ex-tinc-tion]
extirpation n.根除,铲除 [ex-tir-pa-tion]
nil n.无,零 [nil]
nonentity n.不重要之人或事 [non-en-ti-ty]
abrogate v.废止,废除 [ab-ro-gate]
annihilate v.消灭 [an-ni-hi-late]
dissolve v.使固体溶解 [dis-solve]
nullify v.使无效,取消 [nul-li-fy]
obliterate v.涂掉,擦掉 [o-blit-e-rate]
perish v.死,暴卒 [per-ish]
remove v.移走;脱掉;迁移 [re-move]

2. Being, In The Concrete

substantiality 3

corporeal a.肉体的,身体的;物质的 [cor-po-re-al]
substantial a.坚固的,结实的;实质的 [sub-stan-tial]
substantive a.根本的;独立存在的 [sub-stan-tive]
tangible a.可触摸的 [tan-gi-ble]
substance n.大意,根据,实质;物质 [sub-stance]

unsubstantiality 4

ethereal a.太空;轻巧的 [e-the-re-al]
illusory a.虚幻的 [il-lu-so-ry]
inane a.无意义的;空洞的 [in-ane]
insubstantial a.非实体的;薄弱的 [in-sub-stan-tial]
nominal a.名义上的,有名无实的 [nom-i-nal]
spectral a.幽灵的 [spec-tral]
vacuous a.发呆的,愚笨的 [vac-u-ous]
visionary a.有远见的;幻想的;n.空想家 [vi-sion-ar-y]
void a.空的,缺乏的;n.空隙,空处;空虚感 [void]
cipher n.零;无影响力的人;密码 [ci-pher]
nil n.无,零 [nil]
nonentity n.不重要之人或事 [non-en-ti-ty]
phantom n.鬼怪,幽灵;幻像 [phan-tom]
dissolve v.使固体溶解 [dis-solve]
evaporate v.(使某物)蒸发掉 [e-vap-o-rate]
fade v.褪色,消失,凋谢 [fade]

3. Formal Existence

intrinsicality 5

characteristic a.有特色的;典型性的;n.与众不同的特征 [char-ac-ter-is-tic]
essential a.本质的;n.要素,实质 [es-sen-tial]
fundamental a.最根本的,基本的;十分重要的 [fun-da-men-tal]
hereditary a.祖传的,世袭的 [he-red-i-tar-y]
immanent a.内在的;普遍存在的 [im-ma-nent]
inborn a.天生的,天赋的 [in-born]
incarnate a.具有肉体的;化身的 [in-car-nate]
incorrigible a.积习难改的,不可救药的 [in-cor-ri-gi-ble]
indigenous a.土产的,本地的 [in-dig-e-nous]
ingrained a.根深蒂固的 [in-grained]
innate a.生来的,天赋的 [in-nate]
instinctive a.本能的 [in-stinc-tive]
subjective a.主观的,想象的 [sub-jec-tive]
virtual a.实质上的,实际上的 [vir-tu-al]
constitution n.宪法;体质 [con-sti-tu-tion]
core n.果心;核心);v.去掉某物的中心部分 [core]
disposition n.处理;天性,气质 [dis-po-si-tion]
gist n.要点,要旨 [gist]
grain n.谷物;小的硬粒 [grain]
pith n.精髓,要点 [pith]
principle n.原则,原理;道德准则 [prin-ci-ple]
sap n.树液;活力;v.消弱,耗尽 [sap]
humor v.纵容,迁就 [hu-mor]
temper v.锤炼;缓和;n.脾气 [tem-per]

extrinsicality 6

adventitious a.偶然的 [ad-ven-ti-tious]
contingent a.意外的;视情况或条件而定的 [con-tin-gent]
extraneous a.外来的;无关的 [ex-tra-ne-ous]
fortuitous a.偶然的,意外的;幸运的 [for-tu-i-tous]
objective a.客观的;n.目标 [ob-jec-tive]

4. Modal Existence

state 7

aspect n.(问题等的)方面;面貌,外表 [as-pect]
category n.类别,范畴 [cat-e-go-ry]
constitution n.宪法;体质 [con-sti-tu-tion]
dilemma n.困境,左右为难 [di-lem-ma]
fabric n.纺织品;结构 [fab-ric]
guise n.外观,装束 [guise]
lot n.签;命运;v.抽签,划分 [lot]
mode n.样式,时尚;模式 [mode]
mold n.模子;(美)霉;v.塑造 [mold]
plight n.困境,苦境 [plight]
predicament n.困境,窘境 [pre-dic-a-ment]
tenor n.男高音;要点,要旨 [ten-or]
stamp v./n.跺脚;在…上盖印 [stamp]
temper v.锤炼;缓和;n.脾气 [tem-per]
trim v.修剪;a.井井有条的 [trim]

circumstance 8

adventitious a.偶然的 [ad-ven-ti-tious]
circumstantial a.不重要的,偶然的;描述详细的 [cir-cum-stan-tial]
contingent a.意外的;视情况或条件而定的 [con-tin-gent]
critical a.挑毛病的;关键的,危急的 [crit-i-cal]
provisional a.暂时的,临时的 [pro-vi-sion-al]
context n.(语句等的)上下文 [con-text]
emergency n.紧急事件 [e-mer-gen-cy]
occurrence n.事件;发生 [oc-cur-rence]
posture n.姿势,体态;态度;v.故作姿态 [pos-ture]
predicament n.困境,窘境 [pre-dic-a-ment]
regime n.政权,政治制度 [re-gime]
status n.身分,地位 [sta-tus]
pinch v.捏,掐;n.一撮,一点 [pinch]

Section II. Relation

1. Absolute Relation

relation 9

applicable a.生效的,适合的 [ap-pli-ca-ble]
associate a.联合的;n.合伙人;v.将人或事物联系起来 [as-so-ci-ate]
affinity n.密切关系;吸引力 [af-fin-i-ty]
analogy n.相似;类比 [a-nal-o-gy]
bearing n.关系,意义;方位 [bear-ing]
comparison n.比较,对照;比喻 [com-par-i-son]
homogeneity n.同种,同质 [ho-mo-ge-ne-i-ty]

irrelation 10

arbitrary a.专横的,不理智的 [ar-bi-trar-y]
detached a.分开的;超然的 [de-tached]
episodic a.偶然发生的,分散性的 [ep-i-sod-ic]
exotic a.珍奇的;来自异国的 [ex-ot-ic]
extraneous a.外来的;无关的 [ex-tra-ne-ous]
heterogeneous a.异类的,不同的 [het-er-o-ge-ne-ous]
insular a.岛屿的;心胸狭窄的 [in-su-lar]
outlandish a.古怪的 [out-land-ish]
dissociation n.分离,脱离关系 [dis-so-ci-a-tion]
impertinence n.无礼,粗鲁 [im-per-ti-nence]
intrude v.把(思想等)强加于,闯入 [in-trude]

consanguinity 11

collateral a.平行的;旁系的;n.担保品 [col-lat-er-al]
kindred a.同类的,种族的 [kin-dred]
stock a.普通的,惯用的;n.存货 [stock]
affiliation n.联系,联合 [af-fil-i-a-tion]
generation n.一代人;(产品类型的)代;产生,发生 [gen-er-a-tion]
lineage n.宗系,血统 [lin-e-age]
nepotism n.裙带关系 [nep-o-tism]
sibling n.兄弟或姊妹 [sib-ling]
breed v.繁殖;教养;n.品种,种类 [breed]

correlation 12

alternate a.轮流的,交替的;v.轮流,交替n.候选人,替代性选择 [al-ter-nate]
complementary a.互补的 [com-ple-men-ta-ry]
interchangeable a.可互换的 [in-ter-change-a-ble]
reciprocal a.相互的,互惠的 [re-cip-ro-cal]
barter v.易货贸易 [bar-ter]
reciprocate v.回报,答谢 [re-cip-ro-cate]

identity 13

equivalent a.相等的,等值的 [e-quiv-a-lent]
monotony n.单调,千篇一律 [mo-not-o-ny]
coalesce v.联合,合并 [co-a-lesce]
coincide v.巧合;一致 [co-in-cide]

contrariety 14

contradictory a.反驳的,反对的,抗辩的 [con-tra-dic-to-ry]
hostile a.敌对的,敌意的 [hos-tile]
antagonism n.反抗,敌意 [an-tag-o-nism]
antithesis n.对立;相对 [an-tith-e-sis]
foil n.钝剑;箔,锡箔纸 [foil]
repugnance n.嫌恶,反感 [re-pug-nance]
reverse n.反面;相反;v.倒车;反转 [re-verse]
synthesis n.综合,合成 [syn-the-sis]
thesis n.论题,论文 [the-sis]
antagonize v.使对抗;与…对抗 [an-tag-o-nize]
contradict v.反驳,驳斥 [con-tra-dict]
contrast v./n.对比 [con-trast]
contravene v.违背(法规,习俗等) [con-tra-vene]
converse v.谈话;a.逆向的n.相反的事物 [con-verse]
invert v.上下倒置 [in-vert]
oppose v.反对 [op-pose]

difference 15

characteristic a.有特色的;典型性的;n.与众不同的特征 [char-ac-ter-is-tic]
distinctive a.出众的,有特色的 [dis-tinc-tive]
diverse a.不同的;多样的 [di-verse]
heterogeneous a.异类的,不同的 [het-er-o-ge-ne-ous]
incommensurate a.不成比例的,不相称的 [in-com-men-su-rate]
disparity n.不同,差异 [dis-par-i-ty]
distinction n.区别,差别;知名 [dis-tinc-tion]
diversity n.多样,千变万化 [di-ver-si-ty]
nuance n.细微的差异 [nu-ance]
variance n.矛盾;不同 [var-i-ance]
contrast v./n.对比 [con-trast]
discriminate v.区分 [dis-crim-i-nate]
modify v.修改,变更 [mod-i-fy]

2. Continuous Relation

uniformity 16

consistent a.前后一致的 [con-sist-ent]
even a.平的 [e-ven]
homogeneous a.同类的,相似的 [ho-mo-ge-ne-ous]
monotonous a.单调的,无聊的 [mo-not-o-nous]
smooth a.光滑的;平稳的;v.弄平,使光滑;消除 [smooth]
conformity n.一致,遵从;顺众 [con-form-i-ty]
consistency n.一致性;坚实度,可靠性;不矛盾 [con-sist-en-cy]
homogeneity n.同种,同质 [ho-mo-ge-ne-i-ty]
monotony n.单调,千篇一律 [mo-not-o-ny]
uniform n.制服;a.相同的,一致的 [u-ni-form]
assimilate v.同化;吸收 [as-sim-i-late]
homogenize v.使均匀,使一致 [ho-mog-e-nize]

nonuniformity 16.a

diversity n.多样,千变万化 [di-ver-si-ty]

3. Partial Relation

similarity 17

analogous a.类似的 [a-nal-o-gous]
approximate a.大约的,估计的 [ap-prox-i-mate]
exact a.精确的;v.强求,强索付款 [ex-act]
parallel a.平行的;类似的;n.平行线;v.与…相似 [par-al-lel]
affinity n.密切关系;吸引力 [af-fin-i-ty]
analogy n.相似;类比 [a-nal-o-gy]
counterpart n.相对应或具有相同功能的人或物 [coun-ter-part]
mate n.伙伴;配偶;v.交配 [mate]
parallelism n.平行,类似 [par-al-lel-ism]
parity n.(水平,地位,数量等的)同等,相等 [par-i-ty]
pun n.双关语 [pun]
rhyme n.押韵;v.押韵 [rhyme]
semblance n.外貌;相似 [sem-blance]
assimilate v.同化;吸收 [as-sim-i-late]
mock v.嘲笑;模仿地嘲弄 [mock]

dissimilarity 18

disparate a.迥然不同的 [dis-pa-rate]
divergent a.分叉的,岔开的,背道而驰的 [di-ver-gent]
original a.最初的,原始的;有创意的 [o-rig-i-nal]
unique a.独一无二的,独特的;无与伦比的 [u-nique]
unprecedented a.前所未有的 [un-prec-e-dent-ed]
disparity n.不同,差异 [dis-par-i-ty]
diversity n.多样,千变万化 [di-ver-si-ty]
novelty n.新奇(的事物) [nov-el-ty]
originality n.创造性,独特性 [o-rig-i-nal-i-ty]

imitation 19

imitative a.模仿的 [im-i-ta-tive]
literal a.字面上的;忠实原义的;精确的 [lit-er-al]
parallel a.平行的;类似的;n.平行线;v.与…相似 [par-al-lel]
burlesque n.讽刺或滑稽的戏剧 [bur-lesque]
caricature n.讽刺画;滑稽模仿 [car-i-ca-ture]
forgery n.伪造(物) [for-ger-y]
imitation n.赝品;效法,冒充 [im-i-ta-tion]
lampoon n.讽刺文章;v.讽刺 [lam-poon]
mime n.哑剧表演;哑剧(演员) [mime]
parody n.模仿性嘲弄文章或表演;拙劣的模仿 [par-o-dy]
pirate n.海盗,剽窃者;v.盗印;掠夺 [pi-rate]
plagiarism n.剽窃,抄袭 [pla-gia-rism]
semblance n.外貌;相似 [sem-blance]
counterfeit v.伪造,仿造 [coun-ter-feit]
emulate v.努力赶上或超越 [em-u-late]
impersonate v.模仿;扮演 [im-per-son-ate]
mimic v.模仿,戏弄;n.模仿他人言行的人 [mim-ic]
mock v.嘲笑;模仿地嘲弄 [mock]
paraphrase v.传译,释义 [par-a-phrase]
reflect v.反射;仔细考虑 [re-flect]
simulate v.假装,模仿 [sim-u-late]
transcribe v.抄写,转录 [tran-scribe]
travesty v./n.歪曲模仿,曲解 [trav-es-ty]

nonimitation 20

exceptional a.特别(好)的 [ex-cep-tion-al]
inimitable a.无法仿效的,不可比拟的 [in-im-i-ta-ble]
original a.最初的,原始的;有创意的 [o-rig-i-nal]
unique a.独一无二的,独特的;无与伦比的 [u-nique]
originality n.创造性,独特性 [o-rig-i-nal-i-ty]

variation 20.a

alternate a.轮流的,交替的;v.轮流,交替n.候选人,替代性选择 [al-ter-nate]
aberration n.离开正路,脱离常轨;变形 [ab-er-ra-tion]
deviation n.背离 [de-vi-a-tion]
discrepancy n.不同,矛盾 [dis-crep-an-cy]
innovation n.创新,改革 [in-no-va-tion]
deviate v.越轨,脱离 [de-vi-ate]
diverge v.分歧,分开 [di-verge]
swerve v.突然改变方向 [swerve]

copy 21

conscientious a.尽责的;小心谨慎的 [con-sci-en-tious]
derivative a.派生的;无创意的 [de-riv-a-tive]
imitative a.模仿的 [im-i-ta-tive]
burlesque n.讽刺或滑稽的戏剧 [bur-lesque]
caricature n.讽刺画;滑稽模仿 [car-i-ca-ture]
cast n.演员阵容;剧团;v.扔;铸造 [cast]
counterpart n.相对应或具有相同功能的人或物 [coun-ter-part]
derivation n.发展,起源;词源 [der-i-va-tion]
imitation n.赝品;效法,冒充 [im-i-ta-tion]
parody n.模仿性嘲弄文章或表演;拙劣的模仿 [par-o-dy]
plagiarism n.剽窃,抄袭 [pla-gia-rism]
semblance n.外貌;相似 [sem-blance]
counterfeit v.伪造,仿造 [coun-ter-feit]
paraphrase v.传译,释义 [par-a-phrase]
travesty v./n.歪曲模仿,曲解 [trav-es-ty]

prototype 22

original a.最初的,原始的;有创意的 [o-rig-i-nal]
archetype n.原型;典型例子 [ar-che-type]
die n.金属模子,印模 [die]
matrix n.模子;矩阵 [ma-trix]
mint n.大量;巨额 [mint]
mold n.模子;(美)霉;v.塑造 [mold]
paradigm n.范例,示范 [par-a-digm]
prototype n.原型;典型 [pro-to-type]
punch v.以拳猛击;打洞 [punch]
stamp v./n.跺脚;在…上盖印 [stamp]

4. General Relation

agreement 23

applicable a.生效的,适合的 [ap-pli-ca-ble]
apposite a.适当的,恰当的 [ap-po-site]
apt a.易于…的,恰当的 [apt]
coherent a.连贯的,一致的 [co-her-ent]
commensurate a.同样大小的;相称的 [com-men-su-rate]
compatible a.和谐共处的,相容的 [com-pat-i-ble]
congenial a.意气相投的;性情好的 [con-gen-ial]
congruous a.一致的,符合的;[数]全等的 [con-gru-ous]
consistent a.前后一致的 [con-sist-ent]
consonant a.调和的,一致的 [con-so-nant]
correspondent a.符合的;n.记者 [cor-re-spond-ent]
deft a.灵巧的,熟练的 [deft]
felicitous a.(话语等)适当的,得体的 [fe-lic-i-tous]
germane a.有密切关系的;贴切的 [ger-mane]
meet a.合适的 [meet]
pertinent a.有关的,相关的 [per-ti-nent]
aptitude n.适宜;才能,资质 [ap-ti-tude]
concord n.和睦;公约 [con-cord]
conformity n.一致,遵从;顺众 [con-form-i-ty]
consistency n.一致性;坚实度,可靠性;不矛盾 [con-sist-en-cy]
harmony n.相符,一致;协调,匀称 [har-mo-ny]
parallelism n.平行,类似 [par-al-lel-ism]
propriety n.礼节;适当 [pro-pri-e-ty]
accommodate v.与…一致;提供食宿 [ac-com-mo-date]
accord v./n.同意;一致 [ac-cord]
adapt v.使…适应;修改 [a-dapt]
adjust v.整顿,整理;适应 [ad-just]
appropriate v.拨款;盗用;a.恰当的 [ap-pro-pri-ate]
assimilate v.同化;吸收 [as-sim-i-late]
consent v.同意,允许 [con-sent]
reconcile v.和解,调和 [rec-on-cile]
regulate v.管制;调整 [reg-u-late]
square v.一致,符合;结清 [square]
tally v.(使)一致,符合 [tal-ly]

disagreement 24

divergent a.分叉的,岔开的,背道而驰的 [di-ver-gent]
exceptional a.特别(好)的 [ex-cep-tion-al]
hostile a.敌对的,敌意的 [hos-tile]
incompatible a.不能和谐共存的 [in-com-pat-i-ble]
irreconcilable a.不能协调的,矛盾的 [ir-rec-on-cil-a-ble]
irreducible a.不能约的 [ir-re-duc-i-ble]
jarring a.声音刺耳的 [jar-ring]
repugnant a.令人厌恶的 [re-pug-nant]
unbecoming a.不合身的;不得体的 [un-be-com-ing]
discord n.不和,纷争 [dis-cord]
discrepancy n.不同,矛盾 [dis-crep-an-cy]
disparity n.不同,差异 [dis-par-i-ty]
incongruity n.不协调,不相称 [in-con-gru-i-ty]
interference n.干涉,妨碍 [in-ter-fer-ence]
repugnance n.嫌恶,反感 [re-pug-nance]
variance n.矛盾;不同 [var-i-ance]
clash v.冲突,撞击 [clash]
conflict v./n.斗争,战斗;冲突,抵触 [con-flict]
intrude v.把(思想等)强加于,闯入 [in-trude]
jar v.冲突,抵触;震惊;发刺耳声 [jar]

Section III. Quantity

1. Simple Quantity

quantity 25

stock a.普通的,惯用的;n.存货 [stock]
amplitude n.广大,广阔 [am-pli-tude]
batch n.一批,一炉 [batch]
category n.类别,范畴 [cat-e-go-ry]
dose n.剂量,一剂 [dose]
lot n.签;命运;v.抽签,划分 [lot]
magnitude n.重要;星球的光亮度 [mag-ni-tude]
quantum n.量子;定量 [quan-tum]
substance n.大意,根据,实质;物质 [sub-stance]
enumerate v.列举,枚举 [e-nu-mer-ate]

degree 26

amplitude n.广大,广阔 [am-pli-tude]
compass n.指南针,罗盘;界限,范围 [com-pass]
gradation n.渐变;阶段,等级 [gra-da-tion]
pitch n.沥青,柏油;音调 [pitch]
scope n.眼界;范围 [scope]
tenor n.男高音;要点,要旨 [ten-or]
stint v.吝惜,节省 [stint]

2. Comparative Quantity

equality 27

convertible a.可转换的;n.敞篷车 [con-vert-i-ble]
equivalent a.相等的,等值的 [e-quiv-a-lent]
even a.平的 [e-ven]
monotonous a.单调的,无聊的 [mo-not-o-nous]
tantamount a.与…相等的 [tan-ta-mount]
coordinate n.同等物,坐标;v.使各部分协调; a.同等的 [co-or-di-nate]
equation n.等式;等同,相等 [e-qua-tion]
equilibrium n.平衡 [e-qui-lib-ri-um]
mate n.伙伴;配偶;v.交配 [mate]
monotony n.单调,千篇一律 [mo-not-o-ny]
parity n.(水平,地位,数量等的)同等,相等 [par-i-ty]
peer n.同等之人,同辈 [peer]
symmetry n.对称;均衡 [sym-me-try]
accommodate v.与…一致;提供食宿 [ac-com-mo-date]
adapt v.使…适应;修改 [a-dapt]
adjust v.整顿,整理;适应 [ad-just]
equate v.认为…相等或相仿 [e-quate]
poise v.使相等,使平衡;n.泰然自若,镇定 [poise]
trim v.修剪;a.井井有条的 [trim]

inequality 28

disparate a.迥然不同的 [dis-pa-rate]
lopsided a.倾向一方的,不平衡的 [lop-sid-ed]
partial a.局部的;偏袒的 [par-tial]
disparity n.不同,差异 [dis-par-i-ty]
odds n.机会,可能性 [odds]
partiality n.偏袒,偏心 [par-ti-al-i-ty]
superiority n.优越(感) [su-pe-ri-or-i-ty]
topple v.倾覆,推倒 [top-ple]

mean 29

commonplace a.平常的 [com-mon-place]
mean a.卑贱的,吝啬的 [mean]
mediocre a.平庸的,平凡的 [me-di-o-cre]
generality n.概述 [gen-er-al-i-ty]
mediocrity n.平庸,碌碌无为 [me-di-oc-ri-ty]
medium n.媒介;(细菌等的)生存环境 [me-di-um]
mode n.样式,时尚;模式 [mode]
compromise v.妥协;危害 [com-pro-mise]

compensation 30

albeit conj. 虽然,尽管 [al-be-it]
compensatory a.补偿性的,报酬的 [com-pen-sa-to-ry]
equivalent a.相等的,等值的 [e-quiv-a-lent]
ballast n.(船等)压舱物 [bal-last]
equation n.等式;等同,相等 [e-qua-tion]
hedge n.树篱;限制 [hedge]
indemnity n.赔偿;保证 [in-dem-ni-ty]
retaliation n.报复 [re-tal-i-a-tion]
bribe v.贿赂 [bribe]
compensate v.补偿,赔偿 [com-pen-sate]
compromise v.妥协;危害 [com-pro-mise]
counteract v.消除,抵消 [coun-ter-act]
counterbalance v.起平衡作用 [coun-ter-bal-ance]
indemnify v.赔偿,偿付 [in-dem-ni-fy]
neutralize v.使无效;中和 [neu-tral-ize]
nullify v.使无效,取消 [nul-li-fy]
offset v.补偿,抵消 [off-set]
redeem v.赎罪 [re-deem]
square v.一致,符合;结清 [square]

1 Quantity by Comparison with a Standard

greatness 31

absolute a.绝对的,完全的; 无(条件)限制的 [ab-so-lute]
abundant a.丰富的,盛产的 [a-bun-dant]
ample a.富足的;充足的 [am-ple]
august a.威严的,高贵的 [au-gust]
considerable a.相当多的;值得考虑的 [con-sid-er-a-ble]
consummate a.完全的,完善的;v.完成 [con-sum-mate]
crass a.愚钝的,粗糙的 [crass]
desperate a.不顾死活的,拼命的 [des-per-ate]
enormous a.极大的,巨大的 [e-nor-mous]
essential a.本质的;n.要素,实质 [es-sen-tial]
exorbitant a.过分的,过度的 [ex-or-bi-tant]
flagrant a.臭的,恶名昭彰的 [fla-grant]
grave a.严峻的;n.墓穴 [gra-ve]
gross a.总的;粗野的;n.整个,全部 [gross]
immense a.极大的;无限的 [im-mense]
ineffable a.妙不可言的 [in-ef-fa-ble]
inordinate a.过度的,过分的 [in-or-di-nate]
majestic a.雄伟的,庄严的 [ma-jes-tic]
marked a.明显的;被监视的 [marked]
mighty a.强有力的,强大的 [might-y]
preposterous a.荒谬的 [pre-pos-ter-ous]
prodigious a.巨大的 [pro-di-gious]
profound a.深的,深刻的;渊博的,深奥的 [pro-found]
stark a.(外表)僵硬的;完全的 [stark]
stock a.普通的,惯用的;n.存货 [stock]
sublime a.崇高的 [sub-lime]
unconscionable a.无节制的,过度的 [un-con-scion-a-ble]
uninitiated a.外行的,缺乏经验的 [un-in-i-ti-at-ed]
utter a.完全的;v.发出声音 [ut-ter]
abundance n.充裕,多量 [a-bun-dance]
arch n.拱门,拱形 [arch]
bulk n.体积;数量;大多数;大身躯 [bulk]
cargo n.(船、飞机等装载的)货物 [car-go]
enormity n.极恶;暴行;巨大 [e-nor-mi-ty]
immensity n.巨大之物;无限 [im-men-si-ty]
infinity n.无限的时间或空间 [in-fin-i-ty]
magnitude n.重要;星球的光亮度 [mag-ni-tude]
rag n.旧布,碎布;破旧衣服 [rag]
scrap n.小片,碎屑;v.废弃 [scrap]
signal n.信号;v.发信号;a.显著的 [sig-nal]
tag n.鞋带;附属物,标签 [tag]
peck v.啄食;轻啄 [peck]
soar v.高飞,翱翔;猛增 [soar]
transcend v.超越,胜过 [tran-scend]

smallness 32

dull a.不鲜明的;迟钝的;v.变迟钝 [dull]
evanescent a.迅速消失的,短暂的 [ev-a-nes-cent]
inappreciable a.微不足道的 [in-ap-pre-ci-a-ble]
infinitesimal a.极微小的;n.极小量 [in-fin-i-tes-i-mal]
limited a.有限的 [lim-it-ed]
meager a.贫乏的;削瘦的 [mea-ger]
microscopic a.极小的;显微镜的 [mi-cro-scop-ic]
modest a.谦虚的,谨慎的;适度的 [mod-est]
paltry a.无价值的,微不足道的 [pal-try]
petty a.琐碎的;小心眼的 [pet-ty]
scant a.不足的,缺乏的 [scant]
sheer a.完全的;陡峭的;极薄的 [sheer]
slight a.微小的;n./v.轻蔑 [slight]
sparing a.节俭的 [spar-ing]
stark a.(外表)僵硬的;完全的 [stark]
stolid a.无动于衷的 [stol-id]
subtle a.微妙的,精巧的 [sub-tle]
bit n.钻头 [bit]
cast n.演员阵容;剧团;v.扔;铸造 [cast]
chip n.薄片,碎片;集成电路片 [chip]
corpuscle n.血球,细胞 [cor-pus-cle]
crumb n.饼屑,面包屑;碎裂的东西 [crumb]
droplet n.小水滴 [drop-let]
fraction n.碎片;小部分 [frac-tion]
fragment n.碎片;分裂 [frag-ment]
grain n.谷物;小的硬粒 [grain]
iota n.极小量,极少 [i-o-ta]
mediocrity n.平庸,碌碌无为 [me-di-oc-ri-ty]
mite n.极小量;小虫 [mite]
modicum n.少量 [mod-i-cum]
molecule n.分子 [mol-e-cule]
morsel n.一小块(食物);小量 [mor-sel]
mote n.微粒,微尘 [mote]
patch n.补丁;一小片(土地) [patch]
paucity n.小量,缺乏 [pau-ci-ty]
scruple n.顾忌,迟疑;v.顾忌 [scru-ple]
sliver n.长条;v.裂成细片 [sliv-er]
snatch n./v.强夺,攫取 [snatch]
sop n.泡过的食品;安慰品 [sop]
spark n.火花,火星 [spark]
speck n.斑点;少量 [speck]
trifle n.微不足道,琐事 [tri-fle]
bare v.暴露;a.赤裸的 [bare]
inch v.慢慢前进,慢慢移动 [inch]
jot v.摘要记录 [jot]
low v.牛叫 [low]
sip v.啜饮 [sip]
snip v.剪断 [snip]
tender v.(希望对方接受的意见等) [ten-der]

2 Quantity by Comparison with a Similar Object

superiority 33

distinguished a.著名的,卓越的 [dis-tin-guished]
even a.平的 [e-ven]
paramount a.最重要的,最高权力的 [par-a-mount]
preeminent a.出类拔萃的 [pre-em-i-nent]
supreme a.至高的;极度的 [su-preme]
surplus a.过剩的;盈余的 [sur-plus]
transcendent a.超越的,卓越的,出众的 [tran-scend-ent]
transcendental a.超越经验的 [tran-scen-den-tal]
climax n.顶点,高潮 [cli-max]
culmination n.顶点;结果 [cul-mi-na-tion]
excess n.过分,过度 [ex-cess]
partiality n.偏袒,偏心 [par-ti-al-i-ty]
sovereign n.最高统治者,元首 [sov-er-eign]
superiority n.优越(感) [su-pe-ri-or-i-ty]
supremacy n.至高无上,霸权 [su-prem-a-cy]
beat v.心跳;搅拌 [beat]
exceed v.超过;超出 [ex-ceed]
excel v.善于,擅长于 [ex-cel]
outshine v.要求比…更好 [out-shine]
outstrip v.超过;跑过 [out-strip]
override v.不理会;蹂躏,践踏 [o-ver-ride]
precede v.在…之前,早于 [pre-cede]
predominate v.支配,统治;占优势 [pre-dom-i-nate]
preponderate v.(重量上,重要性上)压倒,超过 [pre-pon-der-ate]
prevail v.战胜;盛行 [pre-vail]
surpass v.超过 [sur-pass]
transcend v.超越,胜过 [tran-scend]

inferiority 34

inferior a.下级的,低等的,质次的,较差的 [in-fe-ri-or]
deficiency n.缺陷;不足 [de-fi-cien-cy]
want n.缺乏,贫困,需要 [want]

3 Changes in Quantity

increase 35

accretion n.自然的增加;增加物 [ac-cre-tion]
crescendo n.(音乐)渐强,高潮 [cre-scen-do]
increment n.增值,增加 [in-cre-ment]
produce n.产品;农产品 [pro-duce]
wax n.蜡;v.给…打蜡;盈,增大 [wax]
aggrandize v.增大,扩张;吹棒 [ag-gran-dize]
aggravate v.加重,恶化 [ag-gra-vate]
augment v.增大,增值 [aug-ment]
dilate v.(身体某部位)张大,扩大 [di-late]
enhance v.提高,增加,改善 [en-hance]
exacerbate v.加重,恶化 [ex-ac-er-bate]
exaggerate v.夸张;夸大 [ex-ag-ger-ate]
exalt v.(高度)赞扬,歌颂 [ex-alt]
exasperate v.激怒,使恼怒 [ex-as-per-ate]
intensify v.加剧 [in-ten-si-fy]
magnify v.放大;赞美 [mag-ni-fy]
sprout v.长出,萌芽;n.嫩芽 [sprout]

nonincrease, decrease 36

anticlimax n.令人扫兴的结局 [an-ti-cli-max]
descent n.降落;侵袭;血统 [de-scent]
deterioration n.恶化,堕落 [de-te-ri-o-ra-tion]
diminution n.减少,缩减 [dim-i-nu-tion]
discount n.折扣 [dis-count]
dwarf n.侏儒;矮小的植物;v.使变矮小 [dwarf]
abate v.减轻,减少 [a-bate]
abridge v.删减;缩短 [a-bridge]
attenuate v.变薄 [at-ten-u-ate]
crumble v.弄碎;崩毁 [crum-ble]
decline v.拒绝;变弱,变小;n.消减 [de-cline]
depreciate v.轻视;贬值 [de-pre-ci-ate]
descend v.下来,下降 [de-scend]
ebb v.退潮;衰退 [ebb]
extenuate v.掩饰(罪行),减轻罪过 [ex-ten-u-ate]
languish v.变得消瘦;衰弱 [lan-guish]
mitigate v.减轻,缓和 [mit-i-gate]
shrink v.收缩,皱缩 [shrink]
subside v.(建筑物等)下陷 [sub-side]
subtract v.减去,减掉 [sub-tract]
wane v.减少,衰微 [wane]
waste v.使身体消瘦,损耗 [waste]

3. Conjunctive Quantity

addition 37

accessory a.附属的,次要的 [ac-ces-so-ry]
inclusive a.包含一切的,范围广的 [in-clu-sive]
addition n.增加,附加 [ad-di-tion]
additive n.添加剂 [ad-di-tive]
annexation n.并吞,合并 [an-nex-a-tion]
increment n.增值,增加 [in-cre-ment]
junction n.交叉路口;连接 [junc-tion]
tag n.鞋带;附属物,标签 [tag]
accrue v.(利息等)增大;增多 [ac-crue]
affix v.粘上,贴上;在合同上添写某事物;n.词缀 [af-fix]
augment v.增大,增值 [aug-ment]
insert v.插入 [in-sert]
reinforce v.加强力量,增援 [re-in-force]
supplement v./n.增补,补充 [sup-ple-ment]

adjunct 39

accessory a.附属的,次要的 [ac-ces-so-ry]
addendum n.补充,附录 [ad-den-dum]
addition n.增加,附加 [ad-di-tion]
adjunct n.附加物,附件 [ad-junct]
continuation n.继续,延续 [con-tin-u-a-tion]
increment n.增值,增加 [in-cre-ment]
rider n.骑手;附文,附件 [rid-er]
affix v.粘上,贴上;在合同上添写某事物;n.词缀 [af-fix]
augment v.增大,增值 [aug-ment]
garnish v.装饰 [gar-nish]
skirt v.环绕,逃避 [skirt]
supplement v./n.增补,补充 [sup-ple-ment]

remainder 40

residual a.残余的,剩余的 [re-sid-u-al]
superfluous a.多余的,累赘的 [su-per-flu-ous]
surplus a.过剩的;盈余的 [sur-plus]
dregs n.糟粕,沉淀废物 [dregs]
excess n.过分,过度 [ex-cess]
relic n.遗物,遗迹 [rel-ic]
remainder n.剩余物 [re-main-der]
remains n.遗址,废墟 [re-mains]
remnant n.残余物;零头布料 [rem-nant]
residue n.剩余 [res-i-due]
superfluity n.多余的量 [su-per-flu-i-ty]
exceed v.超过;超出 [ex-ceed]
survive v.幸存 [sur-vive]

decrement 40.a

defect n.缺点,瑕疵;v.变节,脱党 [de-fect]
discount n.折扣 [dis-count]
waste v.使身体消瘦,损耗 [waste]

mixture 41

cross a.生气的 [cross]
heterogeneous a.异类的,不同的 [het-er-o-ge-ne-ous]
motley a.混杂的;杂色的 [mot-ley]
amalgam n.混合物 [a-mal-gam]
compound n.复合物;v.搀和 [com-pound]
hybrid n.杂种;混血人 [hy-brid]
junction n.交叉路口;连接 [junc-tion]
medley n.混合歌曲;混杂;各种各样的集团 [med-ley]
mongrel n.杂种动物;混血儿 [mon-grel]
mosaic n.马赛克;镶嵌细工(把小块玻璃石头等镶嵌成图画) [mo-sa-ic]
potpourri n.混杂;杂文集 [pot-pour-ri]
seasoning n.调味品,佐料 [sea-son-ing]
sophistication n.诡辩,强词夺理;久经世故,老练,精明 [so-phis-ti-ca-tion]
adulterate v.掺假 [a-dul-ter-ate]
amalgamate v.合并;混合 [a-mal-gam-ate]
commingle v.搀和,混合 [com-min-gle]
imbue v.灌输(某人)强烈的情感或意见 [im-bue]
infiltrate v.渗透,渗入 [in-fil-trate]
infuse v.灌输;鼓励 [in-fuse]
instill v.滴注;逐渐灌输 [in-still]
intermingle v.混合,掺杂 [in-ter-min-gle]
intertwine v.纠缠,缠,绕 [in-ter-twine]
jumble v.混杂,掺杂;n.混杂,掺杂 [jum-ble]
knead v.揉制,捏制 [knead]
mash v.捣成糊状 [mash]
mingle v.混合 [min-gle]
suffuse v.(色彩等)弥漫,染遍 [suf-fuse]

simpleness 42

elementary a.初级的 [el-e-men-ta-ry]
exclusive a.(人)孤僻的;(物)专用的 [ex-clu-sive]
homogeneous a.同类的,相似的 [ho-mo-ge-ne-ous]
sheer a.完全的;陡峭的;极薄的 [sheer]
homogeneity n.同种,同质 [ho-mo-ge-ne-i-ty]
purity n.纯洁,纯净;纯度 [pu-ri-ty]
uniform n.制服;a.相同的,一致的 [u-ni-form]
bolt v.急逃(to dash out; dart);螺栓,门栓 [bolt]
disentangle v.解决,解脱,解开,澄清 [dis-en-tan-gle]
eliminate v.除去,淘汰 [e-lim-i-nate]
exclude v.排斥;排除 [ex-clude]
purify v.使洁净,净化 [pu-ri-fy]
sift v.筛,过滤 [sift]
winnow v.把(谷物)的杂质吹掉,扬去 [win-now]

junction 43

associate a.联合的;n.合伙人;v.将人或事物联系起来 [as-so-ci-ate]
compact a.结实的;简洁的;n.合同,协议 [com-pact]
corporate a.团体的;共同的 [cor-po-rate]
secure a.安全的;稳固的;v.固定;使安全 [se-cure]
taut a.绷紧的 [taut]
annexation n.并吞,合并 [an-nex-a-tion]
bandage n.绷带;v.用绷带包扎 [band-age]
bracket n.托架,支架 [brack-et]
braid n.穗子;发辫;v.编成辫子 [braid]
clamp n.钳子;v.钳紧 [clamp]
clasp n.钩子,扣子;紧握 [clasp]
conjunction n.联合;连词 [con-junc-tion]
fast n.绝食,斋戒;adv.很快地,紧紧地 [fast]
fetter n./v.(带)脚镣;束缚 [fet-ter]
harness n.马具;v.束以马具;利用 [har-ness]
hinge n.铰链;关键 [hinge]
impact n.冲击,影响 [im-pact]
junction n.交叉路口;连接 [junc-tion]
lace n.鞋带,系带;网眼花边,透孔织品 [lace]
lash n.鞭子;v.鞭打;捆住 [lash]
rivet n.铆钉;v.吸引(注意力) [riv-et]
screw n.螺丝钉,螺旋;吝啬鬼 [screw]
seam n.缝,接缝 [seam]
span n.跨度;两个界限间的距离 [span]
stitch n.(缝纫时的)一针,一钩;v.缝合 [stitch]
suture n.(伤口的)缝线;v.缝合 [su-ture]
truss n.桁架,支架;干草的一捆 [truss]
yoke n.牛轭;v.控制,束缚 [yoke]
affix v.粘上,贴上;在合同上添写某事物;n.词缀 [af-fix]
attach v.将某物系在(另一物)上 [at-ta-ch]
bolt v.急逃(to dash out; dart);螺栓,门栓 [bolt]
brace v.使稳固,架稳;n.支撑物 [brace]
clinch v.钉牢;彻底解决 [clinch]
conjoin v.使结合 [con-join]
embody v.(作品等)表达,体现 [em-bod-y]
entangle v.使纠缠,卷入 [en-tan-gle]
fasten v.使…固定(to fix sth. firmly) [fas-ten]
graft v./n.嫁接;贪污 [graft]
intertwine v.纠缠,缠,绕 [in-ter-twine]
knit v.编织 [knit]
solder v.焊接,焊合 [sol-der]
splice v.接合,衔接 [splice]
tether v.用绳或链拴住(牲畜);n.(拴牲畜的)绳或链;限度,范围 [teth-er]

disjunction 44

insularity "n.岛国状态,岛屿生活状况,与外界隔绝的生活状况;(思想, 观点等的)偏狭,性僵化" [in-su-lar-i-ty]
asunder a./adv.分离的;化为碎片 [a-sun-der]
discrete a.个别的;不连续的 [dis-crete]
disjunctive a.分离的,相反的 [dis-junc-tive]
disparate a.迥然不同的 [dis-pa-rate]
distinct a.清楚的,明显的 [dis-tinct]
insular a.岛屿的;心胸狭窄的 [in-su-lar]
abscission n.[医]切除,截去;[植]脱离 [ab-scis-sion]
abstract n.摘要;a.抽象的 [ab-stract]
breach n.裂缝,缺口;v.打破,裂开;违背 [breach]
chip n.薄片,碎片;集成电路片 [chip]
cleavage n.裂缝;分裂 [cleav-age]
crack n.爆裂声;裂缝;v.裂开;破解,破译 [crack]
decomposition n.分解,腐烂,崩溃 [de-com-po-si-tion]
disjunction n.分离,分裂 [dis-junc-tion]
fissure n.裂缝,裂隙 [fis-sure]
fracture n.骨折;折断;裂口 [frac-ture]
gash n.深长的伤口,裂缝 [gash]
incision n.切口;切割 [in-ci-sion]
nib n.钢笔尖 [nib]
oasis n.绿洲 [o-a-sis]
rent n.裂缝;(意见)分歧 [rent]
rescission n.废除 [re-scis-sion]
rift n.裂口,断裂;矛盾 [rift]
rupture n./v.破裂,断裂 [rup-ture]
split n./v.分裂,裂开 [split]
carve v.雕刻 [carve]
cleave v.劈开;分裂 [cleave]
detach v.分离,分遣 [de-tach]
disengage v.脱离,解开 [dis-en-gage]
disentangle v.解决,解脱,解开,澄清 [dis-en-tan-gle]
dislocate v.使脱臼;把…弄乱 [dis-lo-cate]
disperse v.消散,驱散 [dis-perse]
dissect v.解剖 [dis-sect]
hack v.乱劈,乱砍;n.雇佣文人 [hack]
hew v.砍伐;遵守 [hew]
incise v.切,切割 [in-cise]
insulate v.使绝缘;使隔离 [in-su-late]
isolate v.孤立;将…从其种群中隔离 [i-so-late]
lacerate v.撕裂;深深伤害 [lac-er-ate]
mangle v.毁损;撕成碎片,压碎 [man-gle]
mince v.切碎;小步走路 [mince]
nip v.小口啜饮 [nip]
rend v.撕裂;猛拉 [rend]
rescind v.废除,取消 [re-scind]
rive v.撕开,分裂 [rive]
separate v.使分开;a.不同的;独自的 [sep-a-rate]
sever v.切断,脱离 [sev-er]
slice v.切成片;n.薄片 [slice]
snip v.剪断 [snip]
sunder v.分裂,分离 [sun-der]
tear v.撕裂 [tear]
unravel v.解开,拆散 [un-rav-el]
whittle v.削(木头);削减 [whit-tle]
wrench v.扭,拧;n.板钳,扳手 [wrench]

connection 45

bandage n.绷带;v.用绷带包扎 [band-age]
bracket n.托架,支架 [brack-et]
braid n.穗子;发辫;v.编成辫子 [braid]
cement n.水泥;胶粘剂;v.粘合,巩固 [ce-ment]
clamp n.钳子;v.钳紧 [clamp]
clasp n.钩子,扣子;紧握 [clasp]
cord n.考得(木材堆的体积单位,等于128立方英尺,3.6246立方米);绳索 [cord]
cramp n.铁箍,夹子;v.把…箍紧 [cramp]
girder n.大梁 [gird-er]
girth n.腰身;周长 [girth]
gum n.树胶,橡皮 [gum]
guy n.(铁塔等的)支索,牵索 [guy]
harness n.马具;v.束以马具;利用 [har-ness]
hinge n.铰链;关键 [hinge]
hyphen n.连字号(即“-”) [hy-phen]
isthmus n.地峡 [isth-mus]
junction n.交叉路口;连接 [junc-tion]
lasso n.套索(捕捉牛、马用) [las-so]
mortar n.小臼,乳钵;迫击炮 [mor-tar]
plaster n.灰泥,石膏;v.抹灰泥 [plas-ter]
prop n.支撑物,靠山;v.支持 [prop]
rein n.缰绳;v.控制 [rein]
rivet n.铆钉;v.吸引(注意力) [riv-et]
screw n.螺丝钉,螺旋;吝啬鬼 [screw]
shackle n.脚镣,枷锁 [shack-le]
skewer n.(烤肉用的)穿肉杆;v.用杆穿好 [skew-er]
span n.跨度;两个界限间的距离 [span]
stake n.柱桩;赌注 [stake]
staple n.主要产品 [sta-ple]
tag n.鞋带;附属物,标签 [tag]
yoke n.牛轭;v.控制,束缚 [yoke]
anchor v.稳固;固定n.锚 [an-chor]
bolt v.急逃(to dash out; dart);螺栓,门栓 [bolt]
brace v.使稳固,架稳;n.支撑物 [brace]
solder v.焊接,焊合 [sol-der]
tackle v.处理;n.滑车 [tack-le]

coherence 46

adhesive a.带粘性的,胶粘的;n.胶合剂 [ad-he-sive]
cohesive a.凝聚的 [co-he-sive]
compact a.结实的;简洁的;n.合同,协议 [com-pact]
concrete a.具体存在的;n.混凝土 [con-crete]
tenacious a.坚韧不拔的 [te-na-cious]
cement n.水泥;胶粘剂;v.粘合,巩固 [ce-ment]
clasp n.钩子,扣子;紧握 [clasp]
consolidation n.合并,巩固 [con-sol-i-da-tion]
gum n.树胶,橡皮 [gum]
hold n.(船)货舱 [hold]
tenacity n.坚持,固执 [tenacity]
adhere v.粘着 [ad-here]
agglomerate v.凝聚,结块 [ag-glom-er-ate]
cleave v.劈开;分裂 [cleave]
cling v.紧抓住;舍不得放弃 [cling]
conglomerate v.集聚成团 [con-glom-er-ate]
consolidate v.巩固;(使)坚强;合并 [con-sol-i-date]
solder v.焊接,焊合 [sol-der]
weld v.焊接,熔接;结合 [weld]

incoherence 47

detached a.分开的;超然的 [de-tached]
slack a.懒散的,懈怠的;(绳)松弛的;v.松懈,怠惰 [slack]
disjunction n.分离,分裂 [dis-junc-tion]
relaxation n.松弛,消遣 [re-lax-a-tion]
detach v.分离,分遣 [de-tach]
loosen v.变松,松开 [loos-en]
slacken v.(使)松弛,放松 [slack-en]

combination 48

ingrained a.根深蒂固的 [in-grained]
amalgam n.混合物 [a-mal-gam]
centralization n.集中;集权化 [cen-tral-i-za-tion]
compound n.复合物;v.搀和 [com-pound]
fusion n.熔合;聚变 [fu-sion]
junction n.交叉路口;连接 [junc-tion]
synthesis n.综合,合成 [syn-the-sis]
unification n.统一,一致 [u-ni-fi-ca-tion]
absorb v.吸收;同化;吸引…的注意 [ab-sorb]
amalgamate v.合并;混合 [a-mal-gam-ate]
coalesce v.联合,合并 [co-a-lesce]
consolidate v.巩固;(使)坚强;合并 [con-sol-i-date]
embody v.(作品等)表达,体现 [em-bod-y]
incorporate v.合并,并入 [in-cor-po-rate]

decomposition 49

solvent a.有偿债能力的;n.溶剂 [sol-vent]
decomposition n.分解,腐烂,崩溃 [de-com-po-si-tion]
disjunction n.分离,分裂 [dis-junc-tion]
analyze v.分析,分解 [an-a-lyze]
decompose v.(使)腐烂 [de-com-pose]
disperse v.消散,驱散 [dis-perse]
dissect v.解剖 [dis-sect]
dissolve v.使固体溶解 [dis-solve]
unravel v.解开,拆散 [un-rav-el]

4. Concrete Quantity

whole 50

comprehensive a.全面的,综合的 [com-pre-hen-sive]
individual a.单独的,特有的;n.个人,个体 [in-di-vid-u-al]
intact a.完整的,未动过的 [in-tact]
integral a.构成整体所必需的;完整的 [in-te-gral]
bulk n.体积;数量;大多数;大身躯 [bulk]
ensemble n.全体;大合唱 [en-sem-ble]
entirety n.整体,全面 [en-tire-ty]
hulk n.废船,船壳;笨重之人或物 [hulk]
hull n.外壳;荚;船身;v.剥去外壳 [hull]
integrity n.正直,诚实;完整 [in-teg-ri-ty]
lump n.一块,肿块;v.形成块状 [lump]
staple n.主要产品 [sta-ple]
tissue n.细胞组织;薄纸,棉纸 [tis-sue]
trunk n.树干;大衣箱 [trunk]
aggregate v.集合;合计 [ag-gre-gate]
amass v.积聚 [a-mass]
embody v.(作品等)表达,体现 [em-bod-y]
integrate v.使成整体 [in-te-grate]

part 51

partial a.局部的;偏袒的 [par-tial]
chip n.薄片,碎片;集成电路片 [chip]
clause n.从句;(法律等)条款 [clause]
compartment n.隔间,车厢 [com-part-ment]
debris n.废墟,残骸 [de-bris]
detritus n.碎屑;废墟 [de-tri-tus]
dose n.剂量,一剂 [dose]
fraction n.碎片;小部分 [frac-tion]
fragment n.碎片;分裂 [frag-ment]
limb n.肢(手或脚),翼 [limb]
lobe n.耳垂;(肺、肝等的)叶 [lobe]
lump n.一块,肿块;v.形成块状 [lump]
morsel n.一小块(食物);小量 [mor-sel]
particular n.事实,细节 [par-tic-u-lar]
partition n.隔开;隔墙 [par-ti-tion]
scale n.鱼鳞;(音乐)音阶 [scale]
scion n.嫩芽;子孙 [sci-on]
segment n.部分 [seg-ment]
sprig n.嫩枝,小枝 [sprig]
twig n.小枝,嫩枝 [twig]
verse n.诗歌 [verse]
slice v.切成片;n.薄片 [slice]

completeness 52

absolute a.绝对的,完全的; 无(条件)限制的 [ab-so-lute]
abundant a.丰富的,盛产的 [a-bun-dant]
consummate a.完全的,完善的;v.完成 [con-sum-mate]
exhaustive a.彻底的,无遗漏的 [ex-haus-tive]
fraught a.充满…的 [fraught]
replete a.饱满的,塞满的 [re-plete]
saturated a.渗透的,饱和的 [sat-u-rat-ed]
sheer a.完全的;陡峭的;极薄的 [sheer]
stark a.(外表)僵硬的;完全的 [stark]
unmitigated a.未缓和的,未减轻的,全然的 [un-mit-i-gat-ed]
unqualified a.无资格的;无限制的,绝对的 [un-qual-i-fied]
entirety n.整体,全面 [en-tire-ty]
solidarity n.团结,一致 [sol-i-dar-i-ty]
replenish v.补充,再装满 [re-plen-ish]
saturate v.浸透;使充满 [sat-u-rate]
supplement v./n.增补,补充 [sup-ple-ment]

incompleteness 53

garbled a.引起误解的;窜改的 [garbled]
meager a.贫乏的;削瘦的 [mea-ger]
perfunctory a.草率的,敷衍的 [per-func-to-ry]
sketchy a.概略的,粗略的 [sketch-y]
defect n.缺点,瑕疵;v.变节,脱党 [de-fect]
deficiency n.缺陷;不足 [de-fi-cien-cy]
deficit n.不足,赤字 [def-i-cit]

composition 54

admission n.许可;入会费;承认 [ad-mis-sion]
constitution n.宪法;体质 [con-sti-tu-tion]
formation n.组织,形成;(军队)编队 [for-ma-tion]
hold n.(船)货舱 [hold]
compose v.写,创作;组成 [com-pose]
comprehend v.理解;包括 [com-pre-hend]
constitute v.组成,构成;建立 [con-sti-tute]
contain v.包含,含有;控制;阻止,遏制 [con-tain]
embody v.(作品等)表达,体现 [em-bod-y]
embrace v.拥抱;包含 [em-brace]
implicate v.牵连(于罪行中) [im-pli-cate]

exclusion 55

exclusive a.(人)孤僻的;(物)专用的 [ex-clu-sive]
weed n.杂草,野草;v.除草 [weed]
banish v.放逐某人 [ban-ish]
bar v.禁止,阻挡;n.条,棒 [ba-r]
eliminate v.除去,淘汰 [e-lim-i-nate]
exclude v.排斥;排除 [ex-clude]
garble v.曲解,窜改 [gar-ble]
omit v.省略,遗漏;疏忽 [o-mit]
relegate v.降级,贬谪 [rel-e-gate]
repudiate v.拒绝,抛弃 [re-pu-di-ate]
separate v.使分开;a.不同的;独自的 [sep-a-rate]
winnow v.把(谷物)的杂质吹掉,扬去 [win-now]

component 56

inclusive a.包含一切的,范围广的 [in-clu-sive]
component n.成分,零部件 [com-po-nent]
constituent n.成分;选区内的选民 [con-stit-u-ent]
feature n.特色,特点,特征 [fea-ture]
ingredient n.成分 [in-gre-di-ent]
leaven n.发酵剂;影响力;v.发酵;影响 [leav-en]
personnel n.全体人员,员工 [per-son-nel]
compose v.写,创作;组成 [com-pose]
constitute v.组成,构成;建立 [con-sti-tute]

extraneousness 57

exceptional a.特别(好)的 [ex-cep-tion-al]
extraneous a.外来的;无关的 [ex-tra-ne-ous]
slant v.倾斜;n.斜面;看法 [slant]

Section IV. Order

1. Order in General

order 58

methodical a.细心的,有条不紊的 [me-thod-i-cal]
shipshape a.整洁的,井然有序的 [ship-shape]
tidy a.整齐的,整洁的 [tidy]
disposition n.处理;天性,气质 [dis-po-si-tion]
gradation n.渐变;阶段,等级 [gra-da-tion]
symmetry n.对称;均衡 [sym-me-try]
uniform n.制服;a.相同的,一致的 [u-ni-form]
adjust v.整顿,整理;适应 [ad-just]
array v.部署;n.陈列;大批 [ar-ray]
regulate v.管制;调整 [reg-u-late]

disorder 59

anomalous a.反常的;不规则的 [a-nom-a-lous]
deranged a.精神错乱的,有精神病的 [de-ranged]
desultory a.不连贯的,散漫的 [des-ul-to-ry]
riotous a.暴乱的;蛮横的 [ri-ot-ous]
anarchy n.无政府;政治上的混乱 [an-ar-chy]
anomaly n.异常,反常 [a-nom-a-ly]
chaos n.混乱 [cha-os]
convulsion n.骚动;痉挛 [con-vul-sion]
disarray n.混乱,漫无秩序 [dis-ar-ray]
discord n.不和,纷争 [dis-cord]
fracas n.喧嚷,吵闹 [fra-cas]
hodgepodge n.混淆;杂菜 [hodge-podge]
imbroglio n.纠纷,纠葛 [im-bro-gli-o]
litter n.垃圾;一窝(动物) [lit-ter]
medley n.混合歌曲;混杂;各种各样的集团 [med-ley]
rhubarb n.(植物)大黄;v./n.喧闹争吵 [rhu-barb]
tumult n.乱哄哄 [tu-mult]
turmoil n.混乱,骚乱 [tur-moil]
uproar n.喧闹,骚动 [up-roar]
brawl v./n.争吵,打架 [brawl]
ferment v./n.(使)发酵;骚动 [fer-ment]
jumble v.混杂,掺杂;n.混杂,掺杂 [jum-ble]
lumber v.蹒跚而行,笨拙地走;n.杂物;木材 [lum-ber]
mash v.捣成糊状 [mash]
ravel v.纠缠,纠结;拆开,拆散 [rav-el]
riot v.参加暴动 [ri-ot]
ruffle v.弄皱;激怒;n.皱边(装饰衣服) [ruf-fle]
rumple v.弄皱,弄乱 [rum-ple]

complexity 59.a

gnarled a.(树木)多节的;粗糙的 [gnarled]
intricate a.复杂难懂的 [in-tri-cate]
irreducible a.不能约的 [ir-re-duc-i-ble]
implication n.暗示 [im-pli-ca-tion]
intricacy n.错综,复杂,纷乱 [in-tri-ca-cy]
labyrinth n.迷宫 [lab-y-rinth]
complicate v.使某事复杂化 [com-pli-cate]

arrangement 60

methodical a.细心的,有条不紊的 [me-thod-i-cal]
coordinate n.同等物,坐标;v.使各部分协调; a.同等的 [co-or-di-nate]
digestion n.消化,吸收 [di-ges-tion]
disposal n.清除,处理 [dis-pos-al]
disposition n.处理;天性,气质 [dis-po-si-tion]
file n.锉刀;v.锉平 [file]
organism n.生物;有机体 [or-gan-ism]
pack n.狼群;一群动物 [pack]
riddle n.谜语 [rid-dle]
synopsis n.摘要,概要 [syn-op-sis]
thread n.螺纹 [thread]
classify v.分类,归类 [clas-si-fy]
disentangle v.解决,解脱,解开,澄清 [dis-en-tan-gle]
dispose v.使倾向;处理掉 [dis-pose]
distribute v.分发,分配某事物 [dis-trib-ute]
group v.使…集合;n.群,集 [group]
marshal v.整理,安排,设置 [mar-shal]
rally v.召集,集会;n.召集;集会 [ral-ly]
ravel v.纠缠,纠结;拆开,拆散 [rav-el]
regulate v.管制;调整 [reg-u-late]
settle v.安置于;决定;栖息 [set-tle]
sift v.筛,过滤 [sift]
table v.搁置,不加考虑 [ta-ble]
unravel v.解开,拆散 [un-rav-el]

derangement 61

deranged a.精神错乱的,有精神病的 [de-ranged]
random a.没有明确目的、计划或者目标的;偶然的,随便的 [ran-dom]
litter n.垃圾;一窝(动物) [lit-ter]
complicate v.使某事复杂化 [com-pli-cate]
confound v.使迷惑,搞混 [con-found]
convulse v.使震动,震惊 [con-vulse]
discombobulate v.扰乱,使困惑 [dis-com-bob-u-late]
discompose v.使失态,慌张 [dis-com-pose]
disconcert v.使…尴尬 [dis-con-cert]
dislocate v.使脱臼;把…弄乱 [dis-lo-cate]
displace v.换置;使某人某物离开原位 [dis-place]
entangle v.使纠缠,卷入 [en-tan-gle]
fumble v.摸索,笨拙搜寻;弄乱,搞糟 [fum-ble]
jumble v.混杂,掺杂;n.混杂,掺杂 [jum-ble]
ravel v.纠缠,纠结;拆开,拆散 [rav-el]
riot v.参加暴动 [ri-ot]
ruffle v.弄皱;激怒;n.皱边(装饰衣服) [ruf-fle]
rumple v.弄皱,弄乱 [rum-ple]
scatter v.散开,驱散 [scat-ter]
tangle v.缠结;n.纷乱 [tan-gle]
toss v.投,掷;使摇动 [toss]
unsettle v.使不安宁,搅乱 [un-set-tle]

2. Consecutive Order

precedence 62

anterior a.较早的,以前的 [an-te-ri-or]
preliminary a.预备的;初步的,开始的 [pre-lim-i-nar-y]
antecedence n.居先,优先 [an-te-ced-ence]
antecedent n.前事;前辈;a.先行的 [an-te-ced-ent]
precursor n.先驱,先兆 [pre-cur-sor]
preface n.序言 [pref-ace]
prelude n.序幕,前奏 [prel-ude]
premise n.前提 [prem-ise]
priority n.在先,居前;优先权 [pri-or-i-ty]
superiority n.优越(感) [su-pe-ri-or-i-ty]
precede v.在…之前,早于 [pre-cede]

sequence 63

alternate a.轮流的,交替的;v.轮流,交替n.候选人,替代性选择 [al-ter-nate]
proximate a.最接近的,直接的 [prox-i-mate]
subsequent a.随后的,后来的,连续的 [sub-se-quent]
continuation n.继续,延续 [con-tin-u-a-tion]
ensue v.继而发生 [en-sue]

precursor 64

inaugural a.就职的,开幕的 [in-au-gu-ral]
preliminary a.预备的;初步的,开始的 [pre-lim-i-nar-y]
antecedent n.前事;前辈;a.先行的 [an-te-ced-ent]
avant-garde n.(艺术)先锋派 [a-vant-garde]
bellwether n.领导者,领头羊 [bell-weth-er]
forerunner n.预兆,前兆;先驱 [fore-run-ner]
harbinger n.先驱,先兆 [har-bin-ger]
overture n.前奏曲,序曲 [o-ver-ture]
preamble n.前言,序言;先兆 [pre-am-ble]
precursor n.先驱,先兆 [pre-cur-sor]
predecessor n.前任,前辈;原先的东西 [pre-de-ces-sor]
preface n.序言 [pref-ace]
prelude n.序幕,前奏 [prel-ude]
prologue n.开场白;序幕 [pro-logue]
symphony n.交响乐,交响曲 [sym-pho-ny]

sequel 65

continuation n.继续,延续 [con-tin-u-a-tion]
epilogue n.收场白;尾声 [ep-i-logue]
outgrowth n.自然结果;生长物 [out-growth]
retinue n.侍从,随员团 [ret-i-nue]
tag n.鞋带;附属物,标签 [tag]
queue v.排队;n.长队 [queue]

beginning 66

inaugural a.就职的,开幕的 [in-au-gu-ral]
inchoate a.刚开始的;未发展的 [in-cho-ate]
incipient a.初期的,刚出现的 [in-cip-i-ent]
initial a.开始的,最初的;n.(姓名的)首字母 [in-i-tial]
nascent a.初生的,萌芽的 [nas-cent]
natal a.出生的,诞生时的 [na-tal]
brunt n.主要冲击力或影响 [brunt]
bud n.芽;花蕾 [bud]
caption n.标题 [cap-tion]
commencement n.开始;(大学的)毕业典礼 [com-mence-ment]
debut n.初次登台,初次露面 [de-but]
entry n.条目;登录;报关手续;入口 [en-try]
genesis n.创始,起源 [gen-e-sis]
germ n.胚芽,芽孢;微生物,细菌 [germ]
inception n.开端,开始;取得学位 [in-cep-tion]
initiative n.主动;首创精神 [in-i-ti-a-tive]
onset n.(坏情况)开始发作 [on-set]
outset n.开始,开头 [out-set]
broach v.开瓶;提出(讨论) [broach]
commence v.开始,倡导 [com-mence]
conceive v.想像,构想;怀孕 [con-ceive]
entrance v.使出神,使入迷 [en-trance]
inaugurate v.举行就职典礼;开创 [in-au-gu-rate]
initiate v.发起,创始;接纳或介绍某人加入某团体等 [in-i-ti-ate]
materialize v.赋予形体,使具体化;实现 [ma-te-ri-al-ize]
resume v.重新开始,继续 [re-su-me]
ventilate v.使…通风,透风 [ven-ti-late]

end 67

conclusive a.最后的,结论的;确凿的,消除怀疑的 [con-clu-sive]
definitive a.明确的,有权威的 [de-fin-i-tive]
penultimate a.倒数第二的 [pe-nul-ti-mate]
settled a.固定的 [settled]
terminal a.末端的;n.终点站,终端 [ter-mi-nal]
ultimate a.最后的 [ul-ti-mate]
denouement n.(小说的)结尾,结局 [de-noue-ment]
determination n.决心;确定;预测 [de-ter-mi-na-tion]
die n.金属模子,印模 [die]
expiration n.期满,终止 [ex-pi-ra-tion]
extinction n.熄灭;消灭 [ex-tinc-tion]
finale n.最后,最终;乐曲的最后部分 [fi-na-le]
nib n.钢笔尖 [nib]
tag n.鞋带;附属物,标签 [tag]
termination n.终点 [ter-mi-na-tion]
terminus n.(火车,汽车)终点站 [ter-mi-nus]
expire v.期满;去世 [ex-pire]
terminate v.终止,结束 [ter-mi-nate]

middle 68

mean a.卑贱的,吝啬的 [mean]
equator n.赤道 [e-qua-tor]
medium n.媒介;(细菌等的)生存环境 [me-di-um]
nucleus n.(原子)核 [nu-cle-us]
mediate v.调停 [me-di-ate]

continuity 69

constant a.稳定的,不变的; n.常数 [con-stant]
linear a.线的;成直线的 [lin-e-ar]
perennial a.终年的;永久的 [per-en-ni-al]
serial a.连续的,一系列的 [se-ri-al]
unremitting a.不间断的,持续的 [un-re-mit-ting]
ancestry n.家系 [an-ces-try]
colonnade n.柱廊 [col-on-nade]
descent n.降落;侵袭;血统 [de-scent]
file n.锉刀;v.锉平 [file]
genealogy n.家谱学 [ge-ne-al-o-gy]
gradation n.渐变;阶段,等级 [gra-da-tion]
lineage n.宗系,血统 [lin-e-age]
procession n.行列;前进 [pro-ces-sion]
retinue n.侍从,随员团 [ret-i-nue]
scale n.鱼鳞;(音乐)音阶 [scale]
thread n.螺纹 [thread]
array v.部署;n.陈列;大批 [ar-ray]
collate v.对照,核对 [col-late]

discontinuity 70

alternate a.轮流的,交替的;v.轮流,交替n.候选人,替代性选择 [al-ter-nate]
desultory a.不连贯的,散漫的 [des-ul-to-ry]
discrete a.个别的;不连续的 [dis-crete]
disjunctive a.分离的,相反的 [dis-junc-tive]
intermittent a.断断续续的,间歇的 [in-ter-mit-tent]
crack n.爆裂声;裂缝;v.裂开;破解,破译 [crack]
disjunction n.分离,分裂 [dis-junc-tion]
fault n.错误;(地质学)断层 [fault]
flaw n.瑕疵;v.生裂缝;有瑕疵 [flaw]
fracture n.骨折;折断;裂口 [frac-ture]
intermission n.暂停,间歇 [in-ter-mis-sion]
interpose v.置于…之间;使介入 [in-ter-pose]
interrupt v.暂时中止;打断,打扰 [in-ter-rupt]
intervene v.干涉,介入 [in-ter-vene]

term 71

pitch n.沥青,柏油;音调 [pitch]
scale n.鱼鳞;(音乐)音阶 [scale]
status n.身分,地位 [sta-tus]
remove v.移走;脱掉;迁移 [re-move]

3. Collective Order

assemblage 72

associate a.联合的;n.合伙人;v.将人或事物联系起来 [as-so-ci-ate]
meet a.合适的 [meet]
populous a.人口稠密的 [pop-u-lous]
serried a.密集的 [ser-ried]
bale n.大包裹;灾祸,不幸 [bale]
band n.带子;收音机波段 [band]
batch n.一批,一炉 [batch]
budget n.预算 [budg-et]
cluster n.串,束,群;v.成群,成串 [clus-ter]
collection n.收藏品 [col-lec-tion]
conclave n.秘密会议 [con-clave]
deluge n.大洪水;暴雨 [del-uge]
drove n.畜群;人群 [drove]
flock n.羊群;鸟群 [flock]
galaxy n.(银河)星群;显赫的人群 [gal-ax-y]
gavel n.(法官所用的)槌,小木槌 [gav-el]
herd n.兽群;v.聚集 [herd]
levee n.防洪堤;堤岸 [lev-ee]
lot n.签;命运;v.抽签,划分 [lot]
lump n.一块,肿块;v.形成块状 [lump]
pack n.狼群;一群动物 [pack]
posse n.武装团队 [pos-se]
rabble n.乌合之众;下等人 [rab-ble]
rendezvous n.约会;约会地点 [ren-dez-vous]
resort n.度假胜地 [re-sort]
school n.鱼群 [school]
shoal n.浅滩,浅水处;一群(鱼等);a.水浅的 [shoal]
snowdrift n.雪堆 [snow-drift]
stream n.小溪;水流;v.倾注,涌流 [stream]
throng n.一大群;v.拥挤 [throng]
tissue n.细胞组织;薄纸,棉纸 [tis-sue]
troupe n.歌唱团,剧团 [troupe]
truss n.桁架,支架;干草的一捆 [truss]
volley n.齐发,群射;v.齐发,群射;(足球、网球)截击 [vol-ley]
accumulate v.积聚,积累 [ac-cu-mu-late]
agglomerate v.凝聚,结块 [ag-glom-er-ate]
aggregate v.集合;合计 [ag-gre-gate]
amass v.积聚 [a-mass]
array v.部署;n.陈列;大批 [ar-ray]
assemble v.集合,聚集 [as-sem-ble]
compile v.汇集;编辑 [com-pile]
concentrate v.集中,浓缩 [con-cen-trate]
conglomerate v.集聚成团 [con-glom-er-ate]
congregate v.聚集,集合 [con-gre-gate]
convoke v.召集 [con-voke]
cram v.填塞,塞满;临时抱佛脚,为考试而学习 [cram]
group v.使…集合;n.群,集 [group]
levy v./n.征税;征兵 [lev-y]
muster v.召集,聚集 [mus-ter]
precipitate v.加速,促成;a.鲁莽的 [pre-cip-i-tate]
press v.挤压 [press]
surge v.波涛汹涌,波动 [surge]

focus 74

rendezvous n.约会;约会地点 [ren-dez-vous]
issue v.出来,流出;发给,分发;n.(书刊的)期 [is-sue]

4. Distributive Order

class 75

caste n.社会等级,等级 [caste]
category n.类别,范畴 [cat-e-go-ry]
denomination n.命名;(长度,币值的)单位 [de-nom-i-na-tion]
designation n.指定;名称,称呼 [des-ig-na-tion]
domain n.领土;领域 [do-main]
genus n.(动植物的)属 [ge-nus]
kidney n.肾 [kid-ney]
kin n.亲属 [kin]
breed v.繁殖;教养;n.品种,种类 [breed]

inclusion 76

inclusive a.包含一切的,范围广的 [in-clu-sive]
admission n.许可;入会费;承认 [ad-mis-sion]
comprehend v.理解;包括 [com-pre-hend]
contain v.包含,含有;控制;阻止,遏制 [con-tain]
embody v.(作品等)表达,体现 [em-bod-y]
embrace v.拥抱;包含 [em-brace]

generality 78

catholic a.普遍的;广泛的;(人)宽厚的 [cath-o-lic]
comprehensive a.全面的,综合的 [com-pre-hen-sive]
customary a.合乎习俗的 [cus-tom-ar-y]
epidemic a.传染性的,流行性的 [ep-i-dem-ic]
generic a.种类的,类属的 [ge-ner-ic]
rife a.流行的,普遍的 [rife]
transcendental a.超越经验的 [tran-scen-den-tal]
generality n.概述 [gen-er-al-i-ty]
generalize v.归纳 [gen-er-al-ize]
prevail v.战胜;盛行 [pre-vail]

speciality 79

characteristic a.有特色的;典型性的;n.与众不同的特征 [char-ac-ter-is-tic]
definite a.清楚的,明确的 [def-i-nite]
endemic a.地方性的 [en-dem-ic]
esoteric a.秘传的;神秘的 [es-o-ter-ic]
exclusive a.(人)孤僻的;(物)专用的 [ex-clu-sive]
individual a.单独的,特有的;n.个人,个体 [in-di-vid-u-al]
original a.最初的,原始的;有创意的 [o-rig-i-nal]
partial a.局部的;偏袒的 [par-tial]
particular n.事实,细节 [par-tic-u-lar]
singularity n.独特;奇点(天文学上密度无穷大、体积无穷小的点) [sin-gu-lar-i-ty]
trait n.人的显著特性 [trait]
appropriate v.拨款;盗用;a.恰当的 [ap-pro-pri-ate]
denote v.表示;指示意义 [de-note]
indicate v.显示,指出;象征 [in-di-cate]
particularize v.详述,列举 [par-tic-u-lar-ize]
specialize v.专门研究 [spe-cial-ize]

5. Order as Regards Categories

normality 80

customary a.合乎习俗的 [cus-tom-ar-y]
familiarity n.精通;亲近;不拘礼仪 [fa-mil-i-ar-i-ty]

multiformity 81

assorted a.混杂的 [as-sort-ed]
desultory a.不连贯的,散漫的 [des-ul-to-ry]
diverse a.不同的;多样的 [di-verse]
heterogeneous a.异类的,不同的 [het-er-o-ge-ne-ous]
manifold a.繁多的;多种的 [man-i-fold]
motley a.混杂的;杂色的 [mot-ley]
protean a.变化多端的,多变的 [pro-te-an]
diversity n.多样,千变万化 [di-ver-si-ty]
mosaic n.马赛克;镶嵌细工(把小块玻璃石头等镶嵌成图画) [mo-sa-ic]

conformity 82

canonical a.符合规定的;经典的 [ca-non-i-cal]
conventional a.因循守旧的,传统的 [con-ven-tion-al]
nominal a.名义上的,有名无实的 [nom-i-nal]
orthodox a.正统的 [or-tho-dox]
rigid a.硬性的,刚硬的 [rig-id]
shipshape a.整洁的,井然有序的 [ship-shape]
conformity n.一致,遵从;顺众 [con-form-i-ty]
principle n.原则,原理;道德准则 [prin-ci-ple]
specimen n.范例,样品,标本 [spec-i-men]
cite v.引用,引述 [cite]
elucidate v.阐明,说明 [e-lu-ci-date]
exemplify v.是…的典型 [ex-em-pli-fy]
illustrate v.为…作插图或图表;说明,阐明 [il-lus-trate]
quote v.引用,引述 [quote]

unconformity 83

nonconformist adj./n.不遵照传统生活的(人) [non-con-form-ist]
aberrant a.越轨的;异常的 [ab-er-rant]
amorphous a.无定形的 [a-mor-phous]
anomalous a.反常的;不规则的 [a-nom-a-lous]
arbitrary a.专横的,不理智的 [ar-bi-trar-y]
asymmetric a.不对称的 [a-sym-met-ric]
bizarre a.奇异的,古怪的 [bi-zarre]
eccentric a.古怪的,反常的;n.古怪的人 [ec-cen-tric]
egregious a.(缺点等)过分的,惊人的 [e-gre-gious]
exceptional a.特别(好)的 [ex-cep-tion-al]
exclusive a.(人)孤僻的;(物)专用的 [ex-clu-sive]
exotic a.珍奇的;来自异国的 [ex-ot-ic]
heterogeneous a.异类的,不同的 [het-er-o-ge-ne-ous]
original a.最初的,原始的;有创意的 [o-rig-i-nal]
outlandish a.古怪的 [out-land-ish]
preternatural a.异常的);超自然的 [pre-ter-nat-u-ral]
quaint a.离奇有趣的 [quaint]
qualified a.有资格的;有限制的 [qual-i-fied]
unique a.独一无二的,独特的;无与伦比的 [u-nique]
unprecedented a.前所未有的 [un-prec-e-dent-ed]
unwonted a.不寻常的,不习惯的 [un-wont-ed]
aberration n.离开正路,脱离常轨;变形 [ab-er-ra-tion]
anomaly n.异常,反常 [a-nom-a-ly]
breach n.裂缝,缺口;v.打破,裂开;违背 [breach]
centaur n.人头马怪物 [cen-taur]
chimera n.神话怪物;梦幻 [chi-me-ra]
hybrid n.杂种;混血人 [hy-brid]
miracle n.奇事,奇迹 [mir-a-cle]
mongrel n.杂种动物;混血儿 [mon-grel]
oasis n.绿洲 [o-a-sis]
originality n.创造性,独特性 [o-rig-i-nal-i-ty]
phoenix n.凤凰,永生或再生的象征 [phoe-nix]
prodigy n.奇事;奇才 [prod-i-gy]
singularity n.独特;奇点(天文学上密度无穷大、体积无穷小的点) [sin-gu-lar-i-ty]
unicorn n.(传说中的)独角兽 [u-ni-corn]
stray v.偏离,迷路;a.迷了路的;零落的 [stray]

Section V. Number

1. Number, in the Abstract

number 84

base a.卑鄙的 [base]
complementary a.互补的 [com-ple-men-ta-ry]
finite a.有限的 [fi-nite]
integral a.构成整体所必需的;完整的 [in-te-gral]
multiple a.多样的,多重的 [mul-ti-ple]
rational a.理性的;合理的 [ra-tion-al]
reciprocal a.相互的,互惠的 [re-cip-ro-cal]
cipher n.零;无影响力的人;密码 [ci-pher]
comparison n.比较,对照;比喻 [com-par-i-son]
digit n.手指,足趾;数字,数码 [dig-it]
exponent n.说明者,支持者;指数 [ex-po-nent]
formula n.分子式;公式;套语,惯用语 [for-mu-la]
fraction n.碎片;小部分 [frac-tion]
prime n.全盛时期;a.首先的;最好的 [prime]

numeration 85

commensurate a.同样大小的;相称的 [com-men-su-rate]
incommensurate a.不成比例的,不相称的 [in-com-men-su-rate]
addition n.增加,附加 [ad-di-tion]
calculus n.微积分学;结石 [cal-cu-lus]
census n.人口统计 [cen-sus]
cipher n.零;无影响力的人;密码 [ci-pher]
poll n.民意测验;选举投票 [poll]
score n.乐谱 [score]
summation n.总结,概要;总数,合计 [sum-ma-tion]
audit v.审计,核对;旁听 [au-dit]
check v.使突然停止,阻止 [check]
demonstrate v.证明,论证;示威 [dem-on-strate]
enumerate v.列举,枚举 [e-nu-mer-ate]
multiply v.乘;增加;繁殖 [mul-ti-ply]
muster v.召集,聚集 [mus-ter]
overhaul v.彻底检查;大修 [o-ver-haul]
recapitulate v.扼要重述 [re-ca-pit-u-late]
subtract v.减去,减掉 [sub-tract]
tally v.(使)一致,符合 [tal-ly]

list 86

catalog n.目录;系列 [cat-a-log]
census n.人口统计 [cen-sus]
file n.锉刀;v.锉平 [file]
glossary n.词汇表;难词表 [glos-sa-ry]
inventory n.详细目录;存货清单 [in-ven-to-ry]
ledger n.账簿 [ledg-er]
outline n.轮廓;梗概 [out-line]
panel n.专门小组;仪表板 [pan-el]
roster n.值班表,花名册 [ros-ter]
score n.乐谱 [score]
synopsis n.摘要,概要 [syn-op-sis]
collate v.对照,核对 [col-late]
enumerate v.列举,枚举 [e-nu-mer-ate]
list v./n.倾斜 [list]
table v.搁置,不加考虑 [ta-ble]
tally v.(使)一致,符合 [tal-ly]

2. Determinate Number

unity 87

compact a.结实的;简洁的;n.合同,协议 [com-pact]
dreary a.沉闷的,乏味的 [drear-y]
individual a.单独的,特有的;n.个人,个体 [in-di-vid-u-al]
insular a.岛屿的;心胸狭窄的 [in-su-lar]
solitary a.孤独的;n.隐士 [sol-i-tar-y]
unique a.独一无二的,独特的;无与伦比的 [u-nique]
solitude n.孤独 [sol-i-tude]
unification n.统一,一致 [u-ni-fi-ca-tion]
isolate v.孤立;将…从其种群中隔离 [i-so-late]

accompaniment 88

accessory a.附属的,次要的 [ac-ces-so-ry]
associate a.联合的;n.合伙人;v.将人或事物联系起来 [as-so-ci-ate]
concomitant a.伴随而来的 [con-com-i-tant]
adjunct n.附加物,附件 [ad-junct]
attribute n.属性,品质;v.把…归于 [at-trib-ute]
companion n.同伴,同伙;受雇的陪伴人 [com-pan-ion]
context n.(语句等的)上下文 [con-text]
mate n.伙伴;配偶;v.交配 [mate]
accompany v.伴随,陪伴 [ac-com-pa-ny]

duality 89

dual a.双重的 [du-al]
bracket n.托架,支架 [brack-et]
duet n.二重唱 [du-et]
duplicity n.欺骗,口是心非 [du-plic-i-ty]
mate n.伙伴;配偶;v.交配 [mate]
polarity n.极端性,二极分化 [po-lar-i-ty]
span n.跨度;两个界限间的距离 [span]
yoke n.牛轭;v.控制,束缚 [yoke]
brace v.使稳固,架稳;n.支撑物 [brace]

bisection 91

cleft n.裂缝;a.劈开的 [cleft]
fold n.羊栏,畜栏;v.折叠 [fold]
split n./v.分裂,裂开 [split]
bifurcate v.分为两支,分叉 [bi-fur-cate]
ramify v.分支,分叉 [ram-i-fy]
separate v.使分开;a.不同的;独自的 [sep-a-rate]

triality 92

trio n.三重奏,三重唱;三人一组 [tri-o]
tripod n.画架,三脚架 [tri-pod]

four 95

quartet n.四重奏,四重唱 [quar-tet]
rectangle n.长方形,矩形 [rec-tan-gle]
square v.一致,符合;结清 [square]

five, &c 98

gross a.总的;粗野的;n.整个,全部 [gross]
myriad a.许多的,无数的 [myr-i-ad]
secular a.世俗的,尘世的 [sec-u-lar]
score n.乐谱 [score]

quinquesection, &c 99

decimate v.毁掉大部分;大量杀死 [dec-i-mate]

3. Indeterminate Number

fraction 100.a

infinitesimal a.极微小的;n.极小量 [in-fin-i-tes-i-mal]
fraction n.碎片;小部分 [frac-tion]

zero 101

void a.空的,缺乏的;n.空隙,空处;空虚感 [void]
cipher n.零;无影响力的人;密码 [ci-pher]

multitude 102

manifold a.繁多的;多种的 [man-i-fold]
multiple a.多样的,多重的 [mul-ti-ple]
numerous a.许多的,很多的 [nu-mer-ous]
populous a.人口稠密的 [pop-u-lous]
profuse a.很多的;浪费的 [pro-fuse]
brood n.一窝幼鸟;v.孵蛋;冥想 [brood]
drove n.畜群;人群 [drove]
flight n.飞行,飞翔;逃跑 [flight]
flock n.羊群;鸟群 [flock]
galaxy n.(银河)星群;显赫的人群 [gal-ax-y]
herd n.兽群;v.聚集 [herd]
hive n.蜂房;忙碌之地 [hive]
legion n.兵团;一大群 [le-gion]
litter n.垃圾;一窝(动物) [lit-ter]
multiplicity n.多样性 [mul-ti-plic-i-ty]
shoal n.浅滩,浅水处;一群(鱼等);a.水浅的 [shoal]
array v.部署;n.陈列;大批 [ar-ray]
multiply v.乘;增加;繁殖 [mul-ti-ply]
peck v.啄食;轻啄 [peck]

fewness 103

scant a.不足的,缺乏的 [scant]
paucity n.小量,缺乏 [pau-ci-ty]
weed n.杂草,野草;v.除草 [weed]
decimate v.毁掉大部分;大量杀死 [dec-i-mate]
eliminate v.除去,淘汰 [e-lim-i-nate]

repetition 104

incessant a.无间断的,连续的 [in-ces-sant]
monotonous a.单调的,无聊的 [mo-not-o-nous]
redundant a.累赘的,多余的 [re-dun-dant]
hammer n.锤子,槌 [ham-mer]
monotony n.单调,千篇一律 [mo-not-o-ny]
redundancy n.过剩;备份;似乎多余其实重要的后备力量 [re-dun-dan-cy]
rehearsal n.排演,演习 [re-hears-al]
frequent v.时常来访;a.惯常的 [fre-quent]
recapitulate v.扼要重述 [re-ca-pit-u-late]
refrain v.抑制;n.歌曲的反复句,叠句 [re-frain]
rehearse v.排练,预演;详述 [re-hearse]
reiterate v.重申,反复地说 [re-it-er-ate]
resume v.重新开始,继续 [re-su-me]
revert v.恢复,回复到;重新考虑 [re-vert]

infinity 105

immense a.极大的;无限的 [im-mense]
inexhaustible a.用不完的,取之不竭的 [in-ex-haust-i-ble]
interminable a.无尽头的 [in-ter-mi-na-ble]
perpetual a.连续不断的;永久的 [per-pet-u-al]
untold a.无数的,数不清的 [un-told]
infinity n.无限的时间或空间 [in-fin-i-ty]

Section VI. Time

1. Absolute Time

time 106

pending a.即将发生的;未决的 [pend-ing]
permanent a.长久的,永久的 [per-ma-nent]
duration n.持续的时间 [du-ra-tion]
epoch n.纪元;重大的事件 [e-poch]
interim n.中间时期,过渡时期;a.暂时的 [in-ter-im]
interlude n.(活动间的)暂时休息 [in-ter-lude]
intermission n.暂停,间歇 [in-ter-mis-sion]
interregnum n.无王时期 [in-ter-reg-num]
moment n.瞬间;重要 [mo-ment]
respite n.休息;暂缓 [res-pite]
scythe n.大镰刀 [scythe]
span n.跨度;两个界限间的距离 [span]
spell n.连续的一段时间 [spell]
intervene v.干涉,介入 [in-ter-vene]

period 108

epoch n.纪元;重大的事件 [e-poch]
generation n.一代人;(产品类型的)代;产生,发生 [gen-er-a-tion]

course 109

duration n.持续的时间 [du-ra-tion]
lapse n.失误;(时间等)流逝 [lapse]
expire v.期满;去世 [ex-pire]
flit v.掠过,迅速飞过 [flit]
glide v.滑行,滑动 [glide]

diuturnity 110

chronic a.慢性的,长期的 [chron-ic]
lasting a.持久的,永久的 [last-ing]
long-winded a.冗长的 [long-wind-ed]
perennial a.终年的;永久的 [per-en-ni-al]
permanent a.长久的,永久的 [per-ma-nent]
perpetual a.连续不断的;永久的 [per-pet-u-al]
unremitting a.不间断的,持续的 [un-re-mit-ting]
longevity n.长寿 [lon-gev-i-ty]
permanence n.永久,持久 [per-ma-nence]
persistence n.坚持不懈,持续 [per-sis-tence]
abide v.容忍,忍受 [a-bide]
endure v.忍受,忍耐 [en-dure]
prolong v.延长,拉长 [pro-long]
protract v.延长,拖长 [pro-tract]
survive v.幸存 [sur-vive]
temporize v.拖延;见风使舵 [tem-po-rize]

transientness 111

brisk a.敏捷的,活泼的;清新健康的 [brisk]
cursory a.粗略的,草率的 [cur-so-ry]
deciduous a.非永久的;短暂的;脱落的;落叶的 [de-cid-u-ous]
ephemeral a.朝生暮死的;生命短暂的 [e-phem-er-al]
evanescent a.迅速消失的,短暂的 [ev-a-nes-cent]
extemporaneous a.即席的,没有准备的 [ex-tem-po-ra-ne-ous]
fleeting a.短暂的,飞逝的 [fleet-ing]
impermanent a.暂时的 [im-per-ma-nent]
instantaneous a.立即的;瞬间发生的 [in-stan-ta-ne-ous]
precarious a.不稳的,危险的 [pre-car-i-ous]
provisional a.暂时的,临时的 [pro-vi-sion-al]
provisory a.有附带条件的 [pro-vi-so-ry]
slippery a.滑的;狡猾的 [slip-per-y]
temporal a.时间的;世俗的 [tem-po-ral]
transient a.短暂的,转瞬即逝的 [tran-si-ent]
transitory a.短暂的 [tran-si-to-ry]
interregnum n.无王时期 [in-ter-reg-num]
mortality n.死亡率 [mor-tal-i-ty]
span n.跨度;两个界限间的距离 [span]
summary n.摘要,概要;a.摘要的,简略的 [sum-ma-ry]
transience n.短暂 [tran-sience]
velocity n.速度;迅速 [ve-loc-i-ty]
evaporate v.(使某物)蒸发掉 [e-vap-o-rate]
fade v.褪色,消失,凋谢 [fade]
flit v.掠过,迅速飞过 [flit]

perpetuity 112

eternal a.永久的,永恒的 [e-ter-nal]
incessant a.无间断的,连续的 [in-ces-sant]
interminable a.无尽头的 [in-ter-mi-na-ble]
perpetual a.连续不断的;永久的 [per-pet-u-al]
permanence n.永久,持久 [per-ma-nence]
perpetuate v.使永存,使永记不忘 [per-pet-u-ate]

instantaneity 113

hasty a.急急忙忙的 [has-ty]
instantaneous a.立即的;瞬间发生的 [in-stan-ta-ne-ous]
swift a.迅速的;敏捷的 [swift]
coup n.意外而成功的行动 [cou-p]
crack n.爆裂声;裂缝;v.裂开;破解,破译 [crack]
epoch n.纪元;重大的事件 [e-poch]
fast n.绝食,斋戒;adv.很快地,紧紧地 [fast]
moment n.瞬间;重要 [mo-ment]
precipitant n.沉淀剂 [pre-cip-i-tant]
precipitate v.加速,促成;a.鲁莽的 [pre-cip-i-tate]

chronometry 114

annals n.编年史 [an-nals]
epoch n.纪元;重大的事件 [e-poch]
pendulum n.摆,钟摆 [pen-du-lum]

anachronism 115

overdue a.过期未付的;逾期的 [o-ver-due]
anticipate v.预期,期待 [an-tic-i-pate]

2. Relative Time

1. Time with Reference to Succession

priority 116

anterior a.较早的,以前的 [an-te-ri-or]
previous a.在先的,以前的 [pre-vi-ous]
antecedence n.居先,优先 [an-te-ced-ence]
antecedent n.前事;前辈;a.先行的 [an-te-ced-ent]
precursor n.先驱,先兆 [pre-cur-sor]
presage n.预感;v.预示 [pres-age]
priority n.在先,居前;优先权 [pri-or-i-ty]
anticipate v.预期,期待 [an-tic-i-pate]
forestall v.先发制人,预先阻止 [fore-stall]
precede v.在…之前,早于 [pre-cede]

posteriority 117

subsequent a.随后的,后来的,连续的 [sub-se-quent]
remainder n.剩余物 [re-main-der]
ensue v.继而发生 [en-sue]

the present time 118

extant a.现存的,传世的 [ex-tant]
epoch n.纪元;重大的事件 [e-poch]

synchronism 120

coeval a.同年代的 [co-e-val]
concomitant a.伴随而来的 [con-com-i-tant]
simultaneous a.同时发生的 [si-mul-ta-ne-ous]
synchronous a.同时发生的 [syn-chro-nous]
interim n.中间时期,过渡时期;a.暂时的 [in-ter-im]
accompany v.伴随,陪伴 [ac-com-pa-ny]
concur v.意见相同,一致 [con-cur]

futurity 121

foresight n.远见,深谋远虑 [fore-sight]
anticipate v.预期,期待 [an-tic-i-pate]
approach v.接近,靠近;着手处理;n.方法 [ap-proach]
forestall v.先发制人,预先阻止 [fore-stall]
prospect v.勘探;n.期望;前景 [pros-pect]

the past 122

hitherto adv.到目前为止 [hith-er-to]
antediluvian a.史前的;陈旧的 [an-te-di-lu-vi-an]
extinct a.绝种的,不存在的 [ex-tinct]
obsolete a.废弃的;过时的 [ob-so-lete]
pristine a.太古的;纯洁的;新鲜的 [pris-tine]
ancestry n.家系 [an-ces-try]
antiquity n.古;古人;古迹 [an-tiq-ui-ty]
archaeology n.考古学 [ar-chae-ol-o-gy]
lapse n.失误;(时间等)流逝 [lapse]
paleontology n.古生物学 [pa-le-on-tol-o-gy]

2. Time with Reference to a Particular Period

newness 123

green a.新鲜的,未成熟的,无经验的 [green]
nascent a.初生的,萌芽的 [nas-cent]
innovation n.创新,改革 [in-no-va-tion]
mushroom n.蘑菇;v.雨后春笋般迅速发展 [mush-room]
novelty n.新奇(的事物) [nov-el-ty]

oldness 124

antediluvian a.史前的;陈旧的 [an-te-di-lu-vi-an]
antiquated a.陈旧的,过时的 [an-ti-quat-ed]
antique a.古时的,古老的;n.古物,古董 [an-tique]
customary a.合乎习俗的 [cus-tom-ar-y]
immemorial a.太古的,极古的 [im-me-mo-ri-al]
inveterate a.积习已深的 [in-vet-er-ate]
medieval a.中世纪的,中古的 [me-di-e-val]
obsolete a.废弃的;过时的 [ob-so-lete]
paleolithic a.旧石器时代的 [paleolithic]
prehistoric a.史前的 [pre-his-tor-ic]
stale a.不新鲜的,陈腐的 [stale]
antiquity n.古;古人;古迹 [an-tiq-ui-ty]
maturity n.成熟,完备 [ma-tur-i-ty]
prescription n.处方(上的药) [pre-scrip-tion]
prime n.全盛时期;a.首先的;最好的 [prime]
decline v.拒绝;变弱,变小;n.消减 [de-cline]
fade v.褪色,消失,凋谢 [fade]

morning 125

prime n.全盛时期;a.首先的;最好的 [prime]

evening 126

nocturnal a.夜晚的,夜间发生的 [noc-tur-nal]

youth 127

callow a.(鸟)未生羽毛的;(人)未成熟的 [cal-low]
green a.新鲜的,未成熟的,无经验的 [green]
juvenile a.少年的,似少年的 [ju-ve-nile]

age 128

antiquated a.陈旧的,过时的 [an-ti-quat-ed]
decrepit a.衰老的,破旧的 [de-crep-it]
doting a.溺爱的 [dot-ing]
effete a.无生产力;虚弱的 [ef-fete]
hoary a.(头发)灰白的;古老的 [hoar-y]
doyen n.老前辈 [doy-en]
longevity n.长寿 [lon-gev-i-ty]
decline v.拒绝;变弱,变小;n.消减 [de-cline]
dodder v.蹒跚,摇摆 [dod-der]
wane v.减少,衰微 [wane]

infant 129

callow a.(鸟)未生羽毛的;(人)未成熟的 [cal-low]
infantile a.幼稚的,孩子气的 [in-fan-tile]
puerile a.幼稚的;儿童的 [pu-er-ile]
brat n.孩子;顽童 [brat]
cadet n.军校或警官学校的学生 [ca-det]
caterpillar n.毛毛虫,蝴蝶的幼虫 [cat-er-pil-lar]
cocoon n.茧 [co-coon]
cub n.幼兽;年轻无经验的人 [cub]
infant n.婴儿 [in-fant]
larva n.(昆虫的)幼虫 [lar-va]
pullet n.小母鸡 [pul-let]
sap n.树液;活力;v.消弱,耗尽 [sap]
scion n.嫩芽;子孙 [sci-on]
seedling n.幼苗 [seed-ling]
tadpole n.蝌蚪 [tad-pole]

veteran 130

octogenarian n.80~89岁的老人 [oc-to-ge-nar-i-an]
veteran n.老兵,老手;a.经验丰富的 [vet-er-an]

adolescence 131

adolescent a.青春期的;n.青少年 [ad-o-les-cent]
mature a.成熟的;深思熟虑的 [ma-ture]
nubile a.(女孩)到婚嫁年龄的;吸引人的 [nu-bile]

3. Time with Reference to an Effect or Purpose

earliness 132

offhand adv./a.事先无准备地(的);随便地(的) [off-hand]
summarily adv.概括地;仓促地 [sum-mar-i-ly]
anticipatory a.预想的,预期的 [an-tic-i-pa-to-ry]
forward a.过激的,莽撞的 [for-ward]
precocious a.早熟的 [pre-co-cious]
premature a.过早的,早熟的 [pre-ma-ture]
secure a.安全的;稳固的;v.固定;使安全 [se-cure]
precipitation n.降水(量) [pre-cip-i-ta-tion]
prime n.全盛时期;a.首先的;最好的 [prime]
summary n.摘要,概要;a.摘要的,简略的 [sum-ma-ry]
accelerate v.加速;促进 [ac-cel-er-ate]
anticipate v.预期,期待 [an-tic-i-pate]
forestall v.先发制人,预先阻止 [fore-stall]
precipitate v.加速,促成;a.鲁莽的 [pre-cip-i-tate]
prompt v.促使,激起;a.敏捷的,迅速的 [prompt]

punctuality 132.a

timely a.适时的,及时的 [time-ly]
prompt v.促使,激起;a.敏捷的,迅速的 [prompt]

lateness 133

belated a.来得太迟的 [be-lat-ed]
dilatory a.慢吞吞的,磨蹭的 [di-la-to-ry]
tardy a.缓慢的,迟缓的 [tar-dy]
untimely a.过早的;不适时的 [un-time-ly]
moratorium n.停止偿付;禁止活动 [mor-a-to-ri-um]
reserve n.储备(物),储藏量;缄默,谨慎;v.保留,储备,预订 [re-serve]
respite n.休息;暂缓 [res-pite]
adjourn v.使延期,推迟;休会 [ad-journ]
dally v.闲荡,嬉戏 [dal-ly]
dawdle v.闲荡,虚度 [daw-dle]
defer v.推延;听从 [de-fer]
linger v.逗留,留恋 [lin-ger]
postpone v.使延期,推迟 [post-pone]
procrastinate v.耽搁,拖延 [pro-cras-ti-nate]
prolong v.延长,拉长 [pro-long]
protract v.延长,拖长 [pro-tract]
reprieve v.缓刑,暂时解救;n.缓刑,暂时解救 [re-prieve]
retard v.妨碍;减速 [re-tard]
suspend v.暂缓,中止;吊,悬 [sus-pend]
table v.搁置,不加考虑 [ta-ble]
temporize v.拖延;见风使舵 [tem-po-rize]

occasion 134

auspicious a.幸运的;吉兆的 [aus-pi-cious]
critical a.挑毛病的;关键的,危急的 [crit-i-cal]
favorable a.有利的;赞成的 [fa-vor-a-ble]
opportune a.合适的,适当的 [op-por-tune]
propitious a.吉利的;顺利的 [pro-pi-tious]
providential a.幸运的;恰到好处的 [prov-i-den-tial]
timely a.适时的,及时的 [time-ly]

untimeliness 135

infelicitous a.不幸的,不妥当的 [in-fe-lic-i-tous]
premature a.过早的,早熟的 [pre-ma-ture]
untimely a.过早的;不适时的 [un-time-ly]
untoward a.不幸的,(坏事)没料到的 [un-to-ward]
intrude v.把(思想等)强加于,闯入 [in-trude]

3. Recurrent Time

frequency 136

boring a.无趣的,乏味的 [bor-ing]
constant a.稳定的,不变的; n.常数 [con-stant]
customary a.合乎习俗的 [cus-tom-ar-y]
incessant a.无间断的,连续的 [in-ces-sant]
perpetual a.连续不断的;永久的 [per-pet-u-al]
trivial a.琐细的 [triv-i-al]
conformity n.一致,遵从;顺众 [con-form-i-ty]
formula n.分子式;公式;套语,惯用语 [for-mu-la]
frequency n.频率 [fre-quen-cy]
uniform n.制服;a.相同的,一致的 [u-ni-form]
frequent v.时常来访;a.惯常的 [fre-quent]

infrequency 137

unprecedented a.前所未有的 [un-prec-e-dent-ed]

regularity of recurrence 138

alternate a.轮流的,交替的;v.轮流,交替n.候选人,替代性选择 [al-ter-nate]
cyclical a.循环的 [cy-cli-cal]
diurnal a.白昼的,白天的 [di-ur-nal]
intermittent a.断断续续的,间歇的 [in-ter-mit-tent]
quotidian a.每日的;平凡的 [quo-tid-i-an]
secular a.世俗的,尘世的 [sec-u-lar]
serial a.连续的,一系列的 [se-ri-al]
bout n.一回合,一阵 [bout]
fast n.绝食,斋戒;adv.很快地,紧紧地 [fast]
periodical n.期刊 [pe-ri-od-i-cal]
beat v.心跳;搅拌 [beat]
pulse v.搏动,跳动;n.脉搏;脉冲 [pulse]

irregularity of recurrence 139

capricious a.变化无常的,任性的 [ca-pri-cious]
desultory a.不连贯的,散漫的 [des-ul-to-ry]

Section VII. Change

1. Simple Change

change 140

deviation n.背离 [de-vi-a-tion]
innovation n.创新,改革 [in-no-va-tion]
reverse n.反面;相反;v.倒车;反转 [re-verse]
alter v.改变,更改 [al-ter]
deviate v.越轨,脱离 [de-vi-ate]
metamorphose v.变形 [met-a-mor-phose]
modify v.修改,变更 [mod-i-fy]
modulate v.调整(音的强弱) [mod-u-late]
recast v.重铸;更换演员 [re-cast]
resume v.重新开始,继续 [re-su-me]
swerve v.突然改变方向 [swerve]
transfigure v.美化,改观 [trans-fig-ure]
transmute v.变化,变作 [trans-mute]
veer v.转向,改变(话题等) [veer]
warp v./n.翘起,弯曲 [warp]

permanence 141

conservative a.保守的,守旧的 [con-serv-a-tive]
intact a.完整的,未动过的 [in-tact]
monotonous a.单调的,无聊的 [mo-not-o-nous]
permanent a.长久的,永久的 [per-ma-nent]
stationary a.静止的,不动的 [sta-tion-ar-y]
unfailing a.无尽的,无穷的 [un-fail-ing]
hold n.(船)货舱 [hold]
maintenance n.维持,维护 [main-te-nance]
obstinacy n.固执,倔强,顽固 [ob-sti-na-cy]
permanence n.永久,持久 [per-ma-nence]
persistence n.坚持不懈,持续 [per-sis-tence]
abide v.容忍,忍受 [a-bide]
endure v.忍受,忍耐 [en-dure]
survive v.幸存 [sur-vive]

cessation 142

abeyance n.中止,搁置 [a-bey-ance]
cessation n.中止,(短暂的)停止 [ces-sa-tion]
cloture n.辩论的终结 [clo-ture]
colon n.冒号 [co-lon]
comma n.逗号 [com-ma]
hold n.(船)货舱 [hold]
intermission n.暂停,间歇 [in-ter-mis-sion]
interregnum n.无王时期 [in-ter-reg-num]
lull n.活动的暂停;v.使平静 [lull]
respite n.休息;暂缓 [res-pite]
suspense n.悬念;挂念 [sus-pense]
truce n.停战,休战(协定) [truce]
arrest v.依法逮捕;阻止,抑制 [ar-rest]
deactivate v.使无效 [de-ac-ti-vate]
interrupt v.暂时中止;打断,打扰 [in-ter-rupt]
suspend v.暂缓,中止;吊,悬 [sus-pend]

continuance in action 143

sustained a.持久的,经久不衰的 [sustained]
continuation n.继续,延续 [con-tin-u-a-tion]
persistence n.坚持不懈,持续 [per-sis-tence]
abide v.容忍,忍受 [a-bide]
perpetuate v.使永存,使永记不忘 [per-pet-u-ate]
pursue v.追赶,追求,追踪 [pur-sue]
sustain v.承受(困难),支撑(重量) [sus-tain]
uphold v.维护,支持 [up-hold]

conversion 144

convertible a.可转换的;n.敞篷车 [con-vert-i-ble]
mature a.成熟的;深思熟虑的 [ma-ture]
alchemy n.炼金术 [al-che-my]
apostate n.背教者;变节者 [a-pos-tate]
assumption n.设想;夺取 [as-sump-tion]
caldron n.(煮汤用的)大锅 [cal-dron]
flux n.不断的变动,动荡不定 [flux]
lapse n.失误;(时间等)流逝 [lapse]
mold n.模子;(美)霉;v.塑造 [mold]
renegade n.叛教者,叛徒 [ren-e-gade]
transition n.过渡时期,转变 [tran-si-tion]
wax n.蜡;v.给…打蜡;盈,增大 [wax]
convert v.使改变(信仰等);n.改变信仰的人 [con-vert]
render v.呈递,表现;提供 [ren-der]
retort v.反驳 [re-tort]

reversion 145

reactionary a.保守的,反动的 [re-ac-tion-ar-y]
regressive a.退步的,退化的 [re-gres-sive]
relapse n.旧病复发;再恶化;v.旧病复发,再恶化 [re-lapse]
retreat n./v.撤退;隐居处 [re-treat]
recoil v.退却,退缩 [re-coil]
regress v.使倒退,复原,逆行 [re-gress]
restore v.使回复,恢复;修复,修补 [re-store]
revert v.恢复,回复到;重新考虑 [re-vert]

revolution 146

cataclysm n.剧变,灾难(常指大洪水或地震) [cat-a-clysm]
convulsion n.骚动;痉挛 [con-vul-sion]
jerk n./v.突然猛拉 [jerk]
legerdemain n.手法;戏法 [leg-er-de-main]
plunge v.投入;俯冲 [plunge]
recast v.重铸;更换演员 [re-cast]

substitution 147

equivalent a.相等的,等值的 [e-quiv-a-lent]
ersatz a.代用的,假的 [er-satz]
vicarious a.替代的,代理的 [vi-car-i-ous]
dummy n.人体模型,假人 [dum-my]
metaphor n.隐喻,暗喻 [met-a-phor]
substitute n.代替品;v.代替 [sub-sti-tute]
commute v.交换;坐公交车上下班 [com-mute]
redeem v.赎罪 [re-deem]
supersede v.淘汰,取代 [su-per-sede]
supplant v.排挤,取代 [sup-plant]

interchange 148

interchangeable a.可互换的 [in-ter-change-a-ble]
reciprocal a.相互的,互惠的 [re-cip-ro-cal]
barter v.易货贸易 [bar-ter]
commute v.交换;坐公交车上下班 [com-mute]
reciprocate v.回报,答谢 [re-cip-ro-cate]
recombine v.重组,再结合 [re-com-bine]
requite v.报答;报复 [re-quite]
retaliate v.报复,反击 [re-tal-i-ate]
transpose v.变换位置,调换 [trans-pose]

2. Complex Change

changeableness 149

agitated a.被鼓动的;不安的 [ag-i-tat-ed]
alternate a.轮流的,交替的;v.轮流,交替n.候选人,替代性选择 [al-ter-nate]
capricious a.变化无常的,任性的 [ca-pri-cious]
desultory a.不连贯的,散漫的 [des-ul-to-ry]
erratic a.反复无常的;古怪的 [er-rat-ic]
fickle a.(爱情或友谊上)易变的,不坚定的 [fick-le]
mobile a.易于移动的 [mo-bile]
protean a.变化多端的,多变的 [pro-te-an]
restless a.不停的;不安静的 [rest-less]
transient a.短暂的,转瞬即逝的 [tran-si-ent]
vagrant a.漂泊的;n.流浪汉,无赖 [va-grant]
versatile a.多才多艺的;多用途的 [ver-sa-tile]
chameleon n.变色龙,蜥蜴;善变之人 [cha-me-le-on]
inconstancy n.(指人)反复无常 [in-con-stan-cy]
mobility n.可动性,流动性 [mo-bil-i-ty]
waffle n.蛋奶烘饼;v.胡扯,唠叨 [waf-fle]
flit v.掠过,迅速飞过 [flit]
flounder v.挣扎;艰苦地移动;n.比目鱼 [floun-der]
fluctuate v.波动;变化 [fluc-tu-ate]
flutter v.拍翅 [flut-ter]
oscillate v.摆动;犹豫 [os-cil-late]
totter v.摇摇欲坠;步履蹒跚 [tot-ter]
vacillate v.游移不定,踌躇 [vac-il-late]
waver v.摇摆,犹豫 [wa-ver]

stability 150

constant a.稳定的,不变的; n.常数 [con-stant]
incontrovertible a.无可辩驳的 [in-con-tro-vert-i-ble]
incorruptible a.(道德上)不受腐蚀的 [in-cor-rupt-i-ble]
indelible a.擦拭不掉的,不可磨灭的 [in-del-i-ble]
inveterate a.积习已深的 [in-vet-er-ate]
irreducible a.不能约的 [ir-re-duc-i-ble]
irrevocable a.无法取消的 [ir-rev-o-ca-ble]
obstinate a.固执的,倔强的 [ob-sti-nate]
perennial a.终年的;永久的 [per-en-ni-al]
permanent a.长久的,永久的 [per-ma-nent]
quiescent a.不动的,静止的 [qui-es-cent]
settled a.固定的 [settled]
steadfast a.忠实的;不变的 [stead-fast]
stranded a.搁浅的,进退两难的 [stranded]
aplomb n.沉着,镇静 [a-plomb]
deterioration n.恶化,堕落 [de-te-ri-o-ra-tion]
fast n.绝食,斋戒;adv.很快地,紧紧地 [fast]
obstinacy n.固执,倔强,顽固 [ob-sti-na-cy]
permanence n.永久,持久 [per-ma-nence]
pillar n.柱子 [pil-lar]
fasten v.使…固定(to fix sth. firmly) [fas-ten]
perpetuate v.使永存,使永记不忘 [per-pet-u-ate]
retain v.保留,保持;留住 [re-tain]
settle v.安置于;决定;栖息 [set-tle]

eventuality 151

momentous a.极重要的,严重的 [mo-men-tous]
advent n.到来,来临 [ad-vent]
casualty n.伤亡事故;伤亡者 [cas-u-al-ty]
consequence n.结果;重要性;价值 [con-se-quence]
dealing n.生意行为;作风 [deal-ing]
emergency n.紧急事件 [e-mer-gen-cy]
hold n.(船)货舱 [hold]
occurrence n.事件;发生 [oc-cur-rence]
particular n.事实,细节 [par-tic-u-lar]
signal n.信号;v.发信号;a.显著的 [sig-nal]
transaction n.办理,交易 [trans-ac-tion]
encounter v.遭遇 [en-coun-ter]
endure v.忍受,忍耐 [en-dure]
ensue v.继而发生 [en-sue]
issue v.出来,流出;发给,分发;n.(书刊的)期 [is-sue]

destiny 152

imminent a.即将发生的,逼近的 [im-mi-nent]
impending a.行将发生的,逼近的 [im-pend-ing]
pregnant a.怀孕的;充满的 [preg-nant]
loom n.织布机;v.(威胁性)隐约出现 [loom]
approach v.接近,靠近;着手处理;n.方法 [ap-proach]
predestine v.注定 [pre-des-tine]
prospect v.勘探;n.期望;前景 [pros-pect]

Section VIII. Causation

1. Constancy of Sequence in Events

cause 153

causal a.原因的,因果关系的 [caus-al]
original a.最初的,原始的;有创意的 [o-rig-i-nal]
seminal a.有创意的 [sem-i-nal]
stock a.普通的,惯用的;n.存货 [stock]
bud n.芽;花蕾 [bud]
crux n.关键,症结所在 [crux]
derivation n.发展,起源;词源 [der-i-va-tion]
descent n.降落;侵袭;血统 [de-scent]
fulcrum n.杠杆支点,支柱 [ful-crum]
genesis n.创始,起源 [gen-e-sis]
germ n.胚芽,芽孢;微生物,细菌 [germ]
hinge n.铰链;关键 [hinge]
leaven n.发酵剂;影响力;v.发酵;影响 [leav-en]
lever n.杠杆;v.撬动 [lev-er]
nucleus n.(原子)核 [nu-cle-us]
principle n.原则,原理;道德准则 [prin-ci-ple]
produce n.产品;农产品 [pro-duce]
stem n.(植物的)茎,叶柄;v.阻止,遏制(水流等) [stem]
trunk n.树干;大衣箱 [trunk]
broach v.开瓶;提出(讨论) [broach]
elicit v.引出,探出 [e-lic-it]
entail v.需要,需求,必须 [en-tail]
evoke v.引起;唤起 [e-voke]
induce v.诱导;引起 [in-duce]
institute v.制定,创立(社团,规章);n.学院,协会 [in-sti-tute]
kindle v.着火,点燃 [kin-dle]
procure v.取得,获得 [pro-cure]

effect 154

derivative a.派生的;无创意的 [de-riv-a-tive]
hereditary a.祖传的,世袭的 [he-red-i-tar-y]
bud n.芽;花蕾 [bud]
consequence n.结果;重要性;价值 [con-se-quence]
denouement n.(小说的)结尾,结局 [de-noue-ment]
derivation n.发展,起源;词源 [der-i-va-tion]
fabric n.纺织品;结构 [fab-ric]
offspring n.儿女,后代 [off-spring]
outgrowth n.自然结果;生长物 [out-growth]
produce n.产品;农产品 [pro-duce]
issue v.出来,流出;发给,分发;n.(书刊的)期 [is-sue]

attribution 155

affiliation n.联系,联合 [af-fil-i-a-tion]

chance 156

adventitious a.偶然的 [ad-ven-ti-tious]
casual a.偶然的 [cas-u-al]
contingent a.意外的;视情况或条件而定的 [con-tin-gent]
fortuitous a.偶然的,意外的;幸运的 [for-tu-i-tous]
haphazard a.任意的 [hap-haz-ard]
indeterminate a.不确定的,不明确的 [in-de-ter-mi-nate]
random a.没有明确目的、计划或者目标的;偶然的,随便的 [ran-dom]
casualty n.伤亡事故;伤亡者 [cas-u-al-ty]
hazard n.危险 [haz-ard]
lottery n.彩票,抽彩给奖法 [lot-ter-y]
odds n.机会,可能性 [odds]

2. Connection between Cause and Effect

power 157

adequate a.足够的 [ad-e-quate]
cogent a.有说服力的 [co-gent]
efficacious a.有效的 [ef-fi-ca-cious]
omnipotent a.全能的,万能的 [om-nip-o-tent]
potential a.潜在的,有可能性的 [po-ten-tial]
puissant a.强有力的,强大的 [pu-is-sant]
attribute n.属性,品质;v.把…归于 [at-trib-ute]
control n.实验对照组 [con-trol]
efficacy n.功效,有效性 [ef-fi-ca-cy]
expertise n.专门技术,专业知识 [ex-per-tise]
faculty n.全体教员;官能 [fac-ul-ty]
gravity n.严肃,正经 [grav-i-ty]
productivity n.生产力;生产率 [pro-duc-tiv-i-ty]
puissance n.权力 [pu-is-sance]
susceptibility n.易感性 [sus-cep-ti-bil-i-ty]
compel v.强迫 [com-pel]
empower v.授权给某人采取行动 [em-pow-er]
endow v.资助,捐助 [en-dow]
sway v.摇动,摇摆;影响使改变;n.摇动 [sway]

impotence 158

incompetent a.无能力的,不能胜任的 [in-com-pe-tent]
ineffectual a.无效的,徒劳无益的 [in-ef-fec-tu-al]
inept a.无能的;不适当的 [in-ept]
nugatory a.无价值的,琐碎的 [nu-ga-to-ry]
prostrate a.俯卧的;沮丧的;v.使下跪鞠躬 [pros-trate]
shattered a.粉碎的;破坏的 [shattered]
unqualified a.无资格的;无限制的,绝对的 [un-qual-i-fied]
cramp n.铁箍,夹子;v.把…箍紧 [cramp]
dummy n.人体模型,假人 [dum-my]
exhaust n.(机器排出的)废气,蒸气;v.使非常疲倦 [ex-haust]
impuissance n.无力,虚弱 [im-pu-is-sance]
ineptitude n.无能,不称职 [in-ept-i-tude]
alter v.改变,更改 [al-ter]
collapse v.坍塌,塌陷;虚脱,晕倒 [col-lapse]
deaden v.减低某物的力量或强度 [dead-en]
disarm v.使…解除武器;使…缓和 [dis-arm]
enervate v.使虚弱,使无力 [en-er-vate]
mollycoddle v.过分爱惜,娇惯;n.娇生惯养的人 [mol-ly-cod-dle]
sprain v.扭伤 [sprain]
sterilize v.使不育;杀菌 [ster-i-lize]

strength 159

adamant a.强硬的;固执的 [ad-a-mant]
hardy a.耐寒的;强壮的 [har-dy]
impregnable a.攻不破的,征服不了的 [im-preg-na-ble]
mighty a.强有力的,强大的 [might-y]
muscular a.肌肉的;强健的 [mus-cu-lar]
overpowering a.压倒性的,不可抗拒的 [o-ver-pow-er-ing]
puissant a.强有力的,强大的 [pu-is-sant]
robust a.健壮的 [ro-bust]
stalwart a.健壮的,坚定的 [stal-wart]
stout a.肥胖的;强壮的 [stout]
stubborn a.固执的;难以改变的 [stub-born]
sturdy a.(身体)强健的;结实的 [stur-dy]
vigorous a.精力旺盛的,健壮的 [vig-or-ous]
acrobat n.特技演员,杂技演员 [ac-ro-bat]
athletics n.运动,体育 [ath-let-ics]
grit n.沙粒;决心,勇气;v.下定决心,咬紧牙关 [grit]
muscle n.肌肉;肌肉的力量 [mus-cle]
nerve n.勇气;v.给予力量或勇气 [nerve]
oak n.橡树 [oak]
pith n.精髓,要点 [pith]
pithiness n.简洁 [pith-i-ness]
recruit n.新兵;新成员;v.征募 [re-cruit]
sinew n.腱,肌肉);力量 [sin-ew]
sovereign n.最高统治者,元首 [sov-er-eign]
tension n.紧张,焦虑;张力 [ten-sion]
brace v.使稳固,架稳;n.支撑物 [brace]
fortify v.加强防卫 [for-ti-fy]
harden v.变硬,变坚强 [hard-en]
invigorate v.鼓舞,激励 [in-vig-or-ate]
refresh v.消除…的疲劳,使精神振作 [re-fresh]
reinforce v.加强力量,增援 [re-in-force]
sustain v.承受(困难),支撑(重量) [sus-tain]

weakness 160

cranky a.怪癖的,任性的;不稳的 [crank-y]
decrepit a.衰老的,破旧的 [de-crep-it]
dull a.不鲜明的;迟钝的;v.变迟钝 [dull]
effete a.无生产力;虚弱的 [ef-fete]
feeble a.虚弱的 [fee-ble]
flaccid a.松弛的;软弱的 [flac-cid]
flimsy a.轻而薄的;脆弱的 [flim-sy]
fragile a.易碎的,易坏的 [frag-ile]
frail a.脆弱的;不坚实的 [frail]
infirm a.虚弱的 [in-firm]
insubstantial a.非实体的;薄弱的 [in-sub-stan-tial]
languid a.没精打采的,倦怠的 [lan-guid]
rickety a.不牢靠的,摇摇欲坠的 [rick-et-y]
rotten a.腐败的;糟糕的 [rot-ten]
shattered a.粉碎的;破坏的 [shattered]
slack a.懒散的,懈怠的;(绳)松弛的;v.松懈,怠惰 [slack]
cramp n.铁箍,夹子;v.把…箍紧 [cramp]
delicacy n.细嫩;精致,优雅 [del-i-ca-cy]
infant n.婴儿 [in-fant]
languor n.身心疲惫 [lan-guor]
reed n.芦苇;簧片 [reed]
relaxation n.松弛,消遣 [re-lax-a-tion]
thread n.螺纹 [thread]
crumble v.弄碎;崩毁 [crum-ble]
debilitate v.使衰弱 [de-bil-i-tate]
decimate v.毁掉大部分;大量杀死 [dec-i-mate]
decline v.拒绝;变弱,变小;n.消减 [de-cline]
dilute v.把(液体)弄稀,弄淡 [di-lute]
enervate v.使虚弱,使无力 [en-er-vate]
enfeeble v.使衰弱 [en-fee-ble]
extenuate v.掩饰(罪行),减轻罪过 [ex-ten-u-ate]
fade v.褪色,消失,凋谢 [fade]
flag v.减弱,衰退;枯萎 [flag]
impoverish v.使成赤贫 [im-pov-er-ish]
languish v.变得消瘦;衰弱 [lan-guish]
limp v.跛行;a.软弱的,松软的 [limp]
sprain v.扭伤 [sprain]
totter v.摇摇欲坠;步履蹒跚 [tot-ter]

3. Power in Operation

production 161

erect a.竖立的,笔直的,直立的 [e-rect]
genetic a.遗传的;起源的 [ge-net-ic]
genial a.愉快的,脾气好的 [ge-ni-al]
pregnant a.怀孕的;充满的 [preg-nant]
prolific a.多产的,多结果的 [pro-lif-ic]
chisel n.凿子;v.凿;欺骗 [chis-el]
edifice n.宏伟的建筑(如宫殿、教堂) [ed-i-fice]
fabric n.纺织品;结构 [fab-ric]
forge n.铁匠铺;v.锤炼;伪造 [forge]
formation n.组织,形成;(军队)编队 [for-ma-tion]
generation n.一代人;(产品类型的)代;产生,发生 [gen-er-a-tion]
genesis n.创始,起源 [gen-e-sis]
hatch n.船舱盖;v.孵化 [hatch]
produce n.产品;农产品 [pro-duce]
propagation n.繁殖 [prop-a-ga-tion]
accomplish v.完成,做成功 [ac-com-plish]
breed v.繁殖;教养;n.品种,种类 [breed]
carve v.雕刻 [carve]
compose v.写,创作;组成 [com-pose]
constitute v.组成,构成;建立 [con-sti-tute]
construct v.建筑,构成 [con-struct]
contrive v.计划,设计 [con-trive]
edify v.陶冶,启发 [ed-i-fy]
engender v.产生,引起 [en-gen-der]
evolve v.使逐渐形成,进化 [e-volve]
fabricate v.捏造;制造 [fab-ri-cate]
generate v.造成;产生 [gen-er-ate]
induce v.诱导;引起 [in-duce]
institute v.制定,创立(社团,规章);n.学院,协会 [in-sti-tute]
kindle v.着火,点燃 [kin-dle]
propagate v.繁殖;传播 [prop-a-gate]

destruction 162

blast >n.一阵(大风);冲击波;v.爆破;枯萎 [blast]
extinct a.绝种的,不存在的 [ex-tinct]
incendiary a.放火的,纵火的 [in-cen-di-ar-y]
perishing a.严寒的 [per-ish-ing]
prostrate a.俯卧的;沮丧的;v.使下跪鞠躬 [pros-trate]
subversive a.颠覆性的,破坏性的 [sub-ver-sive]
abolition n.废除,革除 [ab-o-li-tion]
cataclysm n.剧变,灾难(常指大洪水或地震) [cat-a-clysm]
debacle n.解冻;崩溃 [de-ba-cle]
demolition n.破坏,毁坏 [dem-o-li-tion]
extinction n.熄灭;消灭 [ex-tinc-tion]
extirpation n.根除,铲除 [ex-tir-pa-tion]
fell n.兽皮;v.砍伐;a.凶猛的,可怕的 [fell]
havoc n.大破坏,混乱 [hav-oc]
sabotage n.阴谋破坏,颠覆活动 [sab-o-tage]
sacrifice n.牺牲;v.宰牲祭神 [sac-ri-fice]
sap n.树液;活力;v.消弱,耗尽 [sap]
swamp n.沼泽;v.使陷入;淹没 [swamp]
annihilate v.消灭 [an-ni-hi-late]
confound v.使迷惑,搞混 [con-found]
demolish v.破坏;拆除 [de-mol-ish]
devastate v.摧毁,破坏 [dev-as-tate]
devour v.吞食;贪婪地享受 [de-vour]
dismantle v.拆除 [dis-man-tle]
dispel v.驱散,消除 [dis-pel]
dissipate v.(使)驱散;浪费 [dis-si-pate]
dissolve v.使固体溶解 [dis-solve]
engulf v.吞噬 [en-gulf]
eradicate v.根除;扑灭 [e-rad-i-cate]
erase v.擦掉,抹去 [e-rase]
expunge v.删除 [ex-punge]
exterminate v.消灭,灭绝 [ex-ter-mi-nate]
extinguish v.使…熄灭;使…不复存在 [ex-tin-guish]
nip v.小口啜饮 [nip]
nullify v.使无效,取消 [nul-li-fy]
overthrow v./n.推翻;终止 [o-ver-throw]
overturn v.翻倒;推翻 [o-ver-turn]
overwhelm v.泛滥;压倒 [o-ver-whelm]
perish v.死,暴卒 [per-ish]
quash v.镇压;取消 [quash]
quell v.制止,镇压 [quell]
quench v.熄灭(火);抑制(欲望) [quench]
ravage v.摧毁,使荒废 [rav-age]
raze v.彻底破坏 [raze]
squash v.压碎,挤压;n.南瓜 [squash]
squelch v.压制,镇压 [squelch]
subvert v.颠覆,推翻 [sub-vert]
topple v.倾覆,推倒 [top-ple]
vaporize v.(使)蒸发 [va-por-ize]
waste v.使身体消瘦,损耗 [waste]

reproduction 163

generation n.一代人;(产品类型的)代;产生,发生 [gen-er-a-tion]
phoenix n.凤凰,永生或再生的象征 [phoe-nix]
multiply v.乘;增加;繁殖 [mul-ti-ply]
renovate v.修复,装修,翻新 [ren-o-vate]
restore v.使回复,恢复;修复,修补 [re-store]
resuscitate v.使复活,使苏醒 [re-sus-ci-tate]
revive v.使苏醒;再流 [re-vive]

producer 164

architect n.建筑师 [ar-chi-tect]
generator n.发电机 [gen-er-a-tor]
founder v.(船)沉没;(计划)失败 [found-er]

destroyer 165

iconoclast n.攻击传统观念或风俗的人 [i-con-o-clast]

paternity 166

linear a.线的;成直线的 [lin-e-ar]
maternal a.母性的 [ma-ter-nal]
stock a.普通的,惯用的;n.存货 [stock]
ancestor n.祖先,祖宗 [an-ces-tor]
ancestry n.家系 [an-ces-try]
descent n.降落;侵袭;血统 [de-scent]
genealogy n.家谱学 [ge-ne-al-o-gy]
lineage n.宗系,血统 [lin-e-age]
stem n.(植物的)茎,叶柄;v.阻止,遏制(水流等) [stem]
trunk n.树干;大衣箱 [trunk]

posterity 167

brood n.一窝幼鸟;v.孵蛋;冥想 [brood]
descendant n.后代,后裔 [de-scend-ant]
heir n.继承人 [heir]
lineage n.宗系,血统 [lin-e-age]
litter n.垃圾;一窝(动物) [lit-ter]
offspring n.儿女,后代 [off-spring]
progeny n.后代,子女 [prog-e-ny]
scion n.嫩芽;子孙 [sci-on]
shoot n.嫩芽,新芽 [shoot]
spat n.口角,小争论 [spat]
spawn n.(鱼等)卵子;v.大量生产 [spawn]
breed v.繁殖;教养;n.品种,种类 [breed]
issue v.出来,流出;发给,分发;n.(书刊的)期 [is-sue]
sprout v.长出,萌芽;n.嫩芽 [sprout]

productiveness 168

fertile a.多产的;肥沃的 [fer-tile]
luxuriant a.繁茂的;肥沃的 [lux-u-ri-ant]
pregnant a.怀孕的;充满的 [preg-nant]
prolific a.多产的,多结果的 [pro-lif-ic]
fecundity n.多产,富饶;繁殖力,生殖力 [fe-cun-di-ty]
produce n.产品;农产品 [pro-duce]
propagation n.繁殖 [prop-a-ga-tion]
conceive v.想像,构想;怀孕 [con-ceive]
fertilize v.受精,受粉;施肥 [fer-ti-lize]
generate v.造成;产生 [gen-er-ate]
multiply v.乘;增加;繁殖 [mul-ti-ply]

unproductiveness 169

arid a.干旱的;枯燥的 [ar-id]
barren a.不育的;贫瘠的;不结果实的 [bar-ren]
sterile a.贫瘠且无植被的;不孕的;无细菌的 [ster-ile]
unproductive a.徒然的,无成效的 [un-pro-duc-tive]
fallow n.休耕地;a.(土地)休耕的 [fal-low]
desert v.放弃,离弃 [de-sert]
sterilize v.使不育;杀菌 [ster-i-lize]
waste v.使身体消瘦,损耗 [waste]

agency 170

efficacious a.有效的 [ef-fi-ca-cious]
operative a.(计划等)实施中的;生效的 [op-er-a-tive]
interaction n.相互作用(影响) [in-ter-ac-tion]
maintenance n.维持,维护 [main-te-nance]
procurement n.获得,接收 [pro-cure-ment]
sustain v.承受(困难),支撑(重量) [sus-tain]
swing v.摇摆;旋转;n.秋千 [swing]

physical energy 171

acute a.灵敏的;[病]急性的 [a-cute]
brisk a.敏捷的,活泼的;清新健康的 [brisk]
caustic a.腐蚀性的;刻薄的;n.腐蚀剂 [caus-tic]
corrosive a.腐蚀性的,腐蚀的,蚀坏的 [cor-ro-sive]
drastic a.猛烈的,激烈的 [dras-tic]
harsh a.严厉的;粗糙的;刺耳的 [harsh]
incisive a.一针见血的 [in-ci-sive]
mordant a.讥讽的,尖酸的 [mor-dant]
poignant a.伤心的;尖锐的 [poign-ant]
racy a.活泼的,生动的 [rac-y]
severe a.严格的;凶猛的 [se-vere]
stringent a.(规定)严格的,苛刻的;缺钱的 [strin-gent]
trenchant a.一针见血的 [trench-ant]
virulent a.剧毒的;恶毒的 [vir-u-lent]
vivid a.清晰的,鲜艳的;大胆的,活泼的,逼真的 [viv-id]
acrimony n.尖刻,刻薄 [ac-ri-mo-ny]
fermentation n.发酵 [fer-men-ta-tion]
irritation n.愤怒,急躁,刺激 [ir-ri-ta-tion]
seasoning n.调味品,佐料 [sea-son-ing]
exert v.运用(力量等) [ex-ert]
ferment v./n.(使)发酵;骚动 [fer-ment]
inflame v.使燃烧;激怒(某人) [in-flame]
intensify v.加剧 [in-ten-si-fy]
kindle v.着火,点燃 [kin-dle]
stir v.刺激 [stir]

physical inertness 172

blunt a.钝的;直率的;v.变钝 [blunt]
dormant a.冬眠的;静止的 [dor-mant]
dull a.不鲜明的;迟钝的;v.变迟钝 [dull]
inert a.惰性的;行动迟钝的 [in-ert]
latent a.潜伏的 [la-tent]
passive a.被动的,缺乏活力的 [pas-sive]
slack a.懒散的,懈怠的;(绳)松弛的;v.松懈,怠惰 [slack]
tame a.驯服的;沉闷的 [tame]
torpid a.懒散的,死气沉沉的 [tor-pid]
inertia n.惰性;懒惰 [in-er-tia]
languor n.身心疲惫 [lan-guor]
latency n.潜伏期 [la-ten-cy]
obstinacy n.固执,倔强,顽固 [ob-sti-na-cy]
permanence n.永久,持久 [per-ma-nence]
sloth n.懒惰;树獭(一种动物) [sloth]
torpor n.死气沉沉 [tor-por]

violence 173

blast >n.一阵(大风);冲击波;v.爆破;枯萎 [blast]
headlong adj./adv.轻率的(地),迅猛的(地) [head-long]
acute a.灵敏的;[病]急性的 [a-cute]
blustering a.大吵大闹的 [blustering]
boisterous a.喧闹的;猛烈的 [bois-ter-ous]
brusque a.唐突的,鲁莽的 [brusque]
desperate a.不顾死活的,拼命的 [des-per-ate]
frantic a.疯狂的,狂乱的 [fran-tic]
headstrong a.刚愎自用的 [head-strong]
impetuous a.冲动的,鲁莽的 [im-pet-u-ous]
irrepressible a.无法约束或阻止的 [ir-re-press-i-ble]
meteoric a.流星的;昙花一现的 [me-te-or-ic]
obstreperous a.吵闹的,难管束的 [ob-strep-er-ous]
rampant a.蔓生的,猖獗的 [ram-pant]
riotous a.暴乱的;蛮横的 [ri-ot-ous]
savage a.凶猛的,野蛮的 [sav-age]
turbulent a.导致动乱的;骚乱的 [tur-bu-lent]
unmitigated a.未缓和的,未减轻的,全然的 [un-mit-i-gat-ed]
uproarious a.骚动的,喧嚣的;令人捧腹的 [up-roar-i-ous]
climax n.顶点,高潮 [cli-max]
convulsion n.骚动;痉挛 [con-vul-sion]
debacle n.解冻;崩溃 [de-ba-cle]
detonation n.爆炸,爆炸声 [det-o-na-tion]
explosive n.炸药;a.爆炸性的;使人冲动的 [ex-plo-sive]
flare n./v.(火焰)摇曳,闪耀 [flare]
lash n.鞭子;v.鞭打;捆住 [lash]
outrage n.暴行 [out-rage]
paroxysm n.(感情等)突发 [par-ox-ysm]
rage n.盛怒;v.激怒 [rage]
squall n.短暂、突然且猛烈的风暴;短暂的骚动 [squall]
tempest n.暴风雨;骚动 [tem-pest]
torrent n.洪流,急流 [tor-rent]
turmoil n.混乱,骚乱 [tur-moil]
uproar n.喧闹,骚动 [up-roar]
volley n.齐发,群射;v.齐发,群射;(足球、网球)截击 [vol-ley]
accelerate v.加速;促进 [ac-cel-er-ate]
aggravate v.加重,恶化 [ag-gra-vate]
annoy v.惹恼;打搅,骚扰 [an-noy]
bluster v.(指风)猛刮 [blus-ter]
convulse v.使震动,震惊 [con-vulse]
discharge v.流出;释放;解雇;履行义务 [dis-charge]
effervesce v.冒泡;热情洋溢 [ef-fer-vesce]
exacerbate v.加重,恶化 [ex-ac-er-bate]
exasperate v.激怒,使恼怒 [ex-as-per-ate]
ferment v./n.(使)发酵;骚动 [fer-ment]
foment v.煽动,助长(坏事) [fo-ment]
fulminate v.猛烈抨击,严厉谴责 [ful-mi-nate]
fume v./n.愤怒;冒烟 [fume]
incite v.激发,刺激 [in-cite]
inflame v.使燃烧;激怒(某人) [in-flame]
infuriate v.使(人)极为愤怒 [in-fu-ri-ate]
irritate v.激怒;刺激 [ir-ri-tate]
kindle v.着火,点燃 [kin-dle]
rampage v.狂暴地乱冲;n.暴怒 [ram-page]
riot v.参加暴动 [ri-ot]
tear v.撕裂 [tear]

moderation 174

gingerly adj./adv.小心的(地);谨慎的(地) [gin-ger-ly]
bland a.(人)情绪平稳的;(食物)无味的 [bland]
blunt a.钝的;直率的;v.变钝 [blunt]
dull a.不鲜明的;迟钝的;v.变迟钝 [dull]
gentle a.温和的,慈祥的 [gen-tle]
halcyon a.平静的;愉快的 [hal-cy-on]
hypnotic a.催眠的;n.催眠药 [hyp-not-ic]
lenient a.宽大的;仁慈的 [le-ni-ent]
measured a.精确的;慎重的 [meas-ured]
piano a.(音乐)轻柔的 [pi-a-no]
sedative a.(药物)镇静的;n.镇静剂 [sed-a-tive]
smooth a.光滑的;平稳的;v.弄平,使光滑;消除 [smooth]
sober a.清醒的;庄重的 [so-ber]
tame a.驯服的;沉闷的 [tame]
balm n.香油,药膏;镇痛剂 [balm]
curb n.路缘,(街道的)镶边石;马勒;v.控制 [curb]
lull n.活动的暂停;v.使平静 [lull]
lullaby n.摇篮曲 [lull-a-by]
palliative n.缓释剂;a.减轻的,缓和的 [pal-li-a-tive]
rebate n.折扣,回扣 [re-bate]
relaxation n.松弛,消遣 [re-lax-a-tion]
sobriety n.节制,庄重 [so-bri-e-ty]
allay v.减轻,缓和 [al-lay]
alleviate v.缓和,减轻 [al-le-vi-ate]
appease v.使平静,安抚 [ap-pease]
assuage v.缓和,减轻 [as-suage]
compose v.写,创作;组成 [com-pose]
damp v.减弱,制止振动;a.潮湿的 [damp]
deaden v.减低某物的力量或强度 [dead-en]
hush v./n.肃静,安静 [hush]
milk v.榨取 [milk]
mitigate v.减轻,缓和 [mit-i-gate]
mollify v.安慰,安抚 [mol-li-fy]
pacify v.使安静,抚慰 [pac-i-fy]
quell v.制止,镇压 [quell]
relent v.动怜悯心;减弱 [re-lent]
sheathe v.将(刀,剑等)插入鞘 [sheathe]
slacken v.(使)松弛,放松 [slack-en]
slake v.解渴,消渴 [slake]
soothe v.抚慰;减轻 [soothe]
subdue v.征服;压制;减轻 [sub-due]
temper v.锤炼;缓和;n.脾气 [tem-per]

4. Indirect Power

influence 175

dominant a.显性的,优势的 [dom-i-nant]
predominant a.有势力的 [pre-dom-i-nant]
rampant a.蔓生的,猖獗的 [ram-pant]
rife a.流行的,普遍的 [rife]
auspices n.资助,赞助 [aus-pi-ces]
control n.实验对照组 [con-trol]
domination n.控制,支配,管辖 [dom-i-na-tion]
patronage n.赞助,惠顾 [pat-ron-age]
purchase n.支点(阻止东西下滑) [pur-chase]
rage n.盛怒;v.激怒 [rage]
reign n.统治时期;王朝;领域 [reign]
dominate v.控制,支配 [dom-i-nate]
pervade v.弥漫,普及 [per-vade]
predominate v.支配,统治;占优势 [pre-dom-i-nate]
prevail v.战胜;盛行 [pre-vail]
sway v.摇动,摇摆;影响使改变;n.摇动 [sway]

175.a. Absence Of Influence

tendency 176

conducive a.有助于…的 [con-du-cive]
subsidiary a.辅助的;次要的 [sub-sid-i-ar-y]
aptitude n.适宜;才能,资质 [ap-ti-tude]
bent n.特长,爱好;a.弯曲的 [bent]
cast n.演员阵容;剧团;v.扔;铸造 [cast]
grain n.谷物;小的硬粒 [grain]
liability n.责任;债务 [li-a-bil-i-ty]
predisposition n.倾向,癖性 [pre-dis-po-si-tion]
propensity n.嗜好,习性 [pro-pen-si-ty]
susceptibility n.易感性 [sus-cep-ti-bil-i-ty]
dispose v.使倾向;处理掉 [dis-pose]
humor v.纵容,迁就 [hu-mor]
promote v.提升;促进 [pro-mote]
tend v.照料,看顾 [tend]
trend v./n.趋势,倾向 [trend]

liability 177

contingent a.意外的;视情况或条件而定的 [con-tin-gent]
exposure n.暴露,显露,曝光 [ex-po-sure]
liability n.责任;债务 [li-a-bil-i-ty]
subject n.受支配的人,隶属 [sub-ject]
susceptibility n.易感性 [sus-cep-ti-bil-i-ty]
incur v.招惹 [in-cur]

5. Combinations of Causes

concurrence 178

coincide v.巧合;一致 [co-in-cide]
concur v.意见相同,一致 [con-cur]
consent v.同意,允许 [con-sent]
conspire v.阴谋,共谋 [con-spire]

counteraction 179

cross a.生气的 [cross]
reactionary a.保守的,反动的 [re-ac-tion-ar-y]
antagonism n.反抗,敌意 [an-tag-o-nism]
collision n.碰撞,冲突 [col-li-sion]
friction n.摩擦;矛盾,冲突 [fric-tion]
interference n.干涉,妨碍 [in-ter-fer-ence]
polarity n.极端性,二极分化 [po-lar-i-ty]
antagonize v.使对抗;与…对抗 [an-tag-o-nize]
check v.使突然停止,阻止 [check]
clash v.冲突,撞击 [clash]
contravene v.违背(法规,习俗等) [con-tra-vene]
counteract v.消除,抵消 [coun-ter-act]
hinder v.阻碍,妨碍 [hin-der]
neutralize v.使无效;中和 [neu-tral-ize]
oppose v.反对 [op-pose]
stultify v.使变得荒谬可笑;使无用 [stul-ti-fy]
traverse v.横穿过,横跨 [trav-erse]
withstand v.顶住;经受住 [with-stand]

Class II. Words Relating to Space

Section I. Space in General

1. Abstract Space

space 180

ample a.富足的;充足的 [am-ple]
expansive a.(指人)健谈的,开朗的;可扩大的,可伸展的 [ex-pan-sive]
void a.空的,缺乏的;n.空隙,空处;空虚感 [void]
arena n.(角斗的)竞技场 [a-re-na]
compass n.指南针,罗盘;界限,范围 [com-pass]
dimension n.维度,尺寸 [di-men-sion]
infinity n.无限的时间或空间 [in-fin-i-ty]
latitude n.言行自由;纬度 [lat-i-tude]
margin n.页边空白,边缘;差额;余地;利润 [mar-gin]
purchase n.支点(阻止东西下滑) [pur-chase]
scope n.眼界;范围 [scope]
tolerance n.容许量,公差;容忍,忍受 [tol-er-ance]
stretch v.变长;伸展 [stretch]
swing v.摇摆;旋转;n.秋千 [swing]
waste v.使身体消瘦,损耗 [waste]

region 181

provincial a.偏狭的,粗俗的 [pro-vin-cial]
arena n.(角斗的)竞技场 [a-re-na]
biosphere n.生命层,生物圈 [bi-o-sphere]
circuit n.环行,环行道;线路;电路 [cir-cuit]
compartment n.隔间,车厢 [com-part-ment]
court n.法庭,法院;宫廷,朝廷;v.献殷勤;追求 [court]
district n.地区,行政区,(美国各州的)众议院选区 [dis-trict]
hemisphere n.半球 [hem-i-sphere]
latitude n.言行自由;纬度 [lat-i-tude]
patch n.补丁;一小片(土地) [patch]
plot n.情节;阴谋;策划 [plot]
realm n.王国;领域,范围 [realm]
reserve n.储备(物),储藏量;缄默,谨慎;v.保留,储备,预订 [re-serve]
soil n./v.弄脏,污损 [soil]
beat v.心跳;搅拌 [beat]
zone v.分成区 [zone]

place 182

compartment n.隔间,车厢 [com-part-ment]
square v.一致,符合;结清 [square]

2. Relative Space

situation 183

aspect n.(问题等的)方面;面貌,外表 [as-pect]
locale n.事件发生的现场、地点 [lo-cale]
posture n.姿势,体态;态度;v.故作姿态 [pos-ture]
status n.身分,地位 [sta-tus]
pose v.摆姿势;造作 [pose]

location 184

colony n.菌群;殖民地 [col-o-ny]
deposition n.免职;沉积;作证 [dep-o-si-tion]
freight n.货物;v.装货于(船等) [freight]
habitat n.自然环境,栖息地 [hab-i-tat]
hive n.蜂房;忙碌之地 [hive]
pack n.狼群;一群动物 [pack]
pitch n.沥青,柏油;音调 [pitch]
adopt v.收养;采纳 [a-dopt]
anchor v.稳固;固定n.锚 [an-chor]
colonize v.建立殖民地 [col-o-nize]
domesticate v.驯养 [do-mes-ti-cate]
embed v.牢牢插入,嵌于 [em-bed]
graft v./n.嫁接;贪污 [graft]
inhabit v.栖居于,占据 [in-hab-it]
install v.安装,装置;使就职 [in-stall]
perch v.(鸟)栖息 [perch]
settle v.安置于;决定;栖息 [set-tle]
shelve v.搁置 [shelve]
squat v.蹲下;a.矮胖的 [squat]
tether v.用绳或链拴住(牲畜);n.(拴牲畜的)绳或链;限度,范围 [teth-er]

displacement 185

dislodge v.逐出,取出 [dis-lodge]
dispel v.驱散,消除 [dis-pel]
displace v.换置;使某人某物离开原位 [dis-place]
remove v.移走;脱掉;迁移 [re-move]
transfer v.转移,传递;调任,转让 [trans-fer]

3. Existence in Space

presence 186

omnipresent a.无处不在的 [om-ni-pres-ent]
populous a.人口稠密的 [pop-u-lous]
ubiquitous a.无所不在的 [u-biq-ui-tous]
bystander n.旁观者 [by-stand-er]
occupation n.工作,职业;占领 [oc-cu-pa-tion]
resident n.居民;a.定居的,常驻的 [res-i-dent]
tenant n.房客 [ten-ant]
abide v.容忍,忍受 [a-bide]
frequent v.时常来访;a.惯常的 [fre-quent]
haunt v.常去;鬼魂出没;(事情)萦绕心头;n.常去的地方 [haunt]
inhabit v.栖居于,占据 [in-hab-it]
perch v.(鸟)栖息 [perch]
permeate v.扩散;渗透 [per-me-ate]
pervade v.弥漫,普及 [per-vade]
reside v.居住 [re-side]

absence 187

barren a.不育的;贫瘠的;不结果实的 [bar-ren]
deserted a.荒芜的,无人的 [de-sert-ed]
devoid a.空的,缺少的 [de-void]
sterile a.贫瘠且无植被的;不孕的;无细菌的 [ster-ile]
vacuous a.发呆的,愚笨的 [vac-u-ous]
void a.空的,缺乏的;n.空隙,空处;空虚感 [void]
absenteeism n.旷课,旷工 [ab-sen-tee-ism]
alibi n.某人当时不在犯罪现场的申辩或证明 [al-i-bi]
hiatus n.空隙,裂缝 [hi-a-tus]
desert v.放弃,离弃 [de-sert]
withdraw v.撤退,收回;隐居 [with-draw]

inhabitant 188

indigenous a.土产的,本地的 [in-dig-e-nous]
natal a.出生的,诞生时的 [na-tal]
colony n.菌群;殖民地 [col-o-ny]
compatriot n.同胞,同国人 [com-pa-tri-ot]
denizen n.居民;外籍居民 [den-i-zen]
incumbent n.在职者,现任者;a.义不容辞的 [in-cum-bent]
inhabitant n.居民;栖息的动物 [in-hab-it-ant]
resident n.居民;a.定居的,常驻的 [res-i-dent]
tenant n.房客 [ten-ant]
vernacular n.本国语,地方语 [ver-nac-u-lar]
inhabit v.栖居于,占据 [in-hab-it]
scotch v.镇压,粉碎 [scotch]

abode 189

covert a.秘密的,隐密的 [cov-ert]
metropolitan a.大都市的,首都的 [met-ro-pol-i-tan]
palatial a.宫殿般的;宏伟的 [pa-la-tial]
provincial a.偏狭的,粗俗的 [pro-vin-cial]
rural a.乡村的 [ru-ral]
rustic a.乡村的,乡土气的 [rus-tic]
aviary n.大鸟笼,鸟舍 [a-vi-ar-y]
barn n.谷仓,牲口棚 [barn]
biosphere n.生命层,生物圈 [bi-o-sphere]
cloister n.修道院 [clois-ter]
colonnade n.柱廊 [col-on-nade]
coop n.(鸡)笼,栏 [co-op]
cosmopolitan n.世界主义者,四海为家的人 [cos-mo-pol-i-tan]
court n.法庭,法院;宫廷,朝廷;v.献殷勤;追求 [court]
den n.兽穴,窝 [den]
domicile n.住处,住所 [dom-i-cile]
dwelling n.住处 [dwell-ing]
folly n.愚蠢;愚蠢的行为,思想或做法 [fol-ly]
grove n.小树林,树丛 [grove]
habitat n.自然环境,栖息地 [hab-i-tat]
harbor n.港,避难所;v.包庇,隐匿 [har-bor]
hive n.蜂房;忙碌之地 [hive]
hovel n.茅舍;肮脏的小屋 [hov-el]
kennel n.狗舍,狗窝 [ken-nel]
lair n.野兽的巢穴;躲藏处 [lair]
mansion n.公馆;大厦 [man-sion]
metropolis n.大城市 [me-trop-o-lis]
pen n.围栏;监禁;母天鹅 [pen]
quay n.码头 [quay]
resort n.度假胜地 [re-sort]
retreat n./v.撤退;隐居处 [re-treat]
terrace n.一层梯田;阳台 [ter-race]
throne n.宝座;王位 [throne]
address v.处理,对付,着手解决;致词 [ad-dress]
bar v.禁止,阻挡;n.条,棒 [ba-r]
haunt v.常去;鬼魂出没;(事情)萦绕心头;n.常去的地方 [haunt]
inhabit v.栖居于,占据 [in-hab-it]
lap v.舔食;泼溅 [lap]
perch v.(鸟)栖息 [perch]
shed v.流出(眼泪等);脱落(叶子) [shed]
square v.一致,符合;结清 [square]
stall v.使停止,使延迟 [stall]

contents 190

bale n.大包裹;灾祸,不幸 [bale]
cargo n.(船、飞机等装载的)货物 [car-go]
freight n.货物;v.装货于(船等) [freight]

receptacle 191

bucket >n.圆桶 [buck-et]
trowel 泥刀,小铲子 [trow-el]
imperial a.帝王的,至尊的 [im-pe-ri-al]
vascular a.血管的,脉管的 [vas-cu-lar]
alcove n.凹室 [al-cove]
bail n.保释金 [bail]
bin n.大箱子 [bin]
budget n.预算 [budg-et]
cabinet n.橱柜;内阁 [cab-i-net]
caldron n.(煮汤用的)大锅 [cal-dron]
capsule n.荚;胶囊 [cap-sule]
cellar n.地下室;酒窖 [cel-lar]
chalice n.大酒杯;圣餐杯 [chal-ice]
cistern n.贮水池 [cis-tern]
closet n.壁橱;a.秘密的 [clos-et]
compartment n.隔间,车厢 [com-part-ment]
conservatory n.温室;音乐学院 [con-serv-a-to-ry]
court n.法庭,法院;宫廷,朝廷;v.献殷勤;追求 [court]
crate n.篓,板条箱 [crate]
cubicle n.大房间中隔出的小室 [cu-bi-cle]
den n.兽穴,窝 [den]
ewer n.大口水罐 [ew-er]
flask n.烧瓶,细颈瓶 [flask]
goblet n.高脚酒杯 [gob-let]
greenhouse n.花房,温室 [green-house]
grotto n.洞穴 [grot-to]
hangar n.飞机库 [hang-ar]
hold n.(船)货舱 [hold]
horn n.角,角质;喇叭 [horn]
lobby n.大厅,休息厅 [lob-by]
marsupial n./a.有袋动物(的) [mar-su-pi-al]
pantry n.食品室 [pan-try]
pitcher n.有柄水罐 [pitch-er]
pod n.豆荚;v.剥掉(豆荚) [pod]
portfolio n.文件夹;股份单 [port-fo-li-o]
quiver n.箭筒,箭囊 [quiv-er]
receptacle n.容器 [re-cep-ta-cle]
recess n.壁凹(墙上装的架子、柜子等凹处);休假 [re-cess]
recipient n.接受者,收受者 [re-cip-i-ent]
refectory n.(学院)餐厅,食堂 [re-fec-to-ry]
scabbard n.(刀剑)鞘 [scab-bard]
sheath n.(刀、剑)鞘、套 [sheath]
skillet n.煎锅 [skil-let]
spatula n.(调拌等用的)抹刀 [spat-u-la]
syringe n.注射器 [sy-ringe]
terrace n.一层梯田;阳台 [ter-race]
trunk n.树干;大衣箱 [trunk]
vault n.拱顶;地窖 [vault]
vessel n.血管;容器;船只 [ves-sel]
butt v.用头抵撞,顶撞;n.粗大的一端;烟蒂 [butt]
hamper v.妨碍,阻挠;n.有盖提篮 [ham-per]
jar v.冲突,抵触;震惊;发刺耳声 [jar]
knit v.编织 [knit]
lounge v.懒散地斜靠;n.休息室 [lounge]
pan v.严厉批评 [pa-n]
poke v.刺,戳;嘲弄 [poke]
press v.挤压 [press]
retort v.反驳 [re-tort]
stall v.使停止,使延迟 [stall]
stomach v.吃得下;容忍 [stom-ach]

Section II. Dimensions

1. General Dimensions

size 192

ample a.富足的;充足的 [am-ple]
colossal a.巨大的,庞大的 [co-los-sal]
comprehensive a.全面的,综合的 [com-pre-hen-sive]
considerable a.相当多的;值得考虑的 [con-sid-er-a-ble]
elephantine a.笨拙的,庞大的 [el-e-phan-tine]
enormous a.极大的,巨大的 [e-nor-mous]
immense a.极大的;无限的 [im-mense]
magnificent a.壮丽的,宏伟的;高尚的 [mag-nif-i-cent]
mammoth a.巨大的 [mam-moth]
massive a.巨大的,厚重的 [mas-sive]
mighty a.强有力的,强大的 [might-y]
monumental a.极大的;纪念碑的 [mon-u-men-tal]
obese a.极肥胖的 [o-bese]
prodigious a.巨大的 [pro-di-gious]
stalwart a.健壮的,坚定的 [stal-wart]
stout a.肥胖的;强壮的 [stout]
titanic a.巨人的,力大无比的 [ti-tan-ic]
unwieldy a.笨重的,笨拙的 [un-wield-y]
voluminous a.长篇的;多产的 [vo-lu-mi-nous]
amplitude n.广大,广阔 [am-pli-tude]
bulk n.体积;数量;大多数;大身躯 [bulk]
colossus n.巨人;巨型雕像 [co-los-sus]
cord n.考得(木材堆的体积单位,等于128立方英尺,3.6246立方米);绳索 [cord]
dimension n.维度,尺寸 [di-men-sion]
enormity n.极恶;暴行;巨大 [e-nor-mi-ty]
immensity n.巨大之物;无限 [im-men-si-ty]
loaf n.一条(面包);v.虚度光阴 [loaf]
lump n.一块,肿块;v.形成块状 [lump]
magnitude n.重要;星球的光亮度 [mag-ni-tude]

littleness 193

dapper a.整洁漂亮的;动作敏捷的 [dap-per]
evanescent a.迅速消失的,短暂的 [ev-a-nes-cent]
impalpable a.无法触及的;不易理解的 [im-pal-pa-ble]
inappreciable a.微不足道的 [in-ap-pre-ci-a-ble]
infinitesimal a.极微小的;n.极小量 [in-fin-i-tes-i-mal]
intangible a.不可触摸的 [in-tan-gi-ble]
limited a.有限的 [lim-it-ed]
microscopic a.极小的;显微镜的 [mi-cro-scop-ic]
petty a.琐碎的;小心眼的 [pet-ty]
puny a.弱小的,发育不良的 [pu-ny]
rudimentary a.初步的,未充分发展的 [ru-di-men-ta-ry]
scant a.不足的,缺乏的 [scant]
trivial a.琐细的 [triv-i-al]
vestigial a.退化的 [ves-tig-i-al]
bacteria n.细菌,培养基 [bac-te-ri-a]
cramp n.铁箍,夹子;v.把…箍紧 [cramp]
dwarf n.侏儒;矮小的植物;v.使变矮小 [dwarf]
epitome n.典型;梗概 [e-pit-o-me]
fragment n.碎片;分裂 [frag-ment]
microbe n.微生物 [mi-crobe]
microscope n.显微镜 [mi-cro-scope]
miniature n.小画像;缩影 [min-i-a-ture]
minnow n.鲦鱼,小淡水鱼 [min-now]
mite n.极小量;小虫 [mite]
scale n.鱼鳞;(音乐)音阶 [scale]
squat v.蹲下;a.矮胖的 [squat]

expansion 194

expansive a.(指人)健谈的,开朗的;可扩大的,可伸展的 [ex-pan-sive]
obese a.极肥胖的 [o-bese]
turgid a.浮肿的,肿胀的;浮夸的 [tur-gid]
accretion n.自然的增加;增加物 [ac-cre-tion]
bud n.芽;花蕾 [bud]
bulb n.植物的球茎;灯泡 [bulb]
distension n.膨胀 [dis-ten-sion]
increment n.增值,增加 [in-cre-ment]
mantle n.披风,斗篷;v.覆盖 [man-tle]
rarefaction n.稀薄 [rar-e-fac-tion]
shoot n.嫩芽,新芽 [shoot]
wax n.蜡;v.给…打蜡;盈,增大 [wax]
aggrandize v.增大,扩张;吹棒 [ag-gran-dize]
amplify v.放大;详述 [am-pli-fy]
cram v.填塞,塞满;临时抱佛脚,为考试而学习 [cram]
dilate v.(身体某部位)张大,扩大 [di-late]
distend v.(使)膨胀,胀大 [dis-tend]
exaggerate v.夸张;夸大 [ex-ag-ger-ate]
expand v.扩大,膨胀 [ex-pand]
extend v.延展,延长 [ex-tend]
fatten v.使长肥;使土壤肥沃;装满 [fat-ten]
germinate v.发芽;发展 [ger-mi-nate]
inflate v.使充气,使膨胀 [in-flate]
magnify v.放大;赞美 [mag-ni-fy]
sprout v.长出,萌芽;n.嫩芽 [sprout]
stretch v.变长;伸展 [stretch]
surpass v.超过 [sur-pass]
swell v.肿胀,增强 [swell]

contraction 195

astringent a.止血的,收缩的;n.收缩剂,止血剂 [as-trin-gent]
compact a.结实的;简洁的;n.合同,协议 [com-pact]
wizened a.干皱的,干巴巴的 [wiz-ened]
atrophy n.萎缩,衰退 [at-ro-phy]
chip n.薄片,碎片;集成电路片 [chip]
compendium n.简要,概略 [com-pen-di-um]
contract n.合同;v.订合同;收缩 [con-tract]
cramp n.铁箍,夹子;v.把…箍紧 [cramp]
diminution n.减少,缩减 [dim-i-nu-tion]
dwarf n.侏儒;矮小的植物;v.使变矮小 [dwarf]
emaciation n.消瘦,衰弱 [e-ma-ci-a-tion]
file n.锉刀;v.锉平 [file]
grind n.枯燥乏味的工作;v.磨碎,碾碎 [grind]
pack n.狼群;一群动物 [pack]
abrade v.磨损,磨小 [a-brade]
attenuate v.变薄 [at-ten-u-ate]
circumscribe v.限制 [cir-cum-scribe]
collapse v.坍塌,塌陷;虚脱,晕倒 [col-lapse]
compress v.压缩,浓缩 [com-press]
condense v.浓缩 [con-dense]
constrict v.压缩,收缩 [con-strict]
corrugate v.(使)起波浪形,起皱纹 [cor-ru-gate]
dwindle v.变小 [dwin-dle]
ebb v.退潮;衰退 [ebb]
pare v.削;修剪;削减,缩减 [pare]
pinch v.捏,掐;n.一撮,一点 [pinch]
restrain v.克制,抑制 [re-strain]
shear v.剪(羊毛),剪发 [shear]
shrink v.收缩,皱缩 [shrink]
squeeze v.压,挤;n.压榨,紧握 [squeeze]
wane v.减少,衰微 [wane]
warp v./n.翘起,弯曲 [warp]
waste v.使身体消瘦,损耗 [waste]
wither v.枯萎,凋零 [with-er]

distance 196

aloof a.冷淡的,疏远的 [a-loof]
asunder a./adv.分离的;化为碎片 [a-sun-der]
distant a.疏远的,冷淡的 [dis-tant]
span n.跨度;两个界限间的距离 [span]
stride v.大步行走 [stride]

nearness 197

adjacent a.接近的,毗连的 [ad-ja-cent]
approximate a.大约的,估计的 [ap-prox-i-mate]
contiguous a.接壤的,接近的 [con-tig-u-ous]
intimate a.亲密的;n.密友;v.暗示 [in-ti-mate]
proximate a.最接近的,直接的 [prox-i-mate]
bystander n.旁观者 [by-stand-er]
clasp n.钩子,扣子;紧握 [clasp]
earshot n.听力所及范围 [ear-shot]
span n.跨度;两个界限间的距离 [span]
vicinity n.附近,接近 [vi-cin-i-ty]
approach v.接近,靠近;着手处理;n.方法 [ap-proach]
converge v.会聚,集中于一点 [con-verge]

interval 198

void a.空的,缺乏的;n.空隙,空处;空虚感 [void]
breach n.裂缝,缺口;v.打破,裂开;违背 [breach]
canon n.经典,真作 [ca-non]
chasm n.深渊,大沟;大差别 [chasm]
cleft n.裂缝;a.劈开的 [cleft]
crack n.爆裂声;裂缝;v.裂开;破解,破译 [crack]
creek n.小湾,小溪 [creek]
fissure n.裂缝,裂隙 [fis-sure]
flaw n.瑕疵;v.生裂缝;有瑕疵 [flaw]
furrow n.犁沟;皱纹 [fur-row]
gash n.深长的伤口,裂缝 [gash]
gorge n.峡谷 [gorge]
gully n.雨水冲成的沟壑 [gul-ly]
hiatus n.空隙,裂缝 [hi-a-tus]
interim n.中间时期,过渡时期;a.暂时的 [in-ter-im]
interregnum n.无王时期 [in-ter-reg-num]
ravine n.深谷,峡谷 [ra-vine]
rent n.裂缝;(意见)分歧 [rent]
rift n.裂口,断裂;矛盾 [rift]
strait n.海峡;a.狭窄的 [strait]
defile v.弄污,弄脏;n.(山间)小道 [de-file]
gape v.裂开;目瞪口呆地凝视 [gape]
leak v.泄漏;n.泄漏;漏出量,漏洞 [leak]
mesh v.用网捕捉;齿合 [mesh]

contiguity 199

contiguous a.接壤的,接近的 [con-tig-u-ous]
meet a.合适的 [meet]
tangential a.切线的;离题的 [tan-gen-tial]
contact n./v.接触;互通信息 [con-tact]
adhere v.粘着 [ad-here]
coincide v.巧合;一致 [co-in-cide]
graze v.(动物)吃(地上长的)草;放牧 [graze]
juxtapose v.并排,并置 [jux-ta-pose]

2. Linear Dimensions

length 200

interminable a.无尽头的 [in-ter-mi-na-ble]
linear a.线的;成直线的 [lin-e-ar]
fathom n.英寻(量水深用,相当于1.83米);v.彻底明白,了解 [fath-om]
produce n.产品;农产品 [pro-duce]
radius n.半径 [ra-di-us]
scale n.鱼鳞;(音乐)音阶 [scale]
span n.跨度;两个界限间的距离 [span]
spoke n.(车轮上)辐条 [spoke]
streak n.线条,条纹;v.加线条 [streak]
tension n.紧张,焦虑;张力 [ten-sion]
bar v.禁止,阻挡;n.条,棒 [ba-r]
distend v.(使)膨胀,胀大 [dis-tend]
drawl v./n.慢吞吞地说话(态度) [drawl]
elongate v.延长,伸长 [e-lon-gate]
extend v.延展,延长 [ex-tend]
inch v.慢慢前进,慢慢移动 [inch]
prolong v.延长,拉长 [pro-long]
protract v.延长,拖长 [pro-tract]
stretch v.变长;伸展 [stretch]

shortness 201

compact a.结实的;简洁的;n.合同,协议 [com-pact]
concise a.简洁的 [con-cise]
curt a.(言词、行为)简略而草率的 [curt]
stocky a.矮胖的,粗壮的 [stock-y]
clip n.夹子,别针;v.修剪 [clip]
ellipsis n.省略 [el-lip-sis]
epitome n.典型;梗概 [e-pit-o-me]
prune n.梅干;v.修剪 [prune]
summary n.摘要,概要;a.摘要的,简略的 [sum-ma-ry]
abbreviate v.缩短;缩写 [ab-bre-vi-ate]
abridge v.删减;缩短 [a-bridge]
compress v.压缩,浓缩 [com-press]
curtail v.削减,缩短 [cur-tail]
epitomize v.概括,摘要 [e-pit-o-mize]
hack v.乱劈,乱砍;n.雇佣文人 [hack]
hew v.砍伐;遵守 [hew]
nip v.小口啜饮 [nip]
reap v.收割,收获 [reap]
retrench v.节省,紧缩费用 [re-trench]
shear v.剪(羊毛),剪发 [shear]
snub v.冷落,不理睬 [snub]
squat v.蹲下;a.矮胖的 [squat]
stunt v.阻碍(成长);n.特技,绝技 [stunt]
truncate v.把(某物)截短,去尾 [trun-cate]

breadth, thickness 202

ample a.富足的;充足的 [am-ple]
amplitude n.广大,广阔 [am-pli-tude]
breadth n.宽度 [breadth]
diameter n.直径 [di-am-e-ter]
latitude n.言行自由;纬度 [lat-i-tude]
radius n.半径 [ra-di-us]
bore v.钻孔;使厌烦;n.孔;令人厌烦的人 [bore]
calibrate v.量…口径;校准 [cal-i-brate]
expand v.扩大,膨胀 [ex-pand]
squat v.蹲下;a.矮胖的 [squat]

narrowness, thinness 203

delicate a.娇嫩的;精致的,优美的 [del-i-cate]
lank a.瘦削的;长而软的 [lank]
meager a.贫乏的;削瘦的 [mea-ger]
scant a.不足的,缺乏的 [scant]
contract n.合同;v.订合同;收缩 [con-tract]
emaciation n.消瘦,衰弱 [e-ma-ci-a-tion]
gossamer n.蛛丝;薄纱;a.轻而薄的 [gos-sa-mer]
isthmus n.地峡 [isth-mus]
ravine n.深谷,峡谷 [ra-vine]
ridge n.脊(如屋脊,山脊等);隆起物 [ridge]
skeleton n.骨架,骨骼;提纲 [skel-e-ton]
streak n.线条,条纹;v.加线条 [streak]
stricture n.严厉谴责;束缚 [stric-ture]
taper n.细蜡烛;v.(长形物体的)逐渐变细 [ta-per]
strip v.剥去;n.狭长的一片 [strip]

layer 204

foil n.钝剑;箔,锡箔纸 [foil]
membrane n.薄膜;细胞膜 [mem-brane]
scale n.鱼鳞;(音乐)音阶 [scale]
slab n.厚板,厚块 [slab]
stratum n.地层;社会阶层 [stra-tum]
veneer n.(镶于劣质东西上的)镶面板;外表 [ve-neer]
flag v.减弱,衰退;枯萎 [flag]
pare v.削;修剪;削减,缩减 [pare]
peel v.削去…的皮;剥落;n.外皮 [peel]
slice v.切成片;n.薄片 [slice]
table v.搁置,不加考虑 [ta-ble]
zone v.分成区 [zone]

filament 205

band n.带子;收音机波段 [band]
capillary n.毛细血管 [ca-pil-lar-y]
cord n.考得(木材堆的体积单位,等于128立方英尺,3.6246立方米);绳索 [cord]
gossamer n.蛛丝;薄纱;a.轻而薄的 [gos-sa-mer]
strand n.绳线的一股;v.搁浅 [strand]
thread n.螺纹 [thread]
yarn n.纱线 [yarn]
list v./n.倾斜 [list]
strip v.剥去;n.狭长的一片 [strip]

height 206

aloft adv.在空中,在头顶上 [a-loft]
aerial a.空中的,空气中的 [aer-i-al]
aloof a.冷淡的,疏远的 [a-loof]
eminent a.著名的,显著的 [em-i-nent]
lofty a.崇高的,高尚的 [loft-y]
mountainous a.多山的;巨大的 [moun-tain-ous]
prominent a.显著的;著名的 [prom-i-nent]
cape n.披肩,短斗篷;海角 [cape]
colossus n.巨人;巨型雕像 [co-los-sus]
dome n.圆顶屋 [dome]
down n.绒毛;汗毛 [down]
dune n.沙丘 [dune]
eminence n.卓越,杰出 [em-i-nence]
fell n.兽皮;v.砍伐;a.凶猛的,可怕的 [fell]
incumbent n.在职者,现任者;a.义不容辞的 [in-cum-bent]
minaret n.清真寺的尖塔 [min-a-ret]
pillar n.柱子 [pil-lar]
pitch n.沥青,柏油;音调 [pitch]
ridge n.脊(如屋脊,山脊等);隆起物 [ridge]
skyscraper n.摩天大楼 [sky-scrap-er]
spire n.(教堂)尖顶 [spire]
stature n.身高,身材 [stat-ure]
turret n.塔楼,角塔 [tur-ret]
hover v.翱翔;(人)徘徊 [hov-er]
peak v.憔悴,消瘦 [peak]
perch v.(鸟)栖息 [perch]
soar v.高飞,翱翔;猛增 [soar]
surmount v.克服,战胜 [sur-mount]

lowness 207

prostrate a.俯卧的;沮丧的;v.使下跪鞠躬 [pros-trate]
cellar n.地下室;酒窖 [cel-lar]
depression n.忧愁,消沉;数量减少 [de-pres-sion]
hold n.(船)货舱 [hold]
slouch n.没精打采的样子;v.没精打采地坐(站、走) [slouch]
crouch v.蹲伏,弯腰 [crouch]
grovel v.摇尾乞怜,奴颜婢膝 [grov-el]
low v.牛叫 [low]
squat v.蹲下;a.矮胖的 [squat]

depth 208

plumb adv.精确地;v.深入了解;测水深 [plumb]
abysmal a.极深的;糟透的 [a-bys-mal]
profound a.深的,深刻的;渊博的,深奥的 [pro-found]
subterranean a.地下的 [sub-ter-ra-ne-an]
crater n.火山口;弹坑 [cra-ter]
depression n.忧愁,消沉;数量减少 [de-pres-sion]
fathom n.英寻(量水深用,相当于1.83米);v.彻底明白,了解 [fath-om]
plummet v.垂直或突然坠下 [plum-met]
plunge v.投入;俯冲 [plunge]
probe v.探索,探测 [probe]

shallowness 209

slight a.微小的;n./v.轻蔑 [slight]
superficial a.表面的,肤浅的 [su-per-fi-cial]
shoal n.浅滩,浅水处;一群(鱼等);a.水浅的 [shoal]

summit 210

polar a.地极的,两极的;磁极的 [po-lar]
supreme a.至高的;极度的 [su-preme]
acme n.顶点,极点 [ac-me]
apex n.顶点,最高点 [a-pex]
climax n.顶点,高潮 [cli-max]
crest n.山顶,浪尖;羽冠 [crest]
culmination n.顶点;结果 [cul-mi-na-tion]
frieze n.(在墙顶与天花板间起装饰作用的)横条,饰带 [frieze]
nib n.钢笔尖 [nib]
pinnacle n.尖塔;山峰,顶峰 [pin-na-cle]
pitch n.沥青,柏油;音调 [pitch]
vertex n.(三角形等)顶角;顶点 [ver-tex]
zenith n.天顶;极点 [ze-nith]
crown v.加冕,使成王,居…之顶 [crown]
peak v.憔悴,消瘦 [peak]

base 211

base a.卑鄙的 [base]
fundamental a.最根本的,基本的;十分重要的 [fun-da-men-tal]
hold n.(船)货舱 [hold]
hoof n.(牛马的)蹄 [hoof]
nadir n.最低点 [na-dir]
plinth n.柱脚,底座 [plinth]
flag v.减弱,衰退;枯萎 [flag]

verticality 212

plumb adv.精确地;v.深入了解;测水深 [plumb]
erect a.竖立的,笔直的,直立的 [e-rect]
perpendicular a.垂直的 [per-pen-dic-u-lar]
rampant a.蔓生的,猖獗的 [ram-pant]
upright a.垂直的;正直的 [up-right]
vertical a.垂直的 [ver-ti-cal]
precipice n.悬崖 [prec-i-pice]
bolt v.急逃(to dash out; dart);螺栓,门栓 [bolt]
plummet v.垂直或突然坠下 [plum-met]
square v.一致,符合;结清 [square]

horizontality 213

even a.平的 [e-ven]
horizontal a.水平的 [hor-i-zon-tal]
plain a.简单的;清楚的;n.平原 [plain]
prone a.俯卧的;倾向于…的 [prone]
prostrate a.俯卧的;沮丧的;v.使下跪鞠躬 [pros-trate]
recumbent a.侧卧的;休息的 [re-cum-bent]
smooth a.光滑的;平稳的;v.弄平,使光滑;消除 [smooth]
supine a.仰卧的;懒散的 [su-pine]
fell n.兽皮;v.砍伐;a.凶猛的,可怕的 [fell]
mesa n.高台地,平顶山 [me-sa]
plane n.刨子;平面;v.刨 [plane]
plateau n.高原;平稳的状态 [pla-teau]
stratum n.地层;社会阶层 [stra-tum]
terrace n.一层梯田;阳台 [ter-race]
flatten v.变平;彻底打败某人 [flat-ten]
loll v.懒洋洋地坐或卧 [loll]

pendency 214

pendulum n.摆,钟摆 [pen-du-lum]
staple n.主要产品 [sta-ple]
skirt v.环绕,逃避 [skirt]
suspend v.暂缓,中止;吊,悬 [sus-pend]
swing v.摇摆;旋转;n.秋千 [swing]

support 215

base a.卑鄙的 [base]
fundamental a.最根本的,基本的;十分重要的 [fun-da-men-tal]
upright a.垂直的;正直的 [up-right]
anvil n.铁砧 [an-vil]
arch n.拱门,拱形 [arch]
axis n.轴(常为虚构之线,如地球轴) [ax-is]
axle n.轮轴(连接两个车轮的轴) [ax-le]
bandage n.绷带;v.用绷带包扎 [band-age]
banister n.(楼梯的)栏杆 [ban-is-ter]
baton n.指挥棒(指挥家用);警棍 [ba-ton]
beam n.(房屋等)大梁;光线 [beam]
bearing n.关系,意义;方位 [bear-ing]
bench n.法官席;长凳 [bench]
bolster n.枕垫;v.支持,鼓励 [bol-ster]
boom n.繁荣昌盛时期;v.发出深沉有回响的声音 [boom]
bracket n.托架,支架 [brack-et]
buttress n.拱墙,拱壁;v.支持 [but-tress]
crutch n.拐杖;v.支撑 [crutch]
cushion n.坐垫;v.缓冲 [cush-ion]
easel n.黑板,画架 [ea-sel]
flange n.(火车车轮的)凸缘,轮缘 [flange]
fulcrum n.杠杆支点,支柱 [ful-crum]
girder n.大梁 [gird-er]
hold n.(船)货舱 [hold]
horn n.角,角质;喇叭 [horn]
jamb n.门窗的侧柱 [jamb]
litter n.垃圾;一窝(动物) [lit-ter]
mattress n.床垫 [mat-tress]
pedestal n.(柱石或雕像的)基座 [ped-es-tal]
pillar n.柱子 [pil-lar]
plinth n.柱脚,底座 [plinth]
prop n.支撑物,靠山;v.支持 [prop]
rafter n.椽子 [raft-er]
rib n.肋骨;伞骨 [rib]
rung n.梯子横挡,梯级 [rung]
saddle n.鞍,马鞍 [sad-dle]
scaffold n.脚手架(造房时搭的架子) [scaf-fold]
shoulder n.肩;路肩 [shoul-der]
sill n.门槛;窗台 [sill]
skeleton n.骨架,骨骼;提纲 [skel-e-ton]
slab n.厚板,厚块 [slab]
splint n.(固定断骨的)夹板,托板 [splint]
throne n.宝座;王位 [throne]
tripod n.画架,三脚架 [tri-pod]
truss n.桁架,支架;干草的一捆 [truss]
bar v.禁止,阻挡;n.条,棒 [ba-r]
console v.安慰,抚慰 [con-sole]
embed v.牢牢插入,嵌于 [em-bed]
lap v.舔食;泼溅 [lap]
perch v.(鸟)栖息 [perch]
settle v.安置于;决定;栖息 [set-tle]
stall v.使停止,使延迟 [stall]
sustain v.承受(困难),支撑(重量) [sus-tain]
table v.搁置,不加考虑 [ta-ble]
uphold v.维护,支持 [up-hold]

parallelism 216

parallel a.平行的;类似的;n.平行线;v.与…相似 [par-al-lel]
parallelism n.平行,类似 [par-al-lel-ism]

perpendicularity 216.a

perpendicular a.垂直的 [per-pen-dic-u-lar]

obliquity 217

cant n.斜坡,斜面;隐语,术语,黑话;v.使倾斜 [cant]
lurch n.突然向前或旁边倒;v.蹒跚而行 [lurch]
bend v.弯曲;屈服 [bend]
intersect v.横截,横断 [in-ter-sect]
list v./n.倾斜 [list]
slant v.倾斜;n.斜面;看法 [slant]
tilt v.(使)倾斜;n.倾斜,斜坡 [tilt]

inversion 218

inverse a.相反的;倒转的 [in-verse]
supine a.仰卧的;懒散的 [su-pine]
pirouette n./v.(舞蹈)脚尖立地的旋转 [pir-ou-ette]
reverse n.反面;相反;v.倒车;反转 [re-verse]
invert v.上下倒置 [in-vert]
overturn v.翻倒;推翻 [o-ver-turn]
subvert v.颠覆,推翻 [sub-vert]
transpose v.变换位置,调换 [trans-pose]

crossing 219

cross a.生气的 [cross]
crucial a.决定性的 [cru-cial]
grating a.(声音)刺耳的;恼人的 [grat-ing]
braid n.穗子;发辫;v.编成辫子 [braid]
filigree n.金银丝做的工艺品 [fil-i-gree]
lace n.鞋带,系带;网眼花边,透孔织品 [lace]
lattice n.(做篱笆或爬藤架等的)格子架 [lat-tice]
linen n.亚麻织品,亚麻布 [lin-en]
plait n.发辫;v.编成辫 [plait]
tissue n.细胞组织;薄纸,棉纸 [tis-sue]
entangle v.使纠缠,卷入 [en-tan-gle]
intersect v.横截,横断 [in-ter-sect]
intertwine v.纠缠,缠,绕 [in-ter-twine]
mesh v.用网捕捉;齿合 [mesh]
ravel v.纠缠,纠结;拆开,拆散 [rav-el]
splice v.接合,衔接 [splice]
tangle v.缠结;n.纷乱 [tan-gle]
thwart v.阻挠,使…受挫 [thwart]

3. Centrical Dimensions

1. General.

exteriority 220

eccentric a.古怪的,反常的;n.古怪的人 [ec-cen-tric]
superficial a.表面的,肤浅的 [su-per-fi-cial]
facet n.(宝石等的)小平面;侧面 [fac-et]

interiority 221

endemic a.地方性的 [en-dem-ic]
pith n.精髓,要点 [pith]
substance n.大意,根据,实质;物质 [sub-stance]
vernacular n.本国语,地方语 [ver-nac-u-lar]
intern v.拘禁,软禁;n.实习生 [in-tern]
lap v.舔食;泼溅 [lap]

centrality 222

centralization n.集中;集权化 [cen-tral-i-za-tion]
core n.果心;核心);v.去掉某物的中心部分 [core]
kernel n.果仁;核心 [ker-nel]
nucleus n.(原子)核 [nu-cle-us]
pith n.精髓,要点 [pith]
symmetry n.对称;均衡 [sym-me-try]
concentrate v.集中,浓缩 [con-cen-trate]
converge v.会聚,集中于一点 [con-verge]

covering 223

ironclad a.装铁甲的;坚固的 [i-ron-clad]
tidy a.整齐的,整洁的 [tidy]
awning n.遮阳蓬,雨蓬 [awn-ing]
bandage n.绷带;v.用绷带包扎 [band-age]
canopy n.蚊帐,华盖 [can-o-py]
capsule n.荚;胶囊 [cap-sule]
crust n.硬的表面;(一片)面包片;地壳 [crust]
cuticle n.表皮 [cu-ti-cle]
enamel n.珐琅,瓷釉 [e-nam-el]
epidermis n.表皮,外皮 [ep-i-der-mis]
fell n.兽皮;v.砍伐;a.凶猛的,可怕的 [fell]
hide n.兽皮 [hide]
husk n.外壳;皮,荚 [husk]
linoleum n.油毡 [li-no-le-um]
lint n.绷带用麻布,皮棉 [lint]
mask n.假面具;v.隐藏(感情) [mask]
ointment n.油膏,软膏 [oint-ment]
plaster n.灰泥,石膏;v.抹灰泥 [plas-ter]
pod n.豆荚;v.剥掉(豆荚) [pod]
rind n.(西瓜等)外皮 [rind]
robe n.长袍,礼服 [robe]
scale n.鱼鳞;(音乐)音阶 [scale]
sheath n.(刀、剑)鞘、套 [sheath]
shell n.贝壳;炮弹;v.剥去…的壳 [shell]
shield n.盾;v.掩护,遮挡 [shield]
tarpaulin n.防水油布 [tar-pau-lin]
varnish n.清漆;v.涂上清漆 [var-nish]
veil n.面纱;遮蔽物,掩蔽物;v.以面纱掩盖 [veil]
veneer n.(镶于劣质东西上的)镶面板;外表 [ve-neer]
bark v./n.狗吠;n.树皮 [bark]
conceal v.隐藏,隐瞒 [con-ceal]
galvanize v.电镀;通电;激励 [gal-va-nize]
gild v.镀金;虚饰 [gild]
peel v.削去…的皮;剥落;n.外皮 [peel]
shed v.流出(眼泪等);脱落(叶子) [shed]
superimpose v.加在上面 [su-per-im-pose]
thatch v.以茅草覆盖;n.茅草屋顶,茅草 [thatch]
tilt v.(使)倾斜;n.倾斜,斜坡 [tilt]

lining 224

padding n.衬垫,填料 [pad-ding]

clothing 225

cardinal a.最重要的;n.红衣主教 [car-di-nal]
sartorial a.裁缝的,缝制的 [sar-to-ri-al]
stock a.普通的,惯用的;n.存货 [stock]
apparel n.(精致的)衣服 [ap-par-el]
apron n.围裙 [a-pron]
bonnet n.圆帽,扁平软帽 [bon-net]
cape n.披肩,短斗篷;海角 [cape]
clog n.障碍; v.阻塞 [clog]
cobbler n.补鞋匠 [cob-bler]
collar n.衣领;戴在动物颈部的项圈 [col-lar]
costume n.服装;剧装 [cos-tume]
cravat n.领巾,领结 [cra-vat]
garment n.衣服 [gar-ment]
gear n.齿轮;装备;仪器 [gear]
guise n.外观,装束 [guise]
harness n.马具;v.束以马具;利用 [har-ness]
helmet n.头盔,钢盔 [hel-met]
linen n.亚麻织品,亚麻布 [lin-en]
mantle n.披风,斗篷;v.覆盖 [man-tle]
mask n.假面具;v.隐藏(感情) [mask]
masquerade n.化装舞会;v.伪装 [mas-quer-ade]
mitten n.(四指套在一起拇指分开的)连指手套 [mit-ten]
muffler n.消音器;围巾 [muf-fler]
poncho n.斗篷;雨衣 [pon-cho]
robe n.长袍,礼服 [robe]
sandal n.凉鞋,拖鞋 [san-dal]
scarf n.围巾,披肩 [scarf]
sheath n.(刀、剑)鞘、套 [sheath]
uniform n.制服;a.相同的,一致的 [u-ni-form]
veil n.面纱;遮蔽物,掩蔽物;v.以面纱掩盖 [veil]
vestment n.(作礼拜时教士的)法衣,官服 [vest-ment]
wardrobe n.衣橱;全部服装 [ward-robe]
array v.部署;n.陈列;大批 [ar-ray]
crown v.加冕,使成王,居…之顶 [crown]
lap v.舔食;泼溅 [lap]
overlap v.(部分地)重叠 [o-ver-lap]
pall v.令人发腻,失去吸引力 [pall]
rig v.欺骗,舞弊,伪造 [rig]
skirt v.环绕,逃避 [skirt]
snip v.剪断 [snip]
sock v.重击,痛打 [sock]
trim v.修剪;a.井井有条的 [trim]

divestment 226

callow a.(鸟)未生羽毛的;(人)未成熟的 [cal-low]
ragged a.破烂的 [rag-ged]
threadbare a.磨破的,陈腐的 [thread-bare]
bare v.暴露;a.赤裸的 [bare]
denude v.脱去;剥蚀;剥夺 [de-nude]
dismantle v.拆除 [dis-man-tle]
divest v.卸下盛装;剥夺 [di-vest]
doff v.脱掉 [doff]
excoriate v.撕去皮;严厉批评 [ex-co-ri-ate]
molt v.换羽,脱毛;n.换羽(期),脱毛(期) [molt]
pare v.削;修剪;削减,缩减 [pare]
peel v.削去…的皮;剥落;n.外皮 [peel]
strip v.剥去;n.狭长的一片 [strip]

circumjacence 227

compass n.指南针,罗盘;界限,范围 [com-pass]
medium n.媒介;(细菌等的)生存环境 [me-di-um]
outskirts n.郊区,郊外 [out-skirts]
vicinity n.附近,接近 [vi-cin-i-ty]
beset v.镶嵌;困扰 [be-set]
circumvent v.回避;用计谋战胜或规避 [cir-cum-vent]
embrace v.拥抱;包含 [em-brace]
encompass v.包围,围绕 [en-com-pass]
environ v.包围,围绕 [en-vi-ron]
lap v.舔食;泼溅 [lap]
skirt v.环绕,逃避 [skirt]

interposition 228

episodic a.偶然发生的,分散性的 [ep-i-sod-ic]
import n./v.进口,输入;意义 [im-port]
interference n.干涉,妨碍 [in-ter-fer-ence]
interjection n.插入语;感叹词 [in-ter-jec-tion]
intermediary n.仲裁者;中间物;a.中间的,媒介的 [in-ter-me-di-ar-y]
panel n.专门小组;仪表板 [pan-el]
partition n.隔开;隔墙 [par-ti-tion]
infiltrate v.渗透,渗入 [in-fil-trate]
insinuate v.暗指,暗示 [in-sin-u-ate]
interpolate v.插入;篡改 [in-ter-po-late]
interpose v.置于…之间;使介入 [in-ter-pose]
intersperse v.散布;点缀 [in-ter-sperse]
intervene v.干涉,介入 [in-ter-vene]
intrude v.把(思想等)强加于,闯入 [in-trude]
permeate v.扩散;渗透 [per-me-ate]
smuggle v.走私,私运 [smug-gle]
splice v.接合,衔接 [splice]

circumscription 229

landlocked a.被陆地包围的 [land-locked]
containment n.阻止,遏制 [con-tain-ment]
corral n.(牛、马等)畜栏 [cor-ral]
circumscribe v.限制 [cir-cum-scribe]
confine v.限制,禁闭 [con-fine]

outline 230

band n.带子;收音机波段 [band]
circuit n.环行,环行道;线路;电路 [cir-cuit]
circumference n.周围;圆周;周长 [cir-cum-fer-ence]
clasp n.钩子,扣子;紧握 [clasp]
girth n.腰身;周长 [girth]
outline n.轮廓;梗概 [out-line]
perimeter n.周长 [pe-rim-e-ter]
periphery n.不重要的部分;外围 [pe-riph-er-y]
profile n.外形;轮廓侧面像 [pro-file]
zone v.分成区 [zone]

edge 231

marginal a.书页空白处的;不重要的 [mar-gin-al]
brink n.(峭壁的)边沿,边缘 [brink]
flange n.(火车车轮的)凸缘,轮缘 [flange]
fringe n.(窗帘等)须边;边缘 [fringe]
margin n.页边空白,边缘;差额;余地;利润 [mar-gin]
confine v.限制,禁闭 [con-fine]
hem v.包围;n.袖边,边缘;interj.吞吞吐吐地说 [hem]
list v./n.倾斜 [list]
skirt v.环绕,逃避 [skirt]

inclosure 232

barrier n.路障;障碍 [bar-ri-er]
bent n.特长,爱好;a.弯曲的 [bent]
corral n.(牛、马等)畜栏 [cor-ral]
fold n.羊栏,畜栏;v.折叠 [fold]
fosse n.护城河 [fosse]
hatch n.船舱盖;v.孵化 [hatch]
hedge n.树篱;限制 [hedge]
moat n.壕沟;护城河 [moat]
pen n.围栏;监禁;母天鹅 [pen]
rail n.栏杆;铁轨;v.咒骂,猛烈指责 [rail]
barricade v.设栅阻挡;n.栅栏 [bar-ri-cade]
circumscribe v.限制 [cir-cum-scribe]

limit 233

definite a.清楚的,明确的 [def-i-nite]
terminal a.末端的;n.终点站,终端 [ter-mi-nal]
floodgate n.(水闸的)闸门 [flood-gate]
landmark n.陆标;里程碑 [land-mark]
sluice n.水门,水闸;v.冲洗 [sluice]
termination n.终点 [ter-mi-na-tion]
terminus n.(火车,汽车)终点站 [ter-mi-nus]
confine v.限制,禁闭 [con-fine]
stint v.吝惜,节省 [stint]

2. Special

front 234

anterior a.较早的,以前的 [an-te-ri-or]
facade n. 建筑物的正面;(虚伪)外表 [fa-cade]
obverse n./a.正面(的) [ob-verse]
rostrum n.讲台,讲坛 [ros-trum]
stem n.(植物的)茎,叶柄;v.阻止,遏制(水流等) [stem]
confront v.面临;对抗 [con-front]
countenance v.支持,赞成;容忍;n.表情 [coun-te-nance]

rear 235

dorsal a.背部的 [dor-sal]
reverse n.反面;相反;v.倒车;反转 [re-verse]
stern n.船尾 [stern]
hinder v.阻碍,妨碍 [hin-der]

laterality 236

abreast adv.并列,并排 [a-breast]
collateral a.平行的;旁系的;n.担保品 [col-lat-er-al]
lateral a.侧面的 [lat-er-al]
orient a.上升的;v.确定方向;使熟悉情况 [o-ri-ent]
beam n.(房屋等)大梁;光线 [beam]
profile n.外形;轮廓侧面像 [pro-file]
skirt v.环绕,逃避 [skirt]

contraposition 237

arctic a.北极的;极寒的 [arc-tic]
inverse a.相反的;倒转的 [in-verse]
counterpart n.相对应或具有相同功能的人或物 [coun-ter-part]
polarity n.极端性,二极分化 [po-lar-i-ty]
reverse n.反面;相反;v.倒车;反转 [re-verse]
converse v.谈话;a.逆向的n.相反的事物 [con-verse]

dextrality 238

ambidextrous a.十分灵巧的 [am-bi-dex-trous]

Section III. Form

1. General Form

form 240

protean a.变化多端的,多变的 [pro-te-an]
cast n.演员阵容;剧团;v.扔;铸造 [cast]
chisel n.凿子;v.凿;欺骗 [chis-el]
configuration n.结构,配置;轮廓 [con-fig-u-ra-tion]
feature n.特色,特点,特征 [fea-ture]
formation n.组织,形成;(军队)编队 [for-ma-tion]
mold n.模子;(美)霉;v.塑造 [mold]
posture n.姿势,体态;态度;v.故作姿态 [pos-ture]
carve v.雕刻 [carve]
hew v.砍伐;遵守 [hew]
knead v.揉制,捏制 [knead]
pose v.摆姿势;造作 [pose]
stamp v./n.跺脚;在…上盖印 [stamp]
trim v.修剪;a.井井有条的 [trim]

amorphism 241

amorphous a.无定形的 [a-mor-phous]
barbarous a.野蛮的;残暴的 [bar-ba-rous]
chaos n.混乱 [cha-os]
blemish v.损害;玷污;n.瑕疵,缺点 [blem-ish]
deface v.损坏 [de-face]
disfigure v.毁容 [dis-fig-ure]
mar v.破坏,损伤 [mar]
truncate v.把(某物)截短,去尾 [trun-cate]

symmetry 242

chaste a.贞洁的;朴实的 [chaste]
parallel a.平行的;类似的;n.平行线;v.与…相似 [par-al-lel]
severe a.严格的;凶猛的 [se-vere]
parallelism n.平行,类似 [par-al-lel-ism]
symmetry n.对称;均衡 [sym-me-try]
uniform n.制服;a.相同的,一致的 [u-ni-form]

distortion 243

asymmetric a.不对称的 [a-sym-met-ric]
awry a.扭曲的,走样的 [a-wry]
misshapen a.畸形的,奇形怪状的 [mis-shap-en]
wry a.扭曲的;冷嘲性幽默的 [wry]
contort v.(使)扭曲(deform);曲解 [con-tort]
distort v.扭曲,弄歪 [dis-tort]
grimace v./n.做鬼脸,面部歪扭 [gri-mace]
warp v./n.翘起,弯曲 [warp]

2. Special Form

angularity 244

angular a.有角的;(指人)瘦削的 [an-gu-lar]
jagged a.锯齿状的,不整齐的 [jag-ged]
oblique a.间接的;斜的 [o-blique]
serrated a.呈锯齿状的 [ser-rat-ed]
bent n.特长,爱好;a.弯曲的 [bent]
cone n.松果;圆锥体 [cone]
crutch n.拐杖;v.支撑 [crutch]
elbow n.肘 [el-bow]
fluke n.侥幸;意想不到的事 [fluke]
fold n.羊栏,畜栏;v.折叠 [fold]
hexagon n.六角形,六边形 [hex-a-gon]
notch n.V字形刻痕 [notch]
recess n.壁凹(墙上装的架子、柜子等凹处);休假 [re-cess]
rectangle n.长方形,矩形 [rec-tan-gle]
scythe n.大镰刀 [scythe]
sextant n.六分仪(航海定向仪器) [sex-tant]
zigzag n./a.之字形(的);v.弯弯曲曲地行进 [zig-zag]
bend v.弯曲;屈服 [bend]
bifurcate v.分为两支,分叉 [bi-fur-cate]
square v.一致,符合;结清 [square]

curvature 245

caustic a.腐蚀性的;刻薄的;n.腐蚀剂 [caus-tic]
circular a.圆形的 [cir-cu-lar]
devious a.不正直的;弯曲的 [de-vi-ous]
oblique a.间接的;斜的 [o-blique]
arch n.拱门,拱形 [arch]
detour n.弯路;绕行之路 [de-tour]
deviation n.背离 [de-vi-a-tion]
loop n.圈,金属线圈 [loop]
parabola n.抛物线 [pa-rab-o-la]
vault n.拱顶;地窖 [vault]
bend v.弯曲;屈服 [bend]
carve v.雕刻 [carve]
crook v.使弯曲;n.钩状物 [crook]
deflect v.偏离,转向 [de-flect]
deviate v.越轨,脱离 [de-vi-ate]
scatter v.散开,驱散 [scat-ter]
sway v.摇动,摇摆;影响使改变;n.摇动 [sway]

straightness 246

even a.平的 [e-ven]
rectify v.改正,调正;提纯 [rec-ti-fy]
unbend v.弄直;放松 [un-bend]
unfold v.展开,打开;逐渐呈现 [un-fold]
unravel v.解开,拆散 [un-rav-el]

circularity 247

circular a.圆形的 [cir-cu-lar]
elliptical a.椭圆的;晦涩的;省略的 [el-lip-ti-cal]
band n.带子;收音机波段 [band]
bracelet n.手镯,臂镯 [brace-let]
collar n.衣领;戴在动物颈部的项圈 [col-lar]
hoop n.(桶之)箍,铁环 [hoop]
hub n.轴心;中心 [hub]
lasso n.套索(捕捉牛、马用) [las-so]
loop n.圈,金属线圈 [loop]
ringlet n.卷发 [ring-let]
sash n.肩带 [sash]
sextant n.六分仪(航海定向仪器) [sex-tant]
crown v.加冕,使成王,居…之顶 [crown]
zone v.分成区 [zone]

convolution 248

convoluted a.旋绕的;费解的 [con-vo-lut-ed]
intricate a.复杂难懂的 [in-tri-cate]
sinuous a.蜿蜒的,迂回的 [sin-u-ous]
tortuous a.弯弯曲曲的 [tor-tu-ous]
winding a.蜿蜒的,迂回的 [wind-ing]
circuit n.环行,环行道;线路;电路 [cir-cuit]
labyrinth n.迷宫 [lab-y-rinth]
maze n.迷宫 [maze]
wrinkle n.皱纹;窍门 [wrin-kle]
contort v.(使)扭曲(deform);曲解 [con-tort]
indent v.切割成锯齿状 [in-dent]
meander v.蜿蜒而流;漫步 [me-an-der]

rotundity 249

boulder n.巨砾 [boul-der]
bulb n.植物的球茎;灯泡 [bulb]
cone n.松果;圆锥体 [cone]
cylinder n.圆柱 [cyl-in-der]
horn n.角,角质;喇叭 [horn]
marble n.大理石 [mar-ble]

3. Superficial Form

convexity 250

convex a.凸出的 [con-vex]
prominent a.显著的;著名的 [prom-i-nent]
protuberant a.突出的,隆起的 [pro-tu-ber-ant]
salient a.显著的,突出的 [sa-li-ent]
arch n.拱门,拱形 [arch]
bulb n.植物的球茎;灯泡 [bulb]
bulge n./v.膨胀,鼓起 [bulge]
cameo n.浮雕宝石;生动刻画;(演员)出演 [cam-e-o]
cape n.披肩,短斗篷;海角 [cape]
dome n.圆顶屋 [dome]
elbow n.肘 [el-bow]
flange n.(火车车轮的)凸缘,轮缘 [flange]
hub n.轴心;中心 [hub]
hunch n.直觉,预感 [hunch]
molar n.臼齿 [mo-lar]
proboscis n.(象)长鼻;(昆虫等)吸管 [pro-bos-cis]
projection n.凸出物 [pro-jec-tion]
protuberance n.凸出,隆起 [protuberance]
rib n.肋骨;伞骨 [rib]
ridge n.脊(如屋脊,山脊等);隆起物 [ridge]
shoulder n.肩;路肩 [shoul-der]
chase v.雕镂;追捕 [chase]
emboss v.加浮雕花纹于,使凸出 [em-boss]
pout v.噘嘴,板脸 [pout]
spur v.刺激,激励;用马刺刺马 [spur]
swell v.肿胀,增强 [swell]

flatness 251

even a.平的 [e-ven]
flush n./v.脸红;奔流;冲洗 [flush]
plane n.刨子;平面;v.刨 [plane]
slab n.厚板,厚块 [slab]
flatten v.变平;彻底打败某人 [flat-ten]
table v.搁置,不加考虑 [ta-ble]

concavity 252

concave a.凹的 [con-cave]
depressed a.消沉的;凹陷的 [de-pressed]
porous a.可渗透的;多孔的 [po-rous]
retiring a.隐居的,不喜欢社交的 [re-tir-ing]
alcove n.凹室 [al-cove]
arch n.拱门,拱形 [arch]
cavern n.大洞穴 [cav-ern]
cavity n.(牙齿等的)洞,腔 [cav-i-ty]
crater n.火山口;弹坑 [cra-ter]
dent n.缺口,凹痕;v.弄凹 [dent]
depression n.忧愁,消沉;数量减少 [de-pres-sion]
dimple n.酒窝,笑靥 [dim-ple]
glade n.林中的空地 [glade]
gouge n.半圆凿;v.挖出;敲竹杠 [gouge]
grotto n.洞穴 [grot-to]
grove n.小树林,树丛 [grove]
gully n.雨水冲成的沟壑 [gul-ly]
sap n.树液;活力;v.消弱,耗尽 [sap]
scoop n.小铲,勺子;v.(用勺子)取出,舀出 [scoop]
delve v.深入探究,钻研 [delve]
excavate v.挖掘;挖出 [ex-ca-vate]
undermine v.破坏,损坏 [un-der-mine]

252A sponge

sharpness 253

acute a.灵敏的;[病]急性的 [a-cute]
salient a.显著的,突出的 [sa-li-ent]
spiny a.针状的;多刺的,棘手的 [spin-y]
acuity n.(尤指思想或感官)敏锐 [a-cu-i-ty]
awl n.(钻皮革的)尖钻 [awl]
barb n.(鱼钩的)倒钩;严厉的批评 [barb]
blade n.刀锋,刀口 [blade]
bristle n.短而硬的毛发;v.(毛)竖起;发怒 [bris-tle]
chip n.薄片,碎片;集成电路片 [chip]
chisel n.凿子;v.凿;欺骗 [chis-el]
cleaver n.切肉刀 [cleav-er]
crest n.山顶,浪尖;羽冠 [crest]
cutlery n.(刀、叉、匙等)餐具 [cut-ler-y]
grind n.枯燥乏味的工作;v.磨碎,碾碎 [grind]
guillotine n.断头台 [guil-lo-tine]
hone n.磨刀石;v.磨刀 [hone]
horn n.角,角质;喇叭 [horn]
lancet n.手术刀 [lan-cet]
needle n.针;针叶 [nee-dle]
nib n.钢笔尖 [nib]
porcupine n.豪猪,箭猪 [por-cu-pine]
razor n.剃刀,刮胡刀 [ra-zor]
scalpel n.外科手术刀,解剖刀 [scal-pel]
scythe n.大镰刀 [scythe]
spike n.长钉,大钉 [spike]
spire n.(教堂)尖顶 [spire]
spoke n.(车轮上)辐条 [spoke]
tusk n.(象)长牙 [tusk]
heckle v.诘问,困扰 [heck-le]
spur v.刺激,激励;用马刺刺马 [spur]
whet v.磨快;刺激 [whet]
whittle v.削(木头);削减 [whit-tle]

bluntness 254

blunt a.钝的;直率的;v.变钝 [blunt]
dull a.不鲜明的;迟钝的;v.变迟钝 [dull]
obtuse a.愚笨的;不锐利的 [ob-tuse]

smoothness 255

even a.平的 [e-ven]
glossy a.光泽的,光滑的 [gloss-y]
slick a.熟练的;圆滑的;光滑的 [slick]
slippery a.滑的;狡猾的 [slip-per-y]
smooth a.光滑的;平稳的;v.弄平,使光滑;消除 [smooth]
down n.绒毛;汗毛 [down]
file n.锉刀;v.锉平 [file]
gloss n.光泽;注解 [gloss]
plane n.刨子;平面;v.刨 [plane]
burnish v.擦亮,磨光 [bur-nish]
glaze v.装玻璃于;上釉彩;n.釉 [glaze]
lubricate v.润滑 [lu-bri-cate]
mangle v.毁损;撕成碎片,压碎 [man-gle]
polish v.把…擦光亮,抛光;n.上光剂;(态度等)优雅 [pol-ish]

roughness 256

fluffy a.有绒毛的;空洞的 [fluff-y]
gnarled a.(树木)多节的;粗糙的 [gnarled]
hirsute a.多毛的 [hir-sute]
imperial a.帝王的,至尊的 [im-pe-ri-al]
plush a.豪华的 [plush]
asperity n.严酷;粗鲁 [as-per-i-ty]
crest n.山顶,浪尖;羽冠 [crest]
down n.绒毛;汗毛 [down]
fringe n.(窗帘等)须边;边缘 [fringe]
grain n.谷物;小的硬粒 [grain]
panache n.羽饰;炫耀 [pa-nache]
plume n.羽毛;v.整理羽毛;搔首弄姿 [plume]
ringlet n.卷发 [ring-let]
texture n.质地;结构 [tex-ture]
toupee n.男用假发 [tou-pee]
corrugate v.(使)起波浪形,起皱纹 [cor-ru-gate]
crumple v.弄皱;破裂 [crum-ple]
ripple v.起涟漪;n.细浪,涟漪 [rip-ple]
roughen v.变得粗糙,变得不平 [rough-en]
ruffle v.弄皱;激怒;n.皱边(装饰衣服) [ruf-fle]
rumple v.弄皱,弄乱 [rum-ple]

notch 257

serrated a.呈锯齿状的 [ser-rat-ed]
dent n.缺口,凹痕;v.弄凹 [dent]
depression n.忧愁,消沉;数量减少 [de-pres-sion]
dimple n.酒窝,笑靥 [dim-ple]
nick n.小伤口,刻痕 [nick]
notch n.V字形刻痕 [notch]
indent v.切割成锯齿状 [in-dent]
scotch v.镇压,粉碎 [scotch]

fold 258

crease n.折缝,皱痕 [crease]
elbow n.肘 [el-bow]
fold n.羊栏,畜栏;v.折叠 [fold]
plait n.发辫;v.编成辫 [plait]
pleat n.(衣服上的)褶 [pleat]
wrinkle n.皱纹;窍门 [wrin-kle]
corrugate v.(使)起波浪形,起皱纹 [cor-ru-gate]
crumple v.弄皱;破裂 [crum-ple]
hem v.包围;n.袖边,边缘;interj.吞吞吐吐地说 [hem]
pucker v.起皱;n.皱褶 [puck-er]
ruffle v.弄皱;激怒;n.皱边(装饰衣服) [ruf-fle]
rumple v.弄皱,弄乱 [rum-ple]

furrow 259

striated a.有条纹的 [stri-at-ed]
crack n.爆裂声;裂缝;v.裂开;破解,破译 [crack]
fosse n.护城河 [fosse]
furrow n.犁沟;皱纹 [fur-row]
groove n.凹线;(刻出的)线条;习惯 [groove]
gutter n.水槽;街沟 [gut-ter]
incision n.切口;切割 [in-ci-sion]
kennel n.狗舍,狗窝 [ken-nel]
moat n.壕沟;护城河 [moat]
ravine n.深谷,峡谷 [ra-vine]
score n.乐谱 [score]
streak n.线条,条纹;v.加线条 [streak]
engrave v.在(硬物)上雕刻 [en-grave]
etch v.蚀刻);铭记 [etch]
incise v.切,切割 [in-cise]

opening 260

patent a.显而易见的;n.专利权(证书) [pa-tent]
permeable a.可渗透的(penetrable) [per-me-a-ble]
pervious a.可渗透的 [per-vi-ous]
piercing a.(寒风)刺骨的;敏锐的 [pierc-ing]
porous a.可渗透的;多孔的 [po-rous]
chasm n.深渊,大沟;大差别 [chasm]
colander n.滤器,漏勺 [col-an-der]
drill n.钻;钻床 [drill]
gangway n.(上下船的)跳板 [gang-way]
glade n.林中的空地 [glade]
gully n.雨水冲成的沟壑 [gul-ly]
hatch n.船舱盖;v.孵化 [hatch]
lance n.长矛;鱼叉 [lance]
lattice n.(做篱笆或爬藤架等的)格子架 [lat-tice]
loophole n.枪眼,小窗,换气孔 [loop-hole]
outlet n.出口 [out-let]
pore n.毛孔,气孔 [pore]
riddle n.谜语 [rid-dle]
slot n.狭孔 [slot]
spear n.矛;嫩叶;v.刺戳 [spear]
spike n.长钉,大钉 [spike]
vessel n.血管;容器;船只 [ves-sel]
vista n.远景;展望 [vis-ta]
bore v.钻孔;使厌烦;n.孔;令人厌烦的人 [bore]
gape v.裂开;目瞪口呆地凝视 [gape]
impale v.刺入,刺中 [im-pale]
perforate v.打洞 [per-fo-rate]
pierce v.刺透;穿过 [pierce]
punch v.以拳猛击;打洞 [punch]
puncture v.刺穿,刺破;n.刺孔,穿孔 [punc-ture]
vent v.发泄(情绪);开孔;n.孔,口 [vent]
yawn v.打呵欠 [yawn]

closure 261

plumb adv.精确地;v.深入了解;测水深 [plumb]
impenetrable a.不能穿透的;不可理解的 [im-pen-e-tra-ble]
impermeable a.不可渗透的,透不过的 [im-per-me-a-ble]
impervious a.不能渗透的;不为所动的 [im-per-vi-ous]
snug a.温暖的,舒适的 [snug]
impermeability n.不能渗透 [im-per-me-a-bil-i-ty]
obstruction n.阻碍(物),妨碍 [ob-struc-tion]
bar v.禁止,阻挡;n.条,棒 [ba-r]
blockade v./n.封锁 [block-ade]
bolt v.急逃(to dash out; dart);螺栓,门栓 [bolt]
choke v.(使)窒息,阻塞 [choke]
clinch v.钉牢;彻底解决 [clinch]
cram v.填塞,塞满;临时抱佛脚,为考试而学习 [cram]
obstruct v.阻塞,截断 [ob-struct]
occlude v.使闭塞 [oc-clude]

perforator 262

awl n.(钻皮革的)尖钻 [awl]
chisel n.凿子;v.凿;欺骗 [chis-el]
drill n.钻;钻床 [drill]
gouge n.半圆凿;v.挖出;敲竹杠 [gouge]
lancet n.手术刀 [lan-cet]
needle n.针;针叶 [nee-dle]
scoop n.小铲,勺子;v.(用勺子)取出,舀出 [scoop]
spear n.矛;嫩叶;v.刺戳 [spear]
probe v.探索,探测 [probe]
punch v.以拳猛击;打洞 [punch]

stopper 263

padding n.衬垫,填料 [pad-ding]
spike n.长钉,大钉 [spike]
tourniquet n.止血带 [tour-ni-quet]
valve n.活门,阀门 [valve]

Section IV. Motion

1. Motion in General

motion 264

erratic a.反复无常的;古怪的 [er-rat-ic]
mercurial a.善变的;活泼的 [mer-cu-ri-al]
mobile a.易于移动的 [mo-bile]
nomadic a.游牧的 [no-mad-ic]
restless a.不停的;不安静的 [rest-less]
clip n.夹子,别针;v.修剪 [clip]
flux n.不断的变动,动荡不定 [flux]
gait n.步法,步态 [gait]
locomotion n.运动,移动 [lo-co-mo-tion]
mobility n.可动性,流动性 [mo-bil-i-ty]
movement n.(交响乐)乐章 [move-ment]
stream n.小溪;水流;v.倾注,涌流 [stream]
velocity n.速度;迅速 [ve-loc-i-ty]
budge v.移动一点儿;改变立场 [budge]
dodge v.闪开,躲避 [dodge]
flit v.掠过,迅速飞过 [flit]
glide v.滑行,滑动 [glide]
hie v.疾走,催促 [hie]
impel v.推进;驱使 [im-pel]
propel v.推进 [pro-pel]
stir v.刺激 [stir]
stride v.大步行走 [stride]

quiescence 265

quiescent a.不动的,静止的 [qui-es-cent]
sedentary a.久坐的 [sed-en-tar-y]
stagnant a.停滞的 [stag-nant]
stationary a.静止的,不动的 [sta-tion-ar-y]
stock a.普通的,惯用的;n.存货 [stock]
unmoved a.无动于衷的,冷漠的;镇定的 [un-moved]
embargo n.禁运令,封港令 [em-bar-go]
haven n.安息所,避难所 [ha-ven]
hold n.(船)货舱 [hold]
lull n.活动的暂停;v.使平静 [lull]
repose n./v.躺着休息,安睡 [re-pose]
tranquility n.宁静,安静 [tran-quil-i-ty]
abide v.容忍,忍受 [a-bide]
anchor v.稳固;固定n.锚 [an-chor]
hush v./n.肃静,安静 [hush]
quell v.制止,镇压 [quell]
settle v.安置于;决定;栖息 [set-tle]

journey 266

constitutional a.章程的,法规的;素质上的,本质的 [con-sti-tu-tion-al]
discursive a.散漫的,无层次的 [dis-cur-sive]
itinerant a.巡回的,流动的 [i-tin-er-ant]
locomotive a.移动的;n.机车,火车头 [lo-co-mo-tive]
migratory a.迁移的,流浪的 [mi-gra-to-ry]
peripatetic a.巡游的 [per-i-pa-tet-ic]
vagrant a.漂泊的;n.流浪汉,无赖 [va-grant]
amble n./v.漫步,缓行 [am-ble]
circuit n.环行,环行道;线路;电路 [cir-cuit]
excursion n.短途旅游 [ex-cur-sion]
file n.锉刀;v.锉平 [file]
itinerary n.行程表;旅行路线 [i-tin-er-ar-y]
jaunt n./v.短程旅游 [jaunt]
peregrination n.游历(尤指在国外) [per-e-gri-na-tion]
plane n.刨子;平面;v.刨 [plane]
procession n.行列;前进 [pro-ces-sion]
ramble n./v.漫步 [ram-ble]
saunter n./v.闲逛,漫步 [saun-ter]
vagrancy n.游荡,流浪 [va-gran-cy]
vehicle n.交通工具;传播媒介 [ve-hi-cle]
wanderlust n.漫游癖,旅游热 [wan-der-lust]
defile v.弄污,弄脏;n.(山间)小道 [de-file]
emigrate v.自本国移居他国 [em-i-grate]
flit v.掠过,迅速飞过 [flit]
glide v.滑行,滑动 [glide]
hover v.翱翔;(人)徘徊 [hov-er]
perambulate v.巡视;漫步 [per-am-bu-late]
plod v.重步走;吃力地干 [plod]
promenade v./n.散步;开车兜风 [prom-e-nade]
prowl v.潜行于,偷偷地漫游 [prowl]
skim v.从液体表面撇去;浏览,略读 [skim]
stalk v.隐伏跟踪(猎物) [stalk]
stride v.大步行走 [stride]
stroll v.漫步,闲逛 [stroll]
strut v.趾高气扬地走;n.支柱 [strut]
traverse v.横穿过,横跨 [trav-erse]
trudge v.跋涉 [trudge]

navigation 267

aerial a.空中的,空气中的 [aer-i-al]
maritime a.沿海的;海上的 [mar-i-time]
nautical a.船员的,航海的 [nau-ti-cal]
balloon n.气球;v.快速增加 [bal-loon]
boom n.繁荣昌盛时期;v.发出深沉有回响的声音 [boom]
canvas n.画布;帆布 [can-vas]
flight n.飞行,飞翔;逃跑 [flight]
headway n.进步,进展 [head-way]
screw n.螺丝钉,螺旋;吝啬鬼 [screw]
flutter v.拍翅 [flut-ter]
glide v.滑行,滑动 [glide]
hover v.翱翔;(人)徘徊 [hov-er]
navigate v.航海,导航 [nav-i-gate]
skim v.从液体表面撇去;浏览,略读 [skim]
soar v.高飞,翱翔;猛增 [soar]
warp v./n.翘起,弯曲 [warp]

traveler 268

cavalier >n.骑士,武士 [cav-a-lier]
itinerant a.巡回的,流动的 [i-tin-er-ant]
pedestrian a.徒步的;缺乏想像的;n.行人 [pe-des-tri-an]
peripatetic a.巡游的 [per-i-pa-tet-ic]
vagrant a.漂泊的;n.流浪汉,无赖 [va-grant]
jockey n.骑师;v.用计谋获取 [jock-ey]
nomad n.流浪者;游牧部落的人 [no-mad]
pilgrim n.朝圣客,香客 [pil-grim]
refugee n.难民,流亡者 [ref-u-gee]
rider n.骑手;附文,附件 [rid-er]
wastrel n.挥霍无度的人 [wast-rel]

mariner 269

marine a.海的;海中的 [ma-rine]
pilot n.飞行员;领航员;领导人 [pi-lot]

transference 270

contagious a.传染的,有感染力的 [con-ta-gious]
forward a.过激的,莽撞的 [for-ward]
conduct n.品德,行为;v.领导,引导 [con-duct]
delegate n.代表;v.委派…为代表,授权 [del-e-gate]
deportation n.驱逐出境 [de-por-ta-tion]
draft n.草稿,草案;汇票 [draft]
freight n.货物;v.装货于(船等) [freight]
import n./v.进口,输入;意义 [im-port]
transition n.过渡时期,转变 [tran-si-tion]
transplantation n.移植 [transplantation]
consign v.托运;托人看管 [con-sign]
convey v.运载,运送;表达 [con-vey]
displace v.换置;使某人某物离开原位 [dis-place]
infuse v.灌输;鼓励 [in-fuse]
relegate v.降级,贬谪 [rel-e-gate]
shunt v.使(火车)转到另一轨道,转移方向 [shunt]
transfer v.转移,传递;调任,转让 [trans-fer]
transmit v.传送,传播 [trans-mit]
transport v.运输;n.狂喜 [trans-port]
transpose v.变换位置,调换 [trans-pose]
waft v.飘浮,飘荡 [waft]

carrier 271

equine a.马的,似马的 [e-quine]
locomotive a.移动的;n.机车,火车头 [lo-co-mo-tive]
barb n.(鱼钩的)倒钩;严厉的批评 [barb]
cob n.玉米棒子;雄天鹅 [cob]
filly n.小母马 [fil-ly]
jade n.疲惫的老马;玉,翡翠 [jade]
mare n.母马,母驴 [ma-re]
brace v.使稳固,架稳;n.支撑物 [brace]
hack v.乱劈,乱砍;n.雇佣文人 [hack]
nag v.唠叨,烦扰 [nag]
punch v.以拳猛击;打洞 [punch]

vehicle 272

limber a.易弯曲的;敏捷的 [lim-ber]
random a.没有明确目的、计划或者目标的;偶然的,随便的 [ran-dom]
sulky a.生气的 [sulk-y]
caterpillar n.毛毛虫,蝴蝶的幼虫 [cat-er-pil-lar]
crate n.篓,板条箱 [crate]
diligence n.勤勉,勤奋 [dil-i-gence]
hoe n.锄头 [hoe]
hurdle n.跳栏;障碍;v.克服(障碍) [hur-dle]
limousine n.大型轿车,大客车 [lim-ou-sine]
litter n.垃圾;一窝(动物) [lit-ter]
sleigh n.(马拉的)雪橇 [sleigh]
spatula n.(调拌等用的)抹刀 [spat-u-la]
unicorn n.(传说中的)独角兽 [u-ni-corn]
vehicle n.交通工具;传播媒介 [ve-hi-cle]
hack v.乱劈,乱砍;n.雇佣文人 [hack]
rig v.欺骗,舞弊,伪造 [rig]

ship 273

dingy a.肮脏的;褪色的 [din-gy]
marine a.海的;海中的 [ma-rine]
balloon n.气球;v.快速增加 [bal-loon]
barge n.平底货船,驳船 [barge]
clipper n.大剪刀;快速帆船 [clip-per]
craft n.行业;手艺 [craft]
dandy n.花花公子,好打扮的人 [dan-dy]
galley n.船上的厨房 [gal-ley]
hulk n.废船,船壳;笨重之人或物 [hulk]
skiff n.轻舟,小船 [skiff]
vessel n.血管;容器;船只 [ves-sel]
yacht n.帆船,游艇 [yacht]
bark v./n.狗吠;n.树皮 [bark]
baste v.倒油脂于(烤肉上,以防烤干) [baste]
beat v.心跳;搅拌 [beat]
belabor v.过分冗长地做或说;痛打 [be-la-bor]
bully v.以强欺弱,威胁;n.欺负别人者 [bul-ly]
punch v.以拳猛击;打洞 [punch]
tender v.(希望对方接受的意见等) [ten-der]
transport v.运输;n.狂喜 [trans-port]

2. Degrees of Motion

velocity 274

agile a.敏捷的,灵活的 [ag-ile]
expeditious a.迅速的,敏捷的 [ex-pe-di-tious]
mercurial a.善变的;活泼的 [mer-cu-ri-al]
swift a.迅速的;敏捷的 [swift]
amble n./v.漫步,缓行 [am-ble]
boom n.繁荣昌盛时期;v.发出深沉有回响的声音 [boom]
chipmunk n.花栗鼠(像松鼠的美洲小动物) [chip-munk]
dart n.飞镖;v.急驰;投射 [dart]
fast n.绝食,斋戒;adv.很快地,紧紧地 [fast]
flight n.飞行,飞翔;逃跑 [flight]
log n./v.日志,记录;n.一段大木头;圆木 [log]
odometer n.(汽车)里程表 [o-dom-e-ter]
ostrich n.鸵鸟;不接受现实的人 [os-trich]
squirrel n.松鼠 [squir-rel]
torrent n.洪流,急流 [tor-rent]
velocity n.速度;迅速 [ve-loc-i-ty]
accelerate v.加速;促进 [ac-cel-er-ate]
bolt v.急逃(to dash out; dart);螺栓,门栓 [bolt]
flit v.掠过,迅速飞过 [flit]
hasten v.催促,促进 [has-ten]
hie v.疾走,催促 [hie]
outstrip v.超过;跑过 [out-strip]
scorch v.烤焦,烧焦 [scorch]
skim v.从液体表面撇去;浏览,略读 [skim]
spank v.打,拍打(在屁股上) [spank]
tear v.撕裂 [tear]

slowness 275

deliberate a.深思熟虑的,故意的;v.慎重考虑 [de-lib-er-ate]
dilatory a.慢吞吞的,磨蹭的 [di-la-to-ry]
gentle a.温和的,慈祥的 [gen-tle]
glacial a.冰期的,冰河期的;寒冷的 [gla-ci-al]
languid a.没精打采的,倦怠的 [lan-guid]
piano a.(音乐)轻柔的 [pi-a-no]
slack a.懒散的,懈怠的;(绳)松弛的;v.松懈,怠惰 [slack]
tardy a.缓慢的,迟缓的 [tar-dy]
curb n.路缘,(街道的)镶边石;马勒;v.控制 [curb]
languor n.身心疲惫 [lan-guor]
saunter n./v.闲逛,漫步 [saun-ter]
slouch n.没精打采的样子;v.没精打采地坐(站、走) [slouch]
sluggard n.懒鬼 [slug-gard]
check v.使突然停止,阻止 [check]
creep v.匍匐前进;悄悄地移动 [creep]
dawdle v.闲荡,虚度 [daw-dle]
drawl v./n.慢吞吞地说话(态度) [drawl]
falter v.摇晃,蹒跚;支吾地说 [fal-ter]
flag v.减弱,衰退;枯萎 [flag]
grovel v.摇尾乞怜,奴颜婢膝 [grov-el]
lag v.落后,滞留 [lag]
limp v.跛行;a.软弱的,松软的 [limp]
linger v.逗留,留恋 [lin-ger]
lumber v.蹒跚而行,笨拙地走;n.杂物;木材 [lum-ber]
mince v.切碎;小步走路 [mince]
plod v.重步走;吃力地干 [plod]
retard v.妨碍;减速 [re-tard]
slacken v.(使)松弛,放松 [slack-en]
trudge v.跋涉 [trudge]
waddle v.(鸭子等)摇摇摆摆地走 [wad-dle]

3. Motion Conjoined with Force

impulse 276

dynamic a.动态的;有活力的 [dy-nam-ic]
foul a.恶臭的;邪恶的;v.弄脏;n.(体育等)犯规 [foul]
impulsive a.易冲动的 [im-pul-sive]
boom n.繁荣昌盛时期;v.发出深沉有回响的声音 [boom]
brunt n.主要冲击力或影响 [brunt]
cant n.斜坡,斜面;隐语,术语,黑话;v.使倾斜 [cant]
clip n.夹子,别针;v.修剪 [clip]
collision n.碰撞,冲突 [col-li-sion]
concussion n.脑震荡;强烈震动 [con-cus-sion]
elbow n.肘 [el-bow]
flail n.连枷(打谷工具);v.打,打击 [flail]
hammer n.锤子,槌 [ham-mer]
impact n.冲击,影响 [im-pact]
impetus n.推动力;刺激 [im-pe-tus]
impulse n.冲动;刺激 [im-pulse]
momentum n.推进力,势头 [mo-men-tum]
propulsion n.推进力 [pro-pul-sion]
shoulder n.肩;路肩 [shoul-der]
baste v.倒油脂于(烤肉上,以防烤干) [baste]
beat v.心跳;搅拌 [beat]
belabor v.过分冗长地做或说;痛打 [be-la-bor]
butt v.用头抵撞,顶撞;n.粗大的一端;烟蒂 [butt]
clash v.冲突,撞击 [clash]
encounter v.遭遇 [en-coun-ter]
impel v.推进;驱使 [im-pel]
impinge v.侵犯;撞击 [im-pinge]
jog v.慢而平静地前进 [jog]
jolt v.颠簸着移动;n.震动,摇晃 [jolt]
maul v.撕裂皮肉,伤害 [maul]
prod v.刺,捅;激励 [prod]
punch v.以拳猛击;打洞 [punch]
shove v.推挤,猛推 [shove]
squash v.压碎,挤压;n.南瓜 [squash]
stroke v.抚摸;n.击,打;一笔 [stroke]
thrust v.猛力推;刺,戳 [thrust]

recoil 277

reactionary a.保守的,反动的 [re-ac-tion-ar-y]
recalcitrant a.顽抗的 [re-cal-ci-trant]
repercussion n.反响;影响;回声 [re-per-cus-sion]
rebuff v.断然拒绝 [re-buff]
recoil v.退却,退缩 [re-coil]
repulse v.驱逐,击退;厌恶;n.驱逐,击退,厌恶 [re-pulse]
reverberate v.起回声,反响 [re-ver-ber-ate]

4. Motion with Reference to Direction

direction 278

straightforward a.正直的;易懂的;直截了当的 [straight-for-ward]
bearing n.关系,意义;方位 [bear-ing]
incidence n.事情发生;发生率 [in-ci-dence]
tenor n.男高音;要点,要旨 [ten-or]
bend v.弯曲;屈服 [bend]
trend v./n.趋势,倾向 [trend]

deviation 279

aberrant a.越轨的;异常的 [ab-er-rant]
circuitous a.迂回的,绕圈子的 [cir-cu-i-tous]
desultory a.不连贯的,散漫的 [des-ul-to-ry]
devious a.不正直的;弯曲的 [de-vi-ous]
discursive a.散漫的,无层次的 [dis-cur-sive]
erratic a.反复无常的;古怪的 [er-rat-ic]
excursive a.离题的,随意的 [ex-cur-sive]
undirected a.未受指导的 [un-di-rect-ed]
vagrant a.漂泊的;n.流浪汉,无赖 [va-grant]
aberration n.离开正路,脱离常轨;变形 [ab-er-ra-tion]
detour n.弯路;绕行之路 [de-tour]
deviation n.背离 [de-vi-a-tion]
digression n.离题,题外话 [di-gres-sion]
ramble n./v.漫步 [ram-ble]
refraction n.折射 [re-frac-tion]
vagrancy n.游荡,流浪 [va-gran-cy]
zigzag n./a.之字形(的);v.弯弯曲曲地行进 [zig-zag]
bend v.弯曲;屈服 [bend]
crook v.使弯曲;n.钩状物 [crook]
deflect v.偏离,转向 [de-flect]
deviate v.越轨,脱离 [de-vi-ate]
digress v.离题 [di-gress]
diverge v.分歧,分开 [di-verge]
divert v.使某事物转向;使娱乐 [di-vert]
dodge v.闪开,躲避 [dodge]
meander v.蜿蜒而流;漫步 [me-an-der]
shunt v.使(火车)转到另一轨道,转移方向 [shunt]
stray v.偏离,迷路;a.迷了路的;零落的 [stray]
swerve v.突然改变方向 [swerve]
trend v./n.趋势,倾向 [trend]
veer v.转向,改变(话题等) [veer]
waddle v.(鸭子等)摇摇摆摆地走 [wad-dle]
warp v./n.翘起,弯曲 [warp]

precession 280

precursor n.先驱,先兆 [pre-cur-sor]
priority n.在先,居前;优先权 [pri-or-i-ty]
outstrip v.超过;跑过 [out-strip]
precede v.在…之前,早于 [pre-cede]

sequence 281

subsequent a.随后的,后来的,连续的 [sub-se-quent]
beset v.镶嵌;困扰 [be-set]
pursue v.追赶,追求,追踪 [pur-sue]

progression 282

forward a.过激的,莽撞的 [for-ward]
headway n.进步,进展 [head-way]

regression 283

reactionary a.保守的,反动的 [re-ac-tion-ar-y]
regressive a.退步的,退化的 [re-gres-sive]
resilient a.有弹性的;能恢复活力的,适应力强的 [re-sil-i-ent]
balk n.大方木料;v.妨碍;(因困难等)不愿前进或从事某事 [balk]
deterioration n.恶化,堕落 [de-te-ri-o-ra-tion]
recess n.壁凹(墙上装的架子、柜子等凹处);休假 [re-cess]
recession n.经济萧条时期;撤回,退回 [re-ces-sion]
relapse n.旧病复发;再恶化;v.旧病复发,再恶化 [re-lapse]
retreat n./v.撤退;隐居处 [re-treat]
ebb v.退潮;衰退 [ebb]
recede v.后退,收回(诺言) [re-cede]
regress v.使倒退,复原,逆行 [re-gress]
revert v.恢复,回复到;重新考虑 [re-vert]
shrink v.收缩,皱缩 [shrink]
withdraw v.撤退,收回;隐居 [with-draw]

propulsion 284

cast n.演员阵容;剧团;v.扔;铸造 [cast]
dart n.飞镖;v.急驰;投射 [dart]
jerk n./v.突然猛拉 [jerk]
lance n.长矛;鱼叉 [lance]
missile n.发射物;导弹 [mis-sile]
pitch n.沥青,柏油;音调 [pitch]
projectile n.抛射物,发射体 [pro-jec-tile]
projection n.凸出物 [pro-jec-tion]
propeller n.螺旋桨;推进器 [pro-pel-ler]
propulsion n.推进力 [pro-pul-sion]
screw n.螺丝钉,螺旋;吝啬鬼 [screw]
shoot n.嫩芽,新芽 [shoot]
bolt v.急逃(to dash out; dart);螺栓,门栓 [bolt]
discharge v.流出;释放;解雇;履行义务 [dis-charge]
expel v.排出;开除 [ex-pel]
flirt v.挑逗,调戏 [flirt]
fulminate v.猛烈抨击,严厉谴责 [ful-mi-nate]
hurl v.猛投;大声叫骂 [hurl]
impel v.推进;驱使 [im-pel]
propel v.推进 [pro-pel]
release v.释放,放出;n.释放 [re-lease]
shove v.推挤,猛推 [shove]
tilt v.(使)倾斜;n.倾斜,斜坡 [tilt]
toss v.投,掷;使摇动 [toss]

traction 285

jerk n./v.突然猛拉 [jerk]
lug v./n.拖,拉 [lug]
wrench v.扭,拧;n.板钳,扳手 [wrench]

approach 286

affluent a.富裕的,丰富的 [af-flu-ent]
approximate a.大约的,估计的 [ap-prox-i-mate]
imminent a.即将发生的,逼近的 [im-mi-nent]
impending a.行将发生的,逼近的 [im-pend-ing]
access n.通路;途径 [ac-cess]
advent n.到来,来临 [ad-vent]
approach v.接近,靠近;着手处理;n.方法 [ap-proach]
pursue v.追赶,追求,追踪 [pur-sue]

recession 287

flight n.飞行,飞翔;逃跑 [flight]
recession n.经济萧条时期;撤回,退回 [re-ces-sion]
retreat n./v.撤退;隐居处 [re-treat]
recede v.后退,收回(诺言) [re-cede]
recoil v.退却,退缩 [re-coil]
remove v.移走;脱掉;迁移 [re-move]
shrink v.收缩,皱缩 [shrink]
shunt v.使(火车)转到另一轨道,转移方向 [shunt]
withdraw v.撤退,收回;隐居 [with-draw]

attraction 288

static a.静态的,呆板的 [stat-ic]
gravity n.严肃,正经 [grav-i-ty]

repulsion 289

repellent a.令人厌恶的 [re-pel-lent]
repulsion n.厌恶,反感;排斥力 [re-pul-sion]
chase v.雕镂;追捕 [chase]
dispel v.驱散,消除 [dis-pel]
repel v.击退,使…反感 [re-pel]
repulse v.驱逐,击退;厌恶;n.驱逐,击退,厌恶 [re-pulse]

convergence 290

convergent a.会聚的 [con-ver-gent]
meet a.合适的 [meet]
resort n.度假胜地 [re-sort]
concentrate v.集中,浓缩 [con-cen-trate]
concur v.意见相同,一致 [con-cur]
converge v.会聚,集中于一点 [con-verge]

divergence 291

aberrant a.越轨的;异常的 [ab-er-rant]
divergent a.分叉的,岔开的,背道而驰的 [di-ver-gent]
aberration n.离开正路,脱离常轨;变形 [ab-er-ra-tion]
deviation n.背离 [de-vi-a-tion]
deviate v.越轨,脱离 [de-vi-ate]
disperse v.消散,驱散 [dis-perse]
diverge v.分歧,分开 [di-verge]
ramify v.分支,分叉 [ram-i-fy]
scatter v.散开,驱散 [scat-ter]

arrival 292

meet a.合适的 [meet]
terminal a.末端的;n.终点站,终端 [ter-mi-nal]
advent n.到来,来临 [ad-vent]
harbor n.港,避难所;v.包庇,隐匿 [har-bor]
haven n.安息所,避难所 [ha-ven]
terminus n.(火车,汽车)终点站 [ter-mi-nus]
attain v.达到,实现 [at-tain]
debark v.下船,下飞机,下车,卸载 [de-bark]
encounter v.遭遇 [en-coun-ter]

departure 293

farewell interj.再会,再见;n.辞行,告别 [fare-well]
valedictory a.告别的,离别的 [val-e-dic-to-ry]
exodus n.大批离去,成群外出 [ex-o-dus]
flight n.飞行,飞翔;逃跑 [flight]
outset n.开始,开头 [out-set]
valediction n.告别演说 [val-e-dic-tion]
abandon v./n.放弃;放纵 [a-ban-don]
abscond v.潜逃,逃亡 [ab-scond]
debouch v.流出,进入(开阔地区) [de-bouch]
evacuate v.撤退;撤离 [e-vac-u-ate]
flit v.掠过,迅速飞过 [flit]
issue v.出来,流出;发给,分发;n.(书刊的)期 [is-sue]
remove v.移走;脱掉;迁移 [re-move]
withdraw v.撤退,收回;隐居 [with-draw]

ingress 294

admission n.许可;入会费;承认 [ad-mis-sion]
conduit n.渠道,引水道;水管 [con-duit]
entry n.条目;登录;报关手续;入口 [en-try]
import n./v.进口,输入;意义 [im-port]
influx n.注入,涌入 [in-flux]
inroad n.突袭;消耗 [in-road]
entrance v.使出神,使入迷 [en-trance]
infiltrate v.渗透,渗入 [in-fil-trate]
insert v.插入 [in-sert]
intrude v.把(思想等)强加于,闯入 [in-trude]
invade v.侵犯,侵入 [in-vade]
penetrate v.刺穿;渗入;了解 [pen-e-trate]

egress 295

outgoing a.友善的;即将离去的 [out-go-ing]
conduit n.渠道,引水道;水管 [con-duit]
drainage n.排水;污水 [drain-age]
egress n.出去,出口 [e-gress]
exodus n.大批离去,成群外出 [ex-o-dus]
filter n.滤纸;v.过滤 [fil-ter]
floodgate n.(水闸的)闸门 [flood-gate]
leakage n.渗漏,漏出 [leak-age]
outlet n.出口 [out-let]
pore n.毛孔,气孔 [pore]
sluice n.水门,水闸;v.冲洗 [sluice]
debouch v.流出,进入(开阔地区) [de-bouch]
discharge v.流出;释放;解雇;履行义务 [dis-charge]
distill v.蒸馏 [dis-till]
drain v.排出沟外;喝光 [drain]
emanate v.散发,发出,发源 [em-a-nate]
evacuate v.撤退;撤离 [e-vac-u-ate]
exude v.使慢慢流出;四溢 [ex-ude]
gush v.涌出;滔滔不绝地说 [gush]
issue v.出来,流出;发给,分发;n.(书刊的)期 [is-sue]
leak v.泄漏;n.泄漏;漏出量,漏洞 [leak]
perspire v.流汗 [per-spire]
trickle v.一滴滴地流;n.细流 [trick-le]
vent v.发泄(情绪);开孔;n.孔,口 [vent]

reception 296

admission n.许可;入会费;承认 [ad-mis-sion]
import n./v.进口,输入;意义 [im-port]
ingestion n.摄取,吸收;容纳 [in-ges-tion]
interjection n.插入语;感叹词 [in-ter-jec-tion]
absorb v.吸收;同化;吸引…的注意 [ab-sorb]
engulf v.吞噬 [en-gulf]
gulp v.吞食,咽下 [gulp]
imbibe v.饮;吸入 [im-bibe]
ingest v.咽下,吞下 [in-gest]
inhale v.吸气 [in-hale]
swallow v.吞下,咽下;忍受 [swal-low]

ejection 297

void a.空的,缺乏的;n.空隙,空处;空虚感 [void]
deportation n.驱逐出境 [de-por-ta-tion]
drainage n.排水;污水 [drain-age]
drivel n./v.说废话 [driv-el]
eviction n.(对房客或佃户的)驱逐 [e-vic-tion]
hawk n.隼,鹰 [hawk]
banish v.放逐某人 [ban-ish]
boycott v.抵制(贸易) [boy-cott]
broach v.开瓶;提出(讨论) [broach]
deport v.(将外国人、罪犯等)驱逐出境 [de-port]
discard v.扔掉,抛弃 [dis-card]
discharge v.流出;释放;解雇;履行义务 [dis-charge]
disgorge v.呕出;(水)流走 [dis-gorge]
dislodge v.逐出,取出 [dis-lodge]
dispatch v.派遣;一下子做完;吃完;n.迅速 [dis-patch]
eliminate v.除去,淘汰 [e-lim-i-nate]
emit v.放射(光、热、味等) [e-mit]
erupt v.爆发;喷出(熔岩、水、气体、泥浆等) [e-rupt]
evict v.(依法)驱逐 [e-vict]
excrete v.排泄,分泌 [ex-crete]
exhale v.呼出(气) [ex-hale]
expel v.排出;开除 [ex-pel]
expend v.花费;用光 [ex-pend]
oust v.驱逐;把…赶走 [oust]
perspire v.流汗 [per-spire]
purge v.清洗,洗涤 [purge]
relegate v.降级,贬谪 [rel-e-gate]
secrete v.隐藏;分泌 [se-crete]
shed v.流出(眼泪等);脱落(叶子) [shed]
unearth v.挖出;发现 [un-earth]

food 298

alimentary a.饮食的,营养的 [al-i-men-ta-ry]
carnivorous a.肉食动物的 [car-niv-o-rous]
culinary a.厨房的;烹调的 [cu-li-nar-y]
herbivorous a.食草的 [her-biv-o-rous]
potable a.适于饮用的 [po-ta-ble]
appetizer n.开胃品 [ap-pe-tiz-er]
bait n.诱饵;v.逗弄;激怒 [bait]
banquet n.宴会,盛宴 [ban-quet]
barbecue n.烤肉架;烤肉 [bar-be-cue]
beverage n.饮料 [bev-er-age]
carouse n.狂饮寻乐 [ca-rouse]
cereal n.谷类;谷类食品 [ce-re-al]
clam n.蛤蜊,蛤肉;守秘密之人 [clam]
cuisine n.烹饪 [cui-sine]
dainty n.精美食品;a.娇美的;挑剔的 [dain-ty]
delicacy n.细嫩;精致,优雅 [del-i-ca-cy]
forage n.(牛马的)饲料,粮草;v.搜寻,翻寻 [for-age]
mate n.伙伴;配偶;v.交配 [mate]
morsel n.一小块(食物);小量 [mor-sel]
omelet n.煎蛋卷 [om-e-let]
pastry n.糕点,点心 [pas-try]
potation n.畅饮;饮料 [po-ta-tion]
prey n.被捕食的动物 [prey]
provender n.(牛马吃的)草料,粮秣 [prov-en-der]
provision n.(粮食)供应;(法律等)条款 [pro-vi-sion]
ration n.定量配给;v.配给 [ra-tion]
sop n.泡过的食品;安慰品 [sop]
subsistence n.生存,生计;存在 [sub-sist-ence]
sustenance n.食物,粮食;生计 [sus-te-nance]
vanilla n.香草,香子兰 [va-nil-la]
waffle n.蛋奶烘饼;v.胡扯,唠叨 [waf-fle]
bolt v.急逃(to dash out; dart);螺栓,门栓 [bolt]
devour v.吞食;贪婪地享受 [de-vour]
dispatch v.派遣;一下子做完;吃完;n.迅速 [dis-patch]
drench v.使湿透 [drench]
flip v.用指轻弹;蹦跳;a.无礼的 [flip]
gnaw v.啃,咬 [gnaw]
graze v.(动物)吃(地上长的)草;放牧 [graze]
gulp v.吞食,咽下 [gulp]
lap v.舔食;泼溅 [lap]
masticate v.咀嚼;把…磨成浆 [mas-ti-cate]
mince v.切碎;小步走路 [mince]
mumble v.咕哝,含糊不清地说 [mum-ble]
nibble v.一点点地咬,慢慢啃 [nib-ble]
nip v.小口啜饮 [nip]
nurture v.抚育,给…营养物,教养;n.养育,营养物;(总称)环境因素 [nur-ture]
peck v.啄食;轻啄 [peck]
punch v.以拳猛击;打洞 [punch]
purvey v.(大量)供给,供应 [pur-vey]
quaff v.痛饮,畅饮 [quaff]
regale v.款待;使…享受 [re-gale]
remove v.移走;脱掉;迁移 [re-move]
sip v.啜饮 [sip]
swallow v.吞下,咽下;忍受 [swal-low]
swill v.冲洗;痛饮 [swill]
table v.搁置,不加考虑 [ta-ble]
whet v.磨快;刺激 [whet]

excretion 299

hemorrhage n.出血(尤指大出血) [hem-or-rhage]
lava n.熔岩 [la-va]
saliva n.唾液,口水 [sa-li-va]
discharge v.流出;释放;解雇;履行义务 [dis-charge]
emanate v.散发,发出,发源 [em-a-nate]
excrete v.排泄,分泌 [ex-crete]

insertion 300

bud n.芽;花蕾 [bud]
impact n.冲击,影响 [im-pact]
import n./v.进口,输入;意义 [im-port]
injection n.注射;注射剂 [in-jec-tion]
graft v./n.嫁接;贪污 [graft]
imbue v.灌输(某人)强烈的情感或意见 [im-bue]
immerse v.浸入;沉浸于 [im-merse]
implant v.注入;灌输 [im-plant]
infuse v.灌输;鼓励 [in-fuse]
inoculate v.预防注射 [in-oc-u-late]
insert v.插入 [in-sert]
instill v.滴注;逐渐灌输 [in-still]
plunge v.投入;俯冲 [plunge]
press v.挤压 [press]
soak v.浸泡,渗透 [soak]

extraction 301

extirpation n.根除,铲除 [ex-tir-pa-tion]
elicit v.引出,探出 [e-lic-it]
eliminate v.除去,淘汰 [e-lim-i-nate]
eradicate v.根除;扑灭 [e-rad-i-cate]
evolve v.使逐渐形成,进化 [e-volve]
extort v.强索,敲诈 [ex-tort]
extract v.拔出;强索 [ex-tract]
extricate v.拯救,救出 [ex-tri-cate]
remove v.移走;脱掉;迁移 [re-move]
wrench v.扭,拧;n.板钳,扳手 [wrench]

passage 302

cross a.生气的 [cross]
conduit n.渠道,引水道;水管 [con-duit]
egress n.出去,出口 [e-gress]
ford n.浅滩,水浅可涉处;v.涉水 [ford]
thread n.螺纹 [thread]
penetrate v.刺穿;渗入;了解 [pen-e-trate]
perforate v.打洞 [per-fo-rate]
permeate v.扩散;渗透 [per-me-ate]
transmit v.传送,传播 [trans-mit]
traverse v.横穿过,横跨 [trav-erse]

transcursion 303

redundancy n.过剩;备份;似乎多余其实重要的后备力量 [re-dun-dan-cy]
transgression n.违法,罪过 [trans-gres-sion]
beat v.心跳;搅拌 [beat]
encroach v.侵占,蚕食 [en-croach]
exceed v.超过;超出 [ex-ceed]
infringe v.违反,侵害 [in-fringe]
outstrip v.超过;跑过 [out-strip]
overlap v.(部分地)重叠 [o-ver-lap]
overreach v.做事过头 [o-ver-reach]
override v.不理会;蹂躏,践踏 [o-ver-ride]
soar v.高飞,翱翔;猛增 [soar]
surmount v.克服,战胜 [sur-mount]
surpass v.超过 [sur-pass]
transcend v.超越,胜过 [tran-scend]
transgress v.冒犯,违背 [trans-gress]
trespass v.侵犯,闯入私人领地 [tres-pass]

shortcoming 304

perfunctory a.草率的,敷衍的 [per-func-to-ry]
want n.缺乏,贫困,需要 [want]
collapse v.坍塌,塌陷;虚脱,晕倒 [col-lapse]
default v./n.拖债;未履行的责任 [de-fault]

ascent 305

buoyant a.有浮力的;快乐的 [buoy-ant]
lark n./v.玩乐,嬉耍 [lark]
plane n.刨子;平面;v.刨 [plane]
scale n.鱼鳞;(音乐)音阶 [scale]
spire n.(教堂)尖顶 [spire]
aspire v.向往,有志于 [as-pire]
elevate v.将…举起 [el-e-vate]
hover v.翱翔;(人)徘徊 [hov-er]
soar v.高飞,翱翔;猛增 [soar]
surge v.波涛汹涌,波动 [surge]
surmount v.克服,战胜 [sur-mount]

descent 306

deciduous a.非永久的;短暂的;脱落的;落叶的 [de-cid-u-ous]
avalanche n.雪崩 [av-a-lanche]
debacle n.解冻;崩溃 [de-ba-cle]
descent n.降落;侵袭;血统 [de-scent]
landslide n.山崩;压倒性胜利 [land-slide]
lapse n.失误;(时间等)流逝 [lapse]
lurch n.突然向前或旁边倒;v.蹒跚而行 [lurch]
pitch n.沥青,柏油;音调 [pitch]
collapse v.坍塌,塌陷;虚脱,晕倒 [col-lapse]
decline v.拒绝;变弱,变小;n.消减 [de-cline]
descend v.下来,下降 [de-scend]
droop v.低垂;沮丧,萎靡 [droop]
plummet v.垂直或突然坠下 [plum-met]
plunge v.投入;俯冲 [plunge]
settle v.安置于;决定;栖息 [set-tle]
tilt v.(使)倾斜;n.倾斜,斜坡 [tilt]
topple v.倾覆,推倒 [top-ple]

elevation 307

erect a.竖立的,笔直的,直立的 [e-rect]
rampant a.蔓生的,猖獗的 [ram-pant]
stilted a.(文章,谈话)不自然的;夸张的 [stilt-ed]
buoy n.浮标;救生圈;v.支持,鼓励 [bu-oy]
exaltation n.(成功带来的)得意,高兴 [ex-al-ta-tion]
lever n.杠杆;v.撬动 [lev-er]
upheaval n.动乱,大变动 [up-heav-al]
elevate v.将…举起 [el-e-vate]
escalate v.(战争等)升级;扩大,上升 [es-ca-late]
exalt v.(高度)赞扬,歌颂 [ex-alt]
hoist v.吊高,升起;n.起重机 [hoist]

depression 308

depressed a.消沉的;凹陷的 [de-pressed]
prostrate a.俯卧的;沮丧的;v.使下跪鞠躬 [pros-trate]
cast n.演员阵容;剧团;v.扔;铸造 [cast]
depression n.忧愁,消沉;数量减少 [de-pres-sion]
fell n.兽皮;v.砍伐;a.凶猛的,可怕的 [fell]
obeisance n.鞠躬,敬礼 [o-bei-sance]
pitch n.沥青,柏油;音调 [pitch]
precipitation n.降水(量) [pre-cip-i-ta-tion]
bend v.弯曲;屈服 [bend]
cower v.畏缩,蜷缩 [cow-er]
crouch v.蹲伏,弯腰 [crouch]
debase v.贬低,贬损 [de-base]
overthrow v./n.推翻;终止 [o-ver-throw]
overturn v.翻倒;推翻 [o-ver-turn]
precipitate v.加速,促成;a.鲁莽的 [pre-cip-i-tate]
raze v.彻底破坏 [raze]
squat v.蹲下;a.矮胖的 [squat]
subvert v.颠覆,推翻 [sub-vert]

leap 309

frisky a.活泼的,快活的 [frisk-y]
kangaroo n.袋鼠 [kan-ga-roo]
vault n.拱顶;地窖 [vault]
buck v.反对;n.雄鹿;雄兔 [buck]

plunge 310

diver n.潜水员 [div-er]
welter n.混乱,杂乱无章 [wel-ter]
douse v.把…浸入水中;熄灭 [douse]
engulf v.吞噬 [en-gulf]
founder v.(船)沉没;(计划)失败 [found-er]
immerse v.浸入;沉浸于 [im-merse]
plunge v.投入;俯冲 [plunge]

circuition 311

circuitous a.迂回的,绕圈子的 [cir-cu-i-tous]
circuit n.环行,环行道;线路;电路 [cir-cuit]
circulation n.循环,流通;发行额 [cir-cu-la-tion]
excursion n.短途旅游 [ex-cur-sion]
bend v.弯曲;屈服 [bend]
circulate v.循环;流通;发行 [cir-cu-late]
circumvent v.回避;用计谋战胜或规避 [cir-cum-vent]
meander v.蜿蜒而流;漫步 [me-an-der]
wrench v.扭,拧;n.板钳,扳手 [wrench]

rotation 312

gyrate a.旋转的;v.旋转 [gy-rate]
augur n.占卜师;v.占卜 [au-gur]
axis n.轴(常为虚构之线,如地球轴) [ax-is]
axle n.轮轴(连接两个车轮的轴) [ax-le]
circulation n.循环,流通;发行额 [cir-cu-la-tion]
cyclone n.气旋,飓风 [cy-clone]
drill n.钻;钻床 [drill]
eddy n.漩涡,涡流 [ed-dy]
gear n.齿轮;装备;仪器 [gear]
hinge n.铰链;关键 [hinge]
hub n.轴心;中心 [hub]
pirouette n./v.(舞蹈)脚尖立地的旋转 [pir-ou-ette]
screw n.螺丝钉,螺旋;吝啬鬼 [screw]
tire n.轮胎(tyre);v.疲劳 [tire]
tornado n.飓风,龙卷风 [tor-na-do]
vertigo n.眩晕 [ver-ti-go]
welter n.混乱,杂乱无章 [wel-ter]
whirlpool n.漩涡 [whirl-pool]
circulate v.循环;流通;发行 [cir-cu-late]
rotate v.旋转,转动;轮流,交替 [ro-tate]
spin v.旋转;纺,纺纱;n.旋转 [spin]
surge v.波涛汹涌,波动 [surge]

evolution 313

disentangle v.解决,解脱,解开,澄清 [dis-en-tan-gle]
evolve v.使逐渐形成,进化 [e-volve]
unfold v.展开,打开;逐渐呈现 [un-fold]
unravel v.解开,拆散 [un-rav-el]

oscillation 314

alternate a.轮流的,交替的;v.轮流,交替n.候选人,替代性选择 [al-ter-nate]
lurch n.突然向前或旁边倒;v.蹒跚而行 [lurch]
pitch n.沥青,柏油;音调 [pitch]
quiver n.箭筒,箭囊 [quiv-er]
reel n.卷轴,旋转;v.卷…于轴上 [reel]
zigzag n./a.之字形(的);v.弯弯曲曲地行进 [zig-zag]
beat v.心跳;搅拌 [beat]
brandish v.(威胁性地)挥舞 [bran-dish]
dodge v.闪开,躲避 [dodge]
flounder v.挣扎;艰苦地移动;n.比目鱼 [floun-der]
flourish v.昌盛,兴旺;活跃而有影响 [flour-ish]
fluctuate v.波动;变化 [fluc-tu-ate]
oscillate v.摆动;犹豫 [os-cil-late]
pulse v.搏动,跳动;n.脉搏;脉冲 [pulse]
quaver v.发颤音,颤抖;n.颤音 [qua-ver]
swing v.摇摆;旋转;n.秋千 [swing]
toss v.投,掷;使摇动 [toss]
totter v.摇摇欲坠;步履蹒跚 [tot-ter]
vacillate v.游移不定,踌躇 [vac-il-late]
vibrate v.颤动,振动 [vi-brate]
wag v.(狗尾巴等)摆动;n.诙谐幽默者 [wag]

agitation 315

desultory a.不连贯的,散漫的 [des-ul-to-ry]
restless a.不停的;不安静的 [rest-less]
chaos n.混乱 [cha-os]
commotion n.骚动,动乱 [com-mo-tion]
convulsion n.骚动;痉挛 [con-vul-sion]
fermentation n.发酵 [fer-men-ta-tion]
fuss n.大惊小怪 [fuss]
jerk n./v.突然猛拉 [jerk]
quiver n.箭筒,箭囊 [quiv-er]
reel n.卷轴,旋转;v.卷…于轴上 [reel]
tempest n.暴风雨;骚动 [tem-pest]
tremor n.震动,地震 [trem-or]
trepidation n.恐惧,惶恐 [trep-i-da-tion]
tumult n.乱哄哄 [tu-mult]
turmoil n.混乱,骚乱 [tur-moil]
whirlpool n.漩涡 [whirl-pool]
agitate v.搅动,煽动;使不安,使焦虑 [ag-i-tate]
beat v.心跳;搅拌 [beat]
bicker v.为小事争吵 [bick-er]
brandish v.(威胁性地)挥舞 [bran-dish]
convulse v.使震动,震惊 [con-vulse]
effervesce v.冒泡;热情洋溢 [ef-fer-vesce]
ferment v./n.(使)发酵;骚动 [fer-ment]
flounder v.挣扎;艰苦地移动;n.比目鱼 [floun-der]
flourish v.昌盛,兴旺;活跃而有影响 [flour-ish]
flutter v.拍翅 [flut-ter]
jar v.冲突,抵触;震惊;发刺耳声 [jar]
jog v.慢而平静地前进 [jog]
jolt v.颠簸着移动;n.震动,摇晃 [jolt]
palpitate v.(心脏)急速而不规则地跳动 [pal-pi-tate]
quaver v.发颤音,颤抖;n.颤音 [qua-ver]
ripple v.起涟漪;n.细浪,涟漪 [rip-ple]
stir v.刺激 [stir]
sway v.摇动,摇摆;影响使改变;n.摇动 [sway]
toss v.投,掷;使摇动 [toss]
totter v.摇摇欲坠;步履蹒跚 [tot-ter]
wag v.(狗尾巴等)摆动;n.诙谐幽默者 [wag]
wield v.支配,掌权 [wield]

Class III. Words Relating to Matter

Section I. Matter in General

materiality 316

corporeal a.肉体的,身体的;物质的 [cor-po-re-al]
objective a.客观的;n.目标 [ob-jec-tive]
palpable a.可触知的,明显的 [pal-pa-ble]
ponderable a.可估量的 [pon-der-a-ble]
sensible a.明智的;可感觉到的 [sen-si-ble]
somatic a.肉体的 [so-mat-ic]
substantial a.坚固的,结实的;实质的 [sub-stan-tial]
tangible a.可触摸的 [tan-gi-ble]
principle n.原则,原理;道德准则 [prin-ci-ple]
substance n.大意,根据,实质;物质 [sub-stance]

immateriality 317

disembodied a.无实体的,空洞的 [dis-em-bod-ied]
spiritual a.精神的 [spir-it-u-al]
subjective a.主观的,想象的 [sub-jec-tive]
unearthly a.奇异的 [un-earth-ly]
incorporate v.合并,并入 [in-cor-po-rate]

world 318

celestial a.天体的,天上的 [ce-les-ti-al]
cosmic a.宇宙的 [cos-mic]
earthly a.现世的,尘世的 [earth-ly]
lunar a.月亮的 [lu-nar]
mundane a.现世的,世俗的 [mun-dane]
sidereal a.恒星的 [si-de-re-al]
stellar a.星的,星球的 [stel-lar]
terrestrial a.地球的;陆地的 [ter-res-tri-al]
constellation n.星座,星群 [con-stel-la-tion]
cosmos n.宇宙 [cos-mos]
equator n.赤道 [e-qua-tor]
galaxy n.(银河)星群;显赫的人群 [gal-ax-y]
observatory n.天文台 [ob-ser-va-to-ry]
planet n.行星 [plan-et]

gravity 319

cumbersome a.笨重的 [cum-ber-some]
massive a.巨大的,厚重的 [mas-sive]
ponderable a.可估量的 [pon-der-a-ble]
ponderous a.笨重的,笨拙的 [pon-der-ous]
unwieldy a.笨重的,笨拙的 [un-wield-y]
ballast n.(船等)压舱物 [bal-last]
beam n.(房屋等)大梁;光线 [beam]
grain n.谷物;小的硬粒 [grain]
gravity n.严肃,正经 [grav-i-ty]
incumbent n.在职者,现任者;a.义不容辞的 [in-cum-bent]
scale n.鱼鳞;(音乐)音阶 [scale]
scruple n.顾忌,迟疑;v.顾忌 [scru-ple]
poise v.使相等,使平衡;n.泰然自若,镇定 [poise]
press v.挤压 [press]

levity 320

buoyant a.有浮力的;快乐的 [buoy-ant]
ethereal a.太空;轻巧的 [e-the-re-al]
imponderable a.(重量等)无法衡量的 [im-pon-der-a-ble]
thermal a.热的,热量的;温暖的n.热气流 [ther-mal]
volatile a.反复无常的;挥发性的 [vol-a-tile]
balloon n.气球;v.快速增加 [bal-loon]
buoy n.浮标;救生圈;v.支持,鼓励 [bu-oy]
down n.绒毛;汗毛 [down]
gossamer n.蛛丝;薄纱;a.轻而薄的 [gos-sa-mer]
leaven n.发酵剂;影响力;v.发酵;影响 [leav-en]
levity n.轻率;轻浮 [lev-i-ty]
mote n.微粒,微尘 [mote]
yeast n.酵母;兴奋 [yeast]
ferment v./n.(使)发酵;骚动 [fer-ment]

Section II. Inorganic Matter

1. Solid Matter

density 321

coherent a.连贯的,一致的 [co-her-ent]
cohesive a.凝聚的 [co-he-sive]
compact a.结实的;简洁的;n.合同,协议 [com-pact]
concrete a.具体存在的;n.混凝土 [con-crete]
gnarled a.(树木)多节的;粗糙的 [gnarled]
impenetrable a.不能穿透的;不可理解的 [im-pen-e-tra-ble]
impermeable a.不可渗透的,透不过的 [im-per-me-a-ble]
insoluble a.不溶解的;不能解决的 [in-sol-u-ble]
knotty a.有节疤的 [knot-ty]
massive a.巨大的,厚重的 [mas-sive]
nonporous a.无孔的,不渗透的 [non-po-rous]
serried a.密集的 [ser-ried]
stuffy a.(空气)不新鲜的,闷气的 [stuff-y]
substantial a.坚固的,结实的;实质的 [sub-stan-tial]
clot n.凝块;v.使凝结成块 [clot]
coagulation n.凝固 [co-ag-u-la-tion]
cohesion n.内聚力;凝聚力 [co-he-sion]
consolidation n.合并,巩固 [con-sol-i-da-tion]
gristle n.软骨;肉中难吃的硬组织 [gris-tle]
impermeability n.不能渗透 [im-per-me-a-bil-i-ty]
lump n.一块,肿块;v.形成块状 [lump]
precipitation n.降水(量) [pre-cip-i-ta-tion]
coagulate v.使凝结 [co-ag-u-late]
compress v.压缩,浓缩 [com-press]
condense v.浓缩 [con-dense]
congeal v.冻结,凝固 [con-geal]
conglomerate v.集聚成团 [con-glom-er-ate]
consolidate v.巩固;(使)坚强;合并 [con-sol-i-date]
curdle v.使凝结,变稠 [cur-dle]
petrify v.石化;吓呆 [pet-ri-fy]
precipitate v.加速,促成;a.鲁莽的 [pre-cip-i-tate]
solidify v.巩固,(使)凝固,(使)团结 [so-lid-i-fy]
squeeze v.压,挤;n.压榨,紧握 [squeeze]

rarity 322

flimsy a.轻而薄的;脆弱的 [flim-sy]
slight a.微小的;n./v.轻蔑 [slight]
spongy a.像海绵的;不坚实的 [spon-gy]
tenuous a.细薄的,稀薄的;空洞的 [ten-u-ous]
rarefaction n.稀薄 [rar-e-fac-tion]
vaporization n.蒸发 [va-por-i-za-tion]
dilate v.(身体某部位)张大,扩大 [di-late]
expand v.扩大,膨胀 [ex-pand]

hardness 323

adamant a.强硬的;固执的 [ad-a-mant]
concrete a.具体存在的;n.混凝土 [con-crete]
osseous a.骨的,多骨的 [os-se-ous]
rigid a.硬性的,刚硬的 [rig-id]
stark a.(外表)僵硬的;完全的 [stark]
stiff a.僵直的,呆板的,严厉的 [stiff]
stubborn a.固执的;难以改变的 [stub-born]
cement n.水泥;胶粘剂;v.粘合,巩固 [ce-ment]
flint n.打火石,燧石 [flint]
granite n.花岗石 [gran-ite]
marble n.大理石 [mar-ble]
harden v.变硬,变坚强 [hard-en]
indurate v.使坚硬;使习惯于 [in-du-rate]
ossify v.硬化,骨化;使(传统)僵化 [os-si-fy]
petrify v.石化;吓呆 [pet-ri-fy]
temper v.锤炼;缓和;n.脾气 [tem-per]
vitrify v.使成玻璃 [vit-ri-fy]

softness 324

flaccid a.松弛的;软弱的 [flac-cid]
flexible a.易弯曲的,灵活的 [flex-i-ble]
flimsy a.轻而薄的;脆弱的 [flim-sy]
limber a.易弯曲的;敏捷的 [lim-ber]
lithe a.柔软的,易弯曲的;敏捷的,轻快的 [lithe]
malleable a.可塑的,易改变的 [mal-le-a-ble]
pliable a.易弯的,柔软的 [pli-a-ble]
pliant a.易受影响的;易弯的 [pli-ant]
spongy a.像海绵的;不坚实的 [spon-gy]
supple a.伸屈自如的 [sup-ple]
tractable a.易于驾驭的,温顺的 [trac-ta-ble]
yielding a.弯曲自如的;柔顺的 [yield-ing]
clay n.黏土 [clay]
cushion n.坐垫;v.缓冲 [cush-ion]
down n.绒毛;汗毛 [down]
inelasticity n.无弹性,无伸缩性 [in-e-las-tic-i-ty]
padding n.衬垫,填料 [pad-ding]
wax n.蜡;v.给…打蜡;盈,增大 [wax]
bend v.弯曲;屈服 [bend]
knead v.揉制,捏制 [knead]
limp v.跛行;a.软弱的,松软的 [limp]
mash v.捣成糊状 [mash]
mollify v.安慰,安抚 [mol-li-fy]
relent v.动怜悯心;减弱 [re-lent]
squash v.压碎,挤压;n.南瓜 [squash]
temper v.锤炼;缓和;n.脾气 [tem-per]
tender v.(希望对方接受的意见等) [ten-der]

elasticity 325

buoyant a.有浮力的;快乐的 [buoy-ant]
flexible a.易弯曲的,灵活的 [flex-i-ble]
resilient a.有弹性的;能恢复活力的,适应力强的 [re-sil-i-ent]
resilience n.弹性,弹力 [re-sil-ience]
distend v.(使)膨胀,胀大 [dis-tend]
extend v.延展,延长 [ex-tend]
stretch v.变长;伸展 [stretch]

inelasticity 326

inelasticity n.无弹性,无伸缩性 [in-e-las-tic-i-ty]

tenacity 327

stubborn a.固执的;难以改变的 [stub-born]
tenacious a.坚韧不拔的 [te-na-cious]
cement n.水泥;胶粘剂;v.粘合,巩固 [ce-ment]
gristle n.软骨;肉中难吃的硬组织 [gris-tle]
tenacity n.坚持,固执 [tenacity]

brittleness 328

brittle a.易碎的,脆弱的 [brit-tle]
fragile a.易碎的,易坏的 [frag-ile]
frail a.脆弱的;不坚实的 [frail]
crack n.爆裂声;裂缝;v.裂开;破解,破译 [crack]
split n./v.分裂,裂开 [split]
crumble v.弄碎;崩毁 [crum-ble]

texture 329

anatomical a.解剖学的 [an-a-tom-i-cal]
coarse a.粗糙的;低劣的;粗俗的 [coarse]
delicate a.娇嫩的;精致的,优美的 [del-i-cate]
smooth a.光滑的;平稳的;v.弄平,使光滑;消除 [smooth]
cleavage n.裂缝;分裂 [cleav-age]
constitution n.宪法;体质 [con-sti-tu-tion]
fabric n.纺织品;结构 [fab-ric]
grain n.谷物;小的硬粒 [grain]
histology n.细胞组织学 [his-tol-o-gy]
mold n.模子;(美)霉;v.塑造 [mold]
neurology n.神经学 [neu-rol-o-gy]
organism n.生物;有机体 [or-gan-ism]
staple n.主要产品 [sta-ple]
substance n.大意,根据,实质;物质 [sub-stance]
texture n.质地;结构 [tex-ture]
tissue n.细胞组织;薄纸,棉纸 [tis-sue]

pulverulence 330

friable a.易碎的 [fri-a-ble]
impalpable a.无法触及的;不易理解的 [im-pal-pa-ble]
abrasion n.表面磨损 [a-bra-sion]
crumb n.饼屑,面包屑;碎裂的东西 [crumb]
debris n.废墟,残骸 [de-bris]
detritus n.碎屑;废墟 [de-tri-tus]
file n.锉刀;v.锉平 [file]
filings n.锉屑 [fil-ings]
grain n.谷物;小的硬粒 [grain]
grind n.枯燥乏味的工作;v.磨碎,碾碎 [grind]
grit n.沙粒;决心,勇气;v.下定决心,咬紧牙关 [grit]
mill n.磨坊;压榨机;制造厂 [mill]
sawdust n.锯屑 [saw-dust]
shingle n.木瓦,屋顶板;木质小招牌 [shin-gle]
abrade v.磨损,磨小 [a-brade]
attenuate v.变薄 [at-ten-u-ate]
beat v.心跳;搅拌 [beat]
bruise v.受伤,擦伤 [bruise]
crumble v.弄碎;崩毁 [crum-ble]
grate v.发出“吱嘎”声;磨碎;使人烦躁 [grate]
pulverize v.压成细粉;彻底击败 [pul-ver-ize]

friction 331

abrasion n.表面磨损 [a-bra-sion]
contrition n.悔罪,痛悔 [con-tri-tion]
file n.锉刀;v.锉平 [file]
friction n.摩擦;矛盾,冲突 [fric-tion]
grind n.枯燥乏味的工作;v.磨碎,碾碎 [grind]
scrub n.矮树丛;身体矮小的人;v.用力擦洗 [scrub]
gnaw v.啃,咬 [gnaw]
graze v.(动物)吃(地上长的)草;放牧 [graze]
polish v.把…擦光亮,抛光;n.上光剂;(态度等)优雅 [pol-ish]

lubrication 332

grease n.(炼出的)动物油脂;滑脂 [grease]
saliva n.唾液,口水 [sa-li-va]
wax n.蜡;v.给…打蜡;盈,增大 [wax]
lubricate v.润滑 [lu-bri-cate]

2. Fluid Matter

1. Fluids In General

fluidity 333

liquid a.清澈的 [liq-uid]
soluble a.可溶的;可以解决的 [sol-u-ble]
sap n.树液;活力;v.消弱,耗尽 [sap]
condense v.浓缩 [con-dense]
humor v.纵容,迁就 [hu-mor]
liquefy v.(使)液化,(使)溶解 [liq-ue-fy]

gaseity 334

aerial a.空中的,空气中的 [aer-i-al]
ethereal a.太空;轻巧的 [e-the-re-al]
gaseous a.似气体的 [gas-e-ous]
vaporous a.无实质的 [va-por-ous]
volatile a.反复无常的;挥发性的 [vol-a-tile]
diffuse v.散布,(光等)漫射;a.漫射的,散漫的 [dif-fuse]
evaporate v.(使某物)蒸发掉 [e-vap-o-rate]
fume v./n.愤怒;冒烟 [fume]
reek v.发臭味;冒烟 [reek]
vaporize v.(使)蒸发 [va-por-ize]

liquefaction 335

soluble a.可溶的;可以解决的 [sol-u-ble]
solvent a.有偿债能力的;n.溶剂 [sol-vent]
flux n.不断的变动,动荡不定 [flux]
condense v.浓缩 [con-dense]
dissolve v.使固体溶解 [dis-solve]
liquefy v.(使)液化,(使)溶解 [liq-ue-fy]
precipitate v.加速,促成;a.鲁莽的 [pre-cip-i-tate]
thaw v.解冻,溶化 [thaw]

vaporization 336

sublime a.崇高的 [sub-lime]
volatile a.反复无常的;挥发性的 [vol-a-tile]
gasification n.气化 [gas-i-fi-ca-tion]
vaporization n.蒸发 [va-por-i-za-tion]
distill v.蒸馏 [dis-till]
effervesce v.冒泡;热情洋溢 [ef-fer-vesce]
evaporate v.(使某物)蒸发掉 [e-vap-o-rate]
exhale v.呼出(气) [ex-hale]
fume v./n.愤怒;冒烟 [fume]
fumigate v.以烟熏消毒 [fu-mi-gate]
reek v.发臭味;冒烟 [reek]
retort v.反驳 [re-tort]
vaporize v.(使)蒸发 [va-por-ize]

2. Specific Fluids

water 337

aquatic a.水生的,水中的 [a-quat-ic]
deluge n.大洪水;暴雨 [del-uge]
syringe n.注射器 [sy-ringe]
dabble v.涉足,浅赏 [dab-ble]
dilute v.把(液体)弄稀,弄淡 [di-lute]
douse v.把…浸入水中;熄灭 [douse]
drench v.使湿透 [drench]
immerse v.浸入;沉浸于 [im-merse]
inundate v.淹没;泛滥 [in-un-date]
irrigate v.灌溉 [ir-ri-gate]
lave v.洗浴;慢慢冲刷 [lave]
macerate v.浸软;消瘦 [mac-er-ate]
plunge v.投入;俯冲 [plunge]
reek v.发臭味;冒烟 [reek]
soak v.浸泡,渗透 [soak]
steep v.浸泡,浸透 [steep]

air 338

aerial a.空中的,空气中的 [aer-i-al]
windy a.有风的;长篇累牍的 [wind-y]
barometer n.气压计;晴雨表 [ba-rom-e-ter]
meteorology n.气象学 [me-te-or-ol-o-gy]
ventilate v.使…通风,透风 [ven-ti-late]
weather v.经受住,平安度过危难 [weath-er]

moisture 339

humid a.湿润的 [hu-mid]
saturated a.渗透的,饱和的 [sat-u-rat-ed]
sloppy a.邋遢的,不整洁的 [slop-py]
sodden a.浸透了的 [sod-den]
soggy a.湿透的 [sog-gy]
sultry a.闷热的;(人)风骚的 [sul-try]
humidity n.湿度,湿气 [hu-mid-i-ty]
marsh n.沼泽地,湿地 [marsh]
damp v.减弱,制止振动;a.潮湿的 [damp]
drench v.使湿透 [drench]
imbue v.灌输(某人)强烈的情感或意见 [im-bue]
infiltrate v.渗透,渗入 [in-fil-trate]
perspire v.流汗 [per-spire]
saturate v.浸透;使充满 [sat-u-rate]
soak v.浸泡,渗透 [soak]

dryness 340

anhydrous a.无水的 [an-hy-drous]
arid a.干旱的;枯燥的 [ar-id]
husky a.声音沙哑的 [husk-y]
drainage n.排水;污水 [drain-age]
drought n.干旱;干旱时期 [drought]
dehydrate v.除去水分,脱水 [de-hy-drate]
desiccate v.(使)完全干涸,脱水 [des-ic-cate]
drain v.排出沟外;喝光 [drain]
parch v.烘烤;烤焦 [parch]
sear v.(以烈火)烧灼 [sear]

ocean 341

marine a.海的;海中的 [ma-rine]
maritime a.沿海的;海上的 [mar-i-time]
siren n.汽笛,警报器 [si-ren]

land 342

continent a.自制的;n.大陆 [con-ti-nent]
derelict a.荒废的;玩忽职守的;n.被遗弃的人 [der-e-lict]
earthy a.粗俗的,粗陋的 [earth-y]
clay n.黏土 [clay]
clot n.凝块;v.使凝结成块 [clot]
delta n.三角洲 [del-ta]
gravel n.碎石,砂砾 [grav-el]
isthmus n.地峡 [isth-mus]
levee n.防洪堤;堤岸 [lev-ee]
mold n.模子;(美)霉;v.塑造 [mold]
oasis n.绿洲 [o-a-sis]
peninsula n.半岛 [pen-in-su-la]
soil n./v.弄脏,污损 [soil]
strand n.绳线的一股;v.搁浅 [strand]
debark v.下船,下飞机,下车,卸载 [de-bark]

plain 344

green a.新鲜的,未成熟的,无经验的 [green]
plain a.简单的;清楚的;n.平原 [plain]
mesa n.高台地,平顶山 [me-sa]
plateau n.高原;平稳的状态 [pla-teau]
plot n.情节;阴谋;策划 [plot]
sod n.草地,草坪 [sod]
desert v.放弃,离弃 [de-sert]
waste v.使身体消瘦,损耗 [waste]

marsh 345

sloppy a.邋遢的,不整洁的 [slop-py]
bog n.沼泽;v.使…陷入泥沼 [bog]
marsh n.沼泽地,湿地 [marsh]
swamp n.沼泽;v.使陷入;淹没 [swamp]
slough v.(蛇等)蜕皮;n.(蛇等的)蜕皮 [slough]
squash v.压碎,挤压;n.南瓜 [squash]

island 346

insular a.岛屿的;心胸狭窄的 [in-su-lar]
archipelago n.群岛 [ar-chi-pel-a-go]

3. Fluids in Motion

stream 347

stream n.小溪;水流;v.倾注,涌流 [stream]

river 348

affluent a.富裕的,丰富的 [af-flu-ent]
fluvial a.河流的,生长在河中的 [flu-vi-al]
brook n.小河 [brook]
cataclysm n.剧变,灾难(常指大洪水或地震) [cat-a-clysm]
cloudburst n.大暴雨,豪雨 [cloud-burst]
creek n.小湾,小溪 [creek]
debacle n.解冻;崩溃 [de-ba-cle]
deluge n.大洪水;暴雨 [del-uge]
downpour n.暴雨 [down-pour]
eddy n.漩涡,涡流 [ed-dy]
flush n./v.脸红;奔流;冲洗 [flush]
flux n.不断的变动,动荡不定 [flux]
geyser n.天然热喷泉 [gey-ser]
hurricane n.飓风 [hur-ri-cane]
hydrant n.(消防)水龙头;消防栓 [hy-drant]
rapids n.急流,湍流 [rap-ids]
rivulet n.小溪,小河 [riv-u-let]
sluice n.水门,水闸;v.冲洗 [sluice]
stream n.小溪;水流;v.倾注,涌流 [stream]
syringe n.注射器 [sy-ringe]
torrent n.洪流,急流 [tor-rent]
whirlpool n.漩涡 [whirl-pool]
babble v.胡言乱语;牙牙学语;喋喋不休 [bab-ble]
bore v.钻孔;使厌烦;n.孔;令人厌烦的人 [bore]
distill v.蒸馏 [dis-till]
drench v.使湿透 [drench]
drizzle v.下毛毛雨;n.毛毛雨 [driz-zle]
gush v.涌出;滔滔不绝地说 [gush]
inundate v.淹没;泛滥 [in-un-date]
irrigate v.灌溉 [ir-ri-gate]
issue v.出来,流出;发给,分发;n.(书刊的)期 [is-sue]
meander v.蜿蜒而流;漫步 [me-an-der]
murmur v.柔声地说,喃喃而言 [mur-mur]
obstruct v.阻塞,截断 [ob-struct]
overflow v.溢出;洋溢 [o-ver-flow]
ripple v.起涟漪;n.细浪,涟漪 [rip-ple]
stanch v.制止(血液),止住 [stanch]
surge v.波涛汹涌,波动 [surge]
swell v.肿胀,增强 [swell]
trickle v.一滴滴地流;n.细流 [trick-le]

wind 349

blast >n.一阵(大风);冲击波;v.爆破;枯萎 [blast]
blustering a.大吵大闹的 [blustering]
boisterous a.喧闹的;猛烈的 [bois-ter-ous]
tempestuous a.狂暴的 [tem-pes-tu-ous]
windy a.有风的;长篇累牍的 [wind-y]
blizzard n.暴风雪 [bliz-zard]
cyclone n.气旋,飓风 [cy-clone]
gust n.阵风;一阵(情绪) [gust]
hurricane n.飓风 [hur-ri-cane]
monsoon n.季雨,季风 [mon-soon]
squall n.短暂、突然且猛烈的风暴;短暂的骚动 [squall]
stream n.小溪;水流;v.倾注,涌流 [stream]
tempest n.暴风雨;骚动 [tem-pest]
tornado n.飓风,龙卷风 [tor-na-do]
zephyr n.和风;西风 [zeph-yr]
inflate v.使充气,使膨胀 [in-flate]
issue v.出来,流出;发给,分发;n.(书刊的)期 [is-sue]
ventilate v.使…通风,透风 [ven-ti-late]
waft v.飘浮,飘荡 [waft]
whiff v./n.轻吹,轻风 [whiff]

conduit 350

vascular a.血管的,脉管的 [vas-cu-lar]
aorta n.主动脉 [a-or-ta]
aqueduct n.引水渠;高架渠 [aq-ue-duct]
arroyo n.干涸的河床;小河 [ar-roy-o]
artery n.动脉,命脉 [ar-ter-y]
conduit n.渠道,引水道;水管 [con-duit]
duct n.管道,槽 [duct]
gargoyle n.(雕刻成怪兽状的)滴水嘴;面貌丑恶的人 [gar-goyle]
gully n.雨水冲成的沟壑 [gul-ly]
gutter n.水槽;街沟 [gut-ter]
kennel n.狗舍,狗窝 [ken-nel]
moat n.壕沟;护城河 [moat]
pore n.毛孔,气孔 [pore]
sewer n.排水沟,下水道 [sew-er]
sluice n.水门,水闸;v.冲洗 [sluice]
valve n.活门,阀门 [valve]
drain v.排出沟外;喝光 [drain]

airpipe 351

vent v.发泄(情绪);开孔;n.孔,口 [vent]

3. Imperfect Fluids

semiliquidity 352

glutinous a.粘的,胶状的 [glu-ti-nous]
viscid a.粘性的 [vis-cid]
viscous a.粘的 [vis-cous]
gum n.树胶,橡皮 [gum]
lava n.熔岩 [la-va]
marsh n.沼泽地,湿地 [marsh]
slab n.厚板,厚块 [slab]
wax n.蜡;v.给…打蜡;盈,增大 [wax]
mash v.捣成糊状 [mash]
milk v.榨取 [milk]
squash v.压碎,挤压;n.南瓜 [squash]

bubble; cloud 353

frothy a.起泡的;空洞的 [froth-y]
nebulous a.模糊不清的;云状的 [neb-u-lous]
vaporous a.无实质的 [va-por-ous]
cumulus n.积云 [cu-mu-lus]
fermentation n.发酵 [fer-men-ta-tion]
geyser n.天然热喷泉 [gey-ser]
mantle n.披风,斗篷;v.覆盖 [man-tle]
yeast n.酵母;兴奋 [yeast]
effervesce v.冒泡;热情洋溢 [ef-fer-vesce]
ferment v./n.(使)发酵;骚动 [fer-ment]

pulpiness 354

pulp n.果肉酱;纸浆 [pulp]

unctuousness 355

slippery a.滑的;狡猾的 [slip-per-y]
unctuous a.油质的;油腔滑调的 [unc-tu-ous]
ointment n.油膏,软膏 [oint-ment]

oil 356

grease n.(炼出的)动物油脂;滑脂 [grease]
ointment n.油膏,软膏 [oint-ment]
petroleum n.石油 [pe-tro-le-um]
unguent n.药膏,软膏 [un-guent]
wax n.蜡;v.给…打蜡;盈,增大 [wax]

resin 356.a

gum n.树胶,橡皮 [gum]
pitch n.沥青,柏油;音调 [pitch]
resin n.树脂 [res-in]
varnish n.清漆;v.涂上清漆 [var-nish]

Section III. Organic Matter

1. Vitality

1. Vitality in General

organization 357

botany n.植物学 [bot-a-ny]
chromosome n.染色体 [chro-mo-some]
metabolism n.新陈代谢 [me-tab-o-lism]
organism n.生物;有机体 [or-gan-ism]

inorganization 358

inanimate a.无生命的 [in-an-i-mate]
fossilize v.使…成为化石;使…过时 [fos-sil-ize]

life 359

animated a.活泼的,生动的 [an-i-mat-ed]
viable a.可行的;能活下去的 [vi-a-ble]
vital a.极其重要的;充满活力的 [vi-tal]
animation n.活泼,有生气;卡通制作 [an-i-ma-tion]
genetics n.遗传学 [ge-net-ics]
microbe n.微生物 [mi-crobe]
respiration n.呼吸 [res-pi-ra-tion]
viability n.生存能力,存活力 [vi-a-bil-i-ty]
pulse v.搏动,跳动;n.脉搏;脉冲 [pulse]
revive v.使苏醒;再流 [re-vive]
vitalize v.激发活力 [vi-tal-ize]

death 360

extinct a.绝种的,不存在的 [ex-tinct]
inanimate a.无生命的 [in-an-i-mate]
moribund a.即将结束的;垂死的 [mor-i-bund]
demise n.死亡;财产转让 [de-mise]
die n.金属模子,印模 [die]
mortality n.死亡率 [mor-tal-i-ty]
mortuary n.停尸间,太平间 [mor-tu-ar-y]
obituary n.讣闻,讣告 [o-bi-tu-ar-y]
expire v.期满;去世 [ex-pire]
perish v.死,暴卒 [per-ish]
release v.释放,放出;n.释放 [re-lease]

killing 361

fatal a.致命的;灾难性的 [fa-tal]
internecine a.内讧的,两败俱伤的 [in-ter-ne-cine]
lethal a.致命的 [le-thal]
casualty n.伤亡事故;伤亡者 [cas-u-al-ty]
fusillade n./v. (枪炮)齐射,连发 [fu-sil-lade]
massacre n.大屠杀 [mas-sa-cre]
shambles n.凌乱景象,杂乱无章 [sham-bles]
shoot n.嫩芽,新芽 [shoot]
asphyxiate v.(使)无法呼吸,窒息而死 [as-phyx-i-ate]
choke v.(使)窒息,阻塞 [choke]
decimate v.毁掉大部分;大量杀死 [dec-i-mate]
dispatch v.派遣;一下子做完;吃完;n.迅速 [dis-patch]
immolate v.牺牲,焚祭 [im-mo-late]
settle v.安置于;决定;栖息 [set-tle]
slaughter v./n.屠杀,屠宰 [slaugh-ter]
smother v.覆盖;(使)闷死 [smoth-er]
sport v.炫耀,卖弄 [sport]
stifle v.感到窒息;抑止 [sti-fle]
suffocate v.(使)窒息而死 [suf-fo-cate]
victimize v.使受害,迫害 [vic-tim-ize]

corpse 362

carrion n.腐肉 [car-ri-on]
clay n.黏土 [clay]
remains n.遗址,废墟 [re-mains]
skeleton n.骨架,骨骼;提纲 [skel-e-ton]

interment 363

grave a.严峻的;n.墓穴 [gra-ve]
mute a.沉默的;v.减弱声音;n.弱音器 [mute]
sepulchral a.坟墓的;阴深的 [se-pul-chral]
burial n.埋葬,埋藏 [bur-i-al]
cypress n.柏树 [cy-press]
dirge n.哀歌 [dirge]
elegy n.哀歌,挽歌 [el-e-gy]
epitaph n.墓志铭 [ep-i-taph]
mortuary n.停尸间,太平间 [mor-tu-ar-y]
pyre n.火葬用的柴堆 [pyre]
shell n.贝壳;炮弹;v.剥去…的壳 [shell]
shrine n.神龛,圣地 [shrine]
shroud n.寿衣;遮蔽物;v.覆盖 [shroud]
vault n.拱顶;地窖 [vault]
disinter v.挖出,挖掘 [dis-in-ter]
inter v.埋葬 [in-ter]
pall v.令人发腻,失去吸引力 [pall]
unearth v.挖出;发现 [un-earth]

2. Special Vitality

animality 364

corporeal a.肉体的,身体的;物质的 [cor-po-re-al]
animation n.活泼,有生气;卡通制作 [an-i-ma-tion]

vegetability 365

lush a.繁茂的,茂盛的 [lush]

animal 366

canine a.犬的,似犬的 [ca-nine]
amphibian n.两栖动物;水陆两用飞行器 [am-phib-i-an]
biped n.二足动物 [bi-ped]
brute n./a.野兽(的);残忍的(人) [brute]
canary n.金丝雀;女歌星 [ca-nar-y]
ewe n.母羊 [ewe]
grouse n.松鸡;v.牢骚,诉苦 [grouse]
mammal n.哺乳动物 [mam-mal]
microbe n.微生物 [mi-crobe]
mongrel n.杂种动物;混血儿 [mon-grel]
mosquito n.蚊子 [mos-qui-to]
pest n.害虫;讨厌的人或物 [pest]
rail n.栏杆;铁轨;v.咒骂,猛烈指责 [rail]
reptile n.爬行动物;卑鄙的人 [rep-tile]
roe n.鱼卵 [roe]
sow n.母猪;v.播种 [sow]
swine n.猪 [swine]
tag n.鞋带;附属物,标签 [tag]
vaccine n.牛痘苗,疫苗 [vac-cine]
buck v.反对;n.雄鹿;雄兔 [buck]
cow v.威胁 [cow]
steer v.操舵,驾驶;n.公牛,食用牛 [steer]

vegetable 367

exotic a.珍奇的;来自异国的 [ex-ot-ic]
herbaceous a.草本植物的 [her-ba-ceous]
ligneous a.木质的,木头的 [lig-ne-ous]
perennial a.终年的;永久的 [per-en-ni-al]
verdant a.青葱的,翠绿的 [ver-dant]
arboretum n.植物园 [ar-bo-re-tum]
brake n.刹车;v.减速,阻止 [brake]
fern n.羊齿植物,蕨 [fern]
flora n.(某地区或时代的)植物群 [flo-ra]
foliage n.叶子(总称) [fo-li-age]
grove n.小树林,树丛 [grove]
mold n.模子;(美)霉;v.塑造 [mold]
mushroom n.蘑菇;v.雨后春笋般迅速发展 [mush-room]
scrub n.矮树丛;身体矮小的人;v.用力擦洗 [scrub]
shrub n.灌木 [shrub]
stem n.(植物的)茎,叶柄;v.阻止,遏制(水流等) [stem]
thicket n.树丛,灌木丛 [thick-et]
timber n.木材;(人)品质 [tim-ber]
weed n.杂草,野草;v.除草 [weed]
chase v.雕镂;追捕 [chase]
pulse v.搏动,跳动;n.脉搏;脉冲 [pulse]

zoology 368

ornithology n.鸟类学 [or-ni-thol-o-gy]
paleontology n.古生物学 [pa-le-on-tol-o-gy]

botany 369

botany n.植物学 [bot-a-ny]
flora n.(某地区或时代的)植物群 [flo-ra]

husbandry 370

bucolic a.乡村的;牧羊的 [bu-col-ic]
pastoral a.田园生活的;宁静的 [pas-to-ral]
tame a.驯服的;沉闷的 [tame]
apiary n.养蜂场,蜂房 [a-pi-ar-y]
aviary n.大鸟笼,鸟舍 [a-vi-ar-y]
bridle n.马笼头;v.抑制,控制 [bri-dle]
hive n.蜂房;忙碌之地 [hive]
husbandry n.耕种,务农;节敛管理 [hus-band-ry]
sacrifice n.牺牲;v.宰牲祭神 [sac-ri-fice]
breed v.繁殖;教养;n.品种,种类 [breed]
domesticate v.驯养 [do-mes-ti-cate]
tend v.照料,看顾 [tend]

agriculture 371

agrarian a.土地的 [a-grar-i-an]
arable a.可耕的,适合种植的 [ar-a-ble]
rural a.乡村的 [ru-ral]
rustic a.乡村的,乡土气的 [rus-tic]
agronomy n.农学,农艺学 [a-gron-o-my]
arboretum n.植物园 [ar-bo-re-tum]
conservatory n.温室;音乐学院 [con-serv-a-to-ry]
habitat n.自然环境,栖息地 [hab-i-tat]
harrow n.耙;v.使痛苦 [har-row]
hoe n.锄头 [hoe]
horticulture n.园艺学 [hor-ti-cul-ture]
husbandry n.耕种,务农;节敛管理 [hus-band-ry]
manure n.粪肥;v.给…施肥 [ma-nure]
orchard n.果园 [or-chard]
plough n.犁;v.犁地 [plough]
sow n.母猪;v.播种 [sow]
weed n.杂草,野草;v.除草 [weed]
cultivate v.种植;向…讨好 [cul-ti-vate]
delve v.深入探究,钻研 [delve]
reap v.收割,收获 [reap]

mankind 372

individual a.单独的,特有的;n.个人,个体 [in-di-vid-u-al]
commonwealth n.共和国,联邦 [com-mon-wealth]
cosmopolitan n.世界主义者,四海为家的人 [cos-mo-pol-i-tan]
ethnology n.人种学,人类文化学 [eth-nol-o-gy]
generation n.一代人;(产品类型的)代;产生,发生 [gen-er-a-tion]
mortality n.死亡率 [mor-tal-i-ty]
realm n.王国;领域,范围 [realm]

man 373

blade n.刀锋,刀口 [blade]
buck v.反对;n.雄鹿;雄兔 [buck]
husband v.妥善而又节约地管理;做…的丈夫 [hus-band]
steer v.操舵,驾驶;n.公牛,食用牛 [steer]

woman 374

ewe n.母羊 [ewe]
feminist n.女权运动者 [fem-i-nist]
mare n.母马,母驴 [ma-re]
roe n.鱼卵 [roe]
sow n.母猪;v.播种 [sow]
suffragist n.参政权扩大论者;妇女政权论者 [suf-fra-gist]
cow v.威胁 [cow]
mollycoddle v.过分爱惜,娇惯;n.娇生惯养的人 [mol-ly-cod-dle]

sexuality 374.a

passionate a.充满激情的 [pas-sion-ate]
climax n.顶点,高潮 [cli-max]
deviation n.背离 [de-vi-a-tion]
lust n.强烈的欲望 [lust]
mate n.伙伴;配偶;v.交配 [mate]

2. sensation

1. Sensation in General

physical sensibility 375

acute a.灵敏的;[病]急性的 [a-cute]
aesthetic a.美学的,有审美感的 [aes-thet-ic]
sensible a.明智的;可感觉到的 [sen-si-ble]
sensitive a.敏感的 [sen-si-tive]
sentient a.有知觉的;知悉的 [sen-ti-ent]
vivid a.清晰的,鲜艳的;大胆的,活泼的,逼真的 [viv-id]
impression n.印象,感想;盖印,压痕 [im-pres-sion]
sensation n.知觉;轰动(的事) [sen-sa-tion]
tutor n.助教;监护人;v.辅导 [tu-tor]
cultivate v.种植;向…讨好 [cul-ti-vate]

physical insensibility 376

blunt a.钝的;直率的;v.变钝 [blunt]
callous a.结硬块的 [cal-lous]
comatose a.昏迷的 [co-ma-tose]
dull a.不鲜明的;迟钝的;v.变迟钝 [dull]
numb a.麻木的 [numb]
obtuse a.愚笨的;不锐利的 [ob-tuse]
coma n.昏迷状态 [co-ma]
pall v.令人发腻,失去吸引力 [pall]

physical pleasure 377

agreeable a.令人喜悦的;欣然同意的 [a-gree-a-ble]
luxurious a.奢侈的,豪华的 [lux-u-ri-ous]
snug a.温暖的,舒适的 [snug]
voluptuous a.撩人的;沉溺于酒色的 [vo-lup-tu-ous]
dainty n.精美食品;a.娇美的;挑剔的 [dain-ty]
luxury n.奢侈(品) [lux-u-ry]
relish n.味道;喜好;v.喜好,享受 [rel-ish]
regale v.款待;使…享受 [re-gale]

physical pain 378

agony n.极大痛苦 [ag-o-ny]
anguish n.极大痛苦 [an-guish]
convulsion n.骚动;痉挛 [con-vul-sion]
cramp n.铁箍,夹子;v.把…箍紧 [cramp]
fret n./v.(使)烦躁,焦虑 [fret]
gall n.胆汁;怨恨 [gall]
malaise n.不适,不舒服 [ma-laise]
nightmare n.恶梦;可怕的事 [night-mare]
pang n.一阵剧痛 [pang]
shoot n.嫩芽,新芽 [shoot]
smart n.痛苦;a.时髦的;聪明的 [smart]
stitch n.(缝纫时的)一针,一钩;v.缝合 [stitch]
torment n.折磨,痛苦 [tor-ment]
twinge n.(生理,心理上的)剧痛 [twinge]
chafe v.摩擦生热;擦痛;激怒 [chafe]
convulse v.使震动,震惊 [con-vulse]
gnaw v.啃,咬 [gnaw]
grate v.发出“吱嘎”声;磨碎;使人烦躁 [grate]
gripe v.抱怨 [gripe]
lacerate v.撕裂;深深伤害 [lac-er-ate]
pierce v.刺透;穿过 [pierce]
pinch v.捏,掐;n.一撮,一点 [pinch]
sting v.刺痛;叮螫;n.螫刺 [sting]
wince v.避开,畏缩 [wince]

2. Special Sensation

(1) Touch

touch 379

palpable a.可触知的,明显的 [pal-pa-ble]
tactile a.有触觉的 [tac-tile]
tangible a.可触摸的 [tan-gi-ble]
antenna n.触角;天线 [an-ten-na]
handle n.柄,把手;v.处理 [han-dle]
tact n.机智;圆滑 [tact]
fumble v.摸索,笨拙搜寻;弄乱,搞糟 [fum-ble]
grope v.摸索,探索 [grope]
manipulate v.操纵 [ma-nip-u-late]
wield v.支配,掌权 [wield]

sensations of touch 380

creep v.匍匐前进;悄悄地移动 [creep]
sting v.刺痛;叮螫;n.螫刺 [sting]

numbness 381

impalpable a.无法触及的;不易理解的 [im-pal-pa-ble]
intangible a.不可触摸的 [in-tan-gi-ble]
numb a.麻木的 [numb]

(2) Heat

heat 382

ardent a.热心的,热烈的 [ar-dent]
fervid a.炽热的,热情的 [fer-vid]
genial a.愉快的,脾气好的 [ge-ni-al]
glowing a.热情赞扬的 [glow-ing]
hectic a.兴奋的;繁忙的 [hec-tic]
igneous a.火的,火绒的 [ig-ne-ous]
lukewarm a.微温的,不热心的 [luke-warm]
stuffy a.(空气)不新鲜的,闷气的 [stuff-y]
sultry a.闷热的;(人)风骚的 [sul-try]
sweltering a.酷热的 [swel-ter-ing]
tepid a.微温的 [tep-id]
thermal a.热的,热量的;温暖的n.热气流 [ther-mal]
calorie n.卡路里;卡(热量单位) [cal-o-rie]
fervor n.热诚,热心 [fer-vor]
flush n./v.脸红;奔流;冲洗 [flush]
incandescence n.白炽,炽热发光 [in-can-des-cence]
spark n.火花,火星 [spark]
bask v.晒太阳,取暖 [bask]
fume v./n.愤怒;冒烟 [fume]
glow v./n.光亮,发热;(脸)红 [glow]
parch v.烘烤;烤焦 [parch]
reek v.发臭味;冒烟 [reek]
seethe v.沸腾,汹涌 [seethe]
thaw v.解冻,溶化 [thaw]

cold 383

arctic a.北极的;极寒的 [arc-tic]
bleak a.寒冷的;阴沉的;阴郁的,暗淡的 [bleak]
frigid a.寒冷的;死板的 [frig-id]
glacial a.冰期的,冰河期的;寒冷的 [gla-ci-al]
inclement a.(天气)严酷的;严厉的 [in-clem-ent]
lukewarm a.微温的,不热心的 [luke-warm]
numb a.麻木的 [numb]
piercing a.(寒风)刺骨的;敏锐的 [pierc-ing]
tepid a.微温的 [tep-id]
fresco n.壁画 [fres-co]
frigidity n.寒冷;冷淡 [fri-gid-i-ty]
hail n.冰雹;v.致敬 [hail]
icicle n.冰柱,冰垂 [i-ci-cle]
quiver n.箭筒,箭囊 [quiv-er]
rigor n.严酷;严格,苛刻;严密,精确 [ri-gor]
shudder v./n.战栗,发抖 [shud-der]

calefaction 384

caustic a.腐蚀性的;刻薄的;n.腐蚀剂 [caus-tic]
combustible a.易燃的;易激动的 [com-bus-ti-ble]
incendiary a.放火的,纵火的 [in-cen-di-ar-y]
sodden a.浸透了的 [sod-den]
alkali n.碱 [al-ka-li]
arson n.纵火,放火 [ar-son]
brand n.商标;烙印;v.在某事物上打烙印 [brand]
ceramics n.制陶业);陶器 [ce-ram-ics]
cinder n.余烬,矿渣 [cin-der]
conflagration n.建筑物或森林大火 [con-fla-gra-tion]
crockery n.陶器,瓦器 [crock-er-y]
furnace n.锅炉 [fur-nace]
fusion n.熔合;聚变 [fu-sion]
geyser n.天然热喷泉 [gey-ser]
inflammation n.激怒;炽热;炎症 [in-flam-ma-tion]
porcelain n.瓷;瓷器 [por-ce-lain]
pottery n.制陶;陶器 [pot-ter-y]
refinery n.提炼厂,精炼厂 [re-fin-er-y]
residue n.剩余 [res-i-due]
slag n.炉渣,矿渣 [slag]
soot n.黑烟灰,油烟 [soot]
wax n.蜡;v.给…打蜡;盈,增大 [wax]
cauterize v.(用腐蚀性物质或烙铁)烧灼(表皮组织)以消毒或止血 [cau-ter-ize]
chafe v.摩擦生热;擦痛;激怒 [chafe]
char v.烧焦;使…燃烧成焦炭 [char]
corrode v.腐蚀,侵蚀 [cor-rode]
foment v.煽动,助长(坏事) [fo-ment]
grill v.烤;拷问;n.烤架 [grill]
ignite v.发光;点燃,燃烧 [ig-nite]
incinerate v.焚化,毁弃 [in-cin-er-ate]
inflame v.使燃烧;激怒(某人) [in-flame]
kindle v.着火,点燃 [kin-dle]
liquefy v.(使)液化,(使)溶解 [liq-ue-fy]
molten v.熔化;a.熔化的 [mol-ten]
parch v.烘烤;烤焦 [parch]
scorch v.烤焦,烧焦 [scorch]
sear v.(以烈火)烧灼 [sear]
seethe v.沸腾,汹涌 [seethe]
singe v.(轻微地)烧焦,烫焦 [singe]
thaw v.解冻,溶化 [thaw]

refrigeration 385

congeal v.冻结,凝固 [con-geal]
damp v.减弱,制止振动;a.潮湿的 [damp]
extinguish v.使…熄灭;使…不复存在 [ex-tin-guish]
nip v.小口啜饮 [nip]
petrify v.石化;吓呆 [pet-ri-fy]
pierce v.刺透;穿过 [pierce]
pinch v.捏,掐;n.一撮,一点 [pinch]
refresh v.消除…的疲劳,使精神振作 [re-fresh]

furnace 386

caldron n.(煮汤用的)大锅 [cal-dron]
conservatory n.温室;音乐学院 [con-serv-a-to-ry]
forge n.铁匠铺;v.锤炼;伪造 [forge]
furnace n.锅炉 [fur-nace]
tongs n.夹子,钳子 [tongs]
grate v.发出“吱嘎”声;磨碎;使人烦躁 [grate]
retort v.反驳 [re-tort]

fuel 388

combustible a.易燃的;易激动的 [com-bus-ti-ble]
brand n.商标;烙印;v.在某事物上打烙印 [brand]
cinder n.余烬,矿渣 [cin-der]
incense n.香,香味;v.激怒 [in-cense]
log n./v.日志,记录;n.一段大木头;圆木 [log]
petroleum n.石油 [pe-tro-le-um]
tinder n.火绒,火种 [tin-der]
wax n.蜡;v.给…打蜡;盈,增大 [wax]
wick n.蜡烛芯;灯芯 [wick]

insulation, fire extinction 388.a

bucket >n.圆桶 [buck-et]
nonflammable a.不易燃的 [non-flam-ma-ble]
slack a.懒散的,懈怠的;(绳)松弛的;v.松懈,怠惰 [slack]
damp v.减弱,制止振动;a.潮湿的 [damp]
douse v.把…浸入水中;熄灭 [douse]
extinguish v.使…熄灭;使…不复存在 [ex-tin-guish]
quench v.熄灭(火);抑制(欲望) [quench]
smother v.覆盖;(使)闷死 [smoth-er]

(3) Taste

taste 390

gustatory a.味觉的,品尝的 [gus-ta-to-ry]
gust n.阵风;一阵(情绪) [gust]
gustation n.品尝;味觉 [gus-ta-tion]
palate n.上腭;口味;爱好 [pal-ate]
relish n.味道;喜好;v.喜好,享受 [rel-ish]
stomach v.吃得下;容忍 [stom-ach]

insipidity 391

bland a.(人)情绪平稳的;(食物)无味的 [bland]
insipid a.乏味的,枯燥的 [in-sip-id]
mawkish a.自作多情的;淡而无味的,令人作呕的 [mawk-ish]
stale a.不新鲜的,陈腐的 [stale]
vapid a.索然无味的 [vap-id]
fade v.褪色,消失,凋谢 [fade]

pungency 392

acrid a.辛辣的,刻薄的 [ac-rid]
acrimonious a.尖刻的,严厉的 [ac-ri-mo-ni-ous]
mordant a.讥讽的,尖酸的 [mor-dant]
piquant a.辛辣的,开胃的;兴奋的 [pi-quant]
pungent a.味道刺激的;苛刻的 [pun-gent]
racy a.活泼的,生动的 [rac-y]
seasoned a.有经验的,训练有素的 [seasoned]
acrimony n.尖刻,刻薄 [ac-ri-mo-ny]
nicotine n.尼古丁 [nic-o-tine]
seasoning n.调味品,佐料 [sea-son-ing]
weed n.杂草,野草;v.除草 [weed]
nip v.小口啜饮 [nip]

saltiness 392.a

racy a.活泼的,生动的 [rac-y]

bitterness 392.b

acerbic a.苦涩的;刻薄的 [a-cer-bic]
acrid a.辛辣的,刻薄的 [ac-rid]
caustic a.腐蚀性的;刻薄的;n.腐蚀剂 [caus-tic]
acrimony n.尖刻,刻薄 [ac-ri-mo-ny]
alkali n.碱 [al-ka-li]
gall n.胆汁;怨恨 [gall]

condiment 393

sage a.智慧的;n.智者 [sage]
appetizer n.开胃品 [ap-pe-tiz-er]
balm n.香油,药膏;镇痛剂 [balm]
ginger n.姜;活力 [gin-ger]
relish n.味道;喜好;v.喜好,享受 [rel-ish]
seasoning n.调味品,佐料 [sea-son-ing]

savoriness 394

appetizing a.美味可口的,促进食欲的 [ap-pe-tiz-ing]
delectable a.赏心悦目的 [de-lec-ta-ble]
delicate a.娇嫩的;精致的,优美的 [del-i-cate]
exquisite a.精致的;近乎完美的 [ex-qui-site]
nice a.精密的 [nice]
tasty a.味道好的 [tast-y]
appetizer n.开胃品 [ap-pe-tiz-er]
dainty n.精美食品;a.娇美的;挑剔的 [dain-ty]
delicacy n.细嫩;精致,优雅 [del-i-ca-cy]
relish n.味道;喜好;v.喜好,享受 [rel-ish]
zest n.刺激性;热心,兴趣 [zest]

unsavoriness 395

acrid a.辛辣的,刻薄的 [ac-rid]
acrimonious a.尖刻的,严厉的 [ac-ri-mo-ni-ous]
fulsome a.虚情假意的;充足的 [ful-some]
offensive a.令人不快的,得罪人的 [of-fen-sive]
unpalatable a.令人讨厌的 [un-pal-at-a-ble]
acrimony n.尖刻,刻薄 [ac-ri-mo-ny]
austerity n.朴素,艰苦 [aus-ter-i-ty]
disgust n.反感,厌恶 [dis-gust]
rue n.后悔,遗憾 [rue]
nauseate v.使作呕,使厌恶 [nau-se-ate]
pall v.令人发腻,失去吸引力 [pall]

sweetness 396

lush a.繁茂的,茂盛的 [lush]
tart a.酸的;尖酸的 [tart]
confection n.甜食,糖果 [con-fec-tion]
glucose n.葡萄糖 [glu-cose]
pastry n.糕点,点心 [pas-try]
saccharin n.糖精 [sac-cha-rin]
conserve v.保全,保存 [con-serve]
desert v.放弃,离弃 [de-sert]

sourness 397

crabbed a.暴躁的 [crab-bed]
tart a.酸的;尖酸的 [tart]
crab n.蟹,螃蟹;v.抱怨,发脾气 [crab]

(4) Odor

odor 398

foul a.恶臭的;邪恶的;v.弄脏;n.(体育等)犯规 [foul]
pungent a.味道刺激的;苛刻的 [pun-gent]
redolent a.芬芳的,芳香的 [red-o-lent]
fragrance n.香料;香味 [fra-grance]
olfaction n.嗅觉 [ol-fac-tion]
exhale v.呼出(气) [ex-hale]
fume v./n.愤怒;冒烟 [fume]
inhale v.吸气 [in-hale]
reek v.发臭味;冒烟 [reek]

fragrance 400

aromatic a.芬芳的,芳香的 [ar-o-mat-ic]
balmy a.(气候)温和的;芳香的 [balm-y]
fragrant a.芳香的;愉快的 [fra-grant]
redolent a.芬芳的,芳香的 [red-o-lent]
aroma n.芳香,香气 [a-ro-ma]
balm n.香油,药膏;镇痛剂 [balm]
bouquet n.花束;芳香 [bou-quet]
fragrance n.香料;香味 [fra-grance]
incense n.香,香味;v.激怒 [in-cense]
mint n.大量;巨额 [mint]
potpourri n.混杂;杂文集 [pot-pour-ri]

fetor 401

fetid a.有恶臭的 [fet-id]
fulsome a.虚情假意的;充足的 [ful-some]
fusty a.陈腐的,霉臭的 [fus-ty]
noisome a.恶臭的;令人不快的 [noi-some]
offensive a.令人不快的,得罪人的 [of-fen-sive]
rancid a.不新鲜的,变味的 [ran-cid]
stench n.臭气,恶臭(stink) [stench]

acridity 401.a

acrid a.辛辣的,刻薄的 [ac-rid]
astringent a.止血的,收缩的;n.收缩剂,止血剂 [as-trin-gent]
harsh a.严厉的;粗糙的;刺耳的 [harsh]

(5) sound

(I) Sound in General

sound 402

audible a.听得见的 [au-di-ble]
distinct a.清楚的,明显的 [dis-tinct]
phonetic a.语音的 [pho-net-ic]
resonant a.(声音)洪亮的;共鸣的 [res-o-nant]
resound v.回荡着声音;鸣响 [re-sound]

silence 403

mute a.沉默的;v.减弱声音;n.弱音器 [mute]
solemn a.严肃的,庄严的;黑色的 [sol-emn]
lull n.活动的暂停;v.使平静 [lull]
hush v./n.肃静,安静 [hush]
muffle v.使声音降低;裹住 [muf-fle]
stifle v.感到窒息;抑止 [sti-fle]

loudness 404

blast >n.一阵(大风);冲击波;v.爆破;枯萎 [blast]
blatant a.厚颜无耻的;显眼的;炫耀的 [bla-tant]
obstreperous a.吵闹的,难管束的 [ob-strep-er-ous]
piercing a.(寒风)刺骨的;敏锐的 [pierc-ing]
stentorian a.(指声音)极响亮的 [sten-to-ri-an]
uproarious a.骚动的,喧嚣的;令人捧腹的 [up-roar-i-ous]
boom n.繁荣昌盛时期;v.发出深沉有回响的声音 [boom]
din n.喧闹声,嘈杂声 [din]
fracas n.喧嚷,吵闹 [fra-cas]
uproar n.喧闹,骚动 [up-roar]
fulminate v.猛烈抨击,严厉谴责 [ful-mi-nate]
resound v.回荡着声音;鸣响 [re-sound]
swell v.肿胀,增强 [swell]

faintness 405

dull a.不鲜明的;迟钝的;v.变迟钝 [dull]
gentle a.温和的,慈祥的 [gen-tle]
husky a.声音沙哑的 [husk-y]
liquid a.清澈的 [liq-uid]
muffled a.(声音)压低的 [muffled]
piano a.(音乐)轻柔的 [pi-a-no]
babble v.胡言乱语;牙牙学语;喋喋不休 [bab-ble]
low v.牛叫 [low]
murmur v.柔声地说,喃喃而言 [mur-mur]
mutter v.咕哝,嘀咕 [mut-ter]
ripple v.起涟漪;n.细浪,涟漪 [rip-ple]
whisper v.耳语,低声说话 [whis-per]

(II) Specific Sounds

snap 406

blast >n.一阵(大风);冲击波;v.爆破;枯萎 [blast]
boom n.繁荣昌盛时期;v.发出深沉有回响的声音 [boom]
crack n.爆裂声;裂缝;v.裂开;破解,破译 [crack]
detonation n.爆炸,爆炸声 [det-o-na-tion]
volley n.齐发,群射;v.齐发,群射;(足球、网球)截击 [vol-ley]
clash v.冲突,撞击 [clash]
discharge v.流出;释放;解雇;履行义务 [dis-charge]

roll 407

monotonous a.单调的,无聊的 [mo-not-o-nous]
toll n.过路(桥)费;伤亡人数,损失;v.(缓慢而有规律地)敲 [toll]
beat v.心跳;搅拌 [beat]
quaver v.发颤音,颤抖;n.颤音 [qua-ver]
rattle v.使格格作响;使慌乱 [rat-tle]

resonance 408

resonant a.(声音)洪亮的;共鸣的 [res-o-nant]
sepulchral a.坟墓的;阴深的 [se-pul-chral]
vibrant a.振动的;明快的;生机勃勃的 [vi-brant]
gong n.锣 [gong]
resound v.回荡着声音;鸣响 [re-sound]
reverberate v.起回声,反响 [re-ver-ber-ate]
squelch v.压制,镇压 [squelch]

nonresonance 408.a

muffled a.(声音)压低的 [muffled]

sibilation 409

sibilant a.发出咝咝声的 [sib-i-lant]
mosquito n.蚊子 [mos-qui-to]
whistle n.口哨,口哨声;汽笛声;v.吹口哨 [whis-tle]
hiss v.作嘘声;(蛇等)发出嘶嘶声 [hiss]
squash v.压碎,挤压;n.南瓜 [squash]

stridor 410

acute a.灵敏的;[病]急性的 [a-cute]
cacophonous a.发音不和谐的,不协调的 [ca-coph-o-nous]
coarse a.粗糙的;低劣的;粗俗的 [coarse]
harsh a.严厉的;粗糙的;刺耳的 [harsh]
piercing a.(寒风)刺骨的;敏锐的 [pierc-ing]
sepulchral a.坟墓的;阴深的 [se-pul-chral]
cacophony n.难听的声音 [ca-coph-o-ny]
discord n.不和,纷争 [dis-cord]
tenor n.男高音;要点,要旨 [ten-or]
grate v.发出“吱嘎”声;磨碎;使人烦躁 [grate]
jar v.冲突,抵触;震惊;发刺耳声 [jar]

cry 411

stentorian a.(指声音)极响亮的 [sten-to-ri-an]
chorus n.合唱队,歌舞团 [cho-rus]
hoop n.(桶之)箍,铁环 [hoop]
squall n.短暂、突然且猛烈的风暴;短暂的骚动 [squall]
bark v./n.狗吠;n.树皮 [bark]
brawl v./n.争吵,打架 [brawl]
clamor v./n.吵闹,喧哗 [clam-or]
exclaim v.惊叫,呼喊 [ex-claim]
groan v./n.呻吟,叹息 [groan]
grumble v.喃喃诉苦,发怨言 [grum-ble]
moan v./n.(痛苦地/的)呻吟;(不满地/的)抱怨 [moan]
shriek v.尖叫 [shriek]
whine v.哀号,号哭 [whine]

ululation 412

blatant a.厚颜无耻的;显眼的;炫耀的 [bla-tant]
croak n.蛙鸣声;v.发牢骚,抱怨 [croak]
gaggle n.鹅群 [gag-gle]
quack n.冒充内行之人;庸医 [quack]
snarl n./v.纠缠,混乱 [snarl]
whistle n.口哨,口哨声;汽笛声;v.吹口哨 [whis-tle]
bark v./n.狗吠;n.树皮 [bark]
chuckle v.轻声地笑 [chuck-le]
drone v.嗡嗡地响,单调地说;n.单调的低音 [drone]
gobble v.贪婪地吃,吞没 [gob-ble]
hiss v.作嘘声;(蛇等)发出嘶嘶声 [hiss]
low v.牛叫 [low]

(III) Musical Sounds

discord 414

cacophonous a.发音不和谐的,不协调的 [ca-coph-o-nous]
dissonant a.不和谐的,不一致的 [dis-so-nant]
harsh a.严厉的;粗糙的;刺耳的 [harsh]
jarring a.声音刺耳的 [jar-ring]
cacophony n.难听的声音 [ca-coph-o-ny]
discord n.不和,纷争 [dis-cord]
jar v.冲突,抵触;震惊;发刺耳声 [jar]

music 415

attune (to)v.使调和 [at-tune]
bravura >n.华美乐段;a.华美的;显示技巧的 [bra-vu-ra]
instrumental a.有帮助的,有作用的 [in-stru-men-tal]
lyric a.抒情的;n.抒情诗;歌词 [lyr-ic]
pastoral a.田园生活的;宁静的 [pas-to-ral]
solo a.单独的;n.独唱 [so-lo]
staccato a.(音乐)断音的,不连贯的 [stac-ca-to]
aria n.独唱曲,咏叹调 [a-ri-a]
ballad n.歌谣,小曲 [bal-lad]
band n.带子;收音机波段 [band]
canon n.经典,真作 [ca-non]
carol n.赞美诗,颂歌;v.欢唱 [car-ol]
chant n.圣歌;v.歌唱或背诵 [chant]
chorus n.合唱队,歌舞团 [cho-rus]
composer n.作曲家 [com-pos-er]
concerto n.协奏曲 [con-cer-to]
crescendo n.(音乐)渐强,高潮 [cre-scen-do]
dirge n.哀歌 [dirge]
ditty n.小曲,小调 [dit-ty]
duet n.二重唱 [du-et]
hymn n.赞美诗 [hymn]
lullaby n.摇篮曲 [lull-a-by]
madrigal n.抒情短诗,情歌,合唱曲 [mad-ri-gal]
melody n.旋律;歌曲 [mel-o-dy]
minuet n.小步舞 [min-u-et]
movement n.(交响乐)乐章 [move-ment]
operetta n.小歌剧 [op-er-et-ta]
oratorio n.清唱剧(没有舞台行动、道具的戏剧) [or-a-to-ri-o]
orchestra n.管弦乐队 [or-ches-tra]
overture n.前奏曲,序曲 [o-ver-ture]
potpourri n.混杂;杂文集 [pot-pour-ri]
quartet n.四重奏,四重唱 [quar-tet]
score n.乐谱 [score]
sonata n.奏鸣曲 [so-na-ta]
symphony n.交响乐,交响曲 [sym-pho-ny]
trio n.三重奏,三重唱;三人一组 [tri-o]
compose v.写,创作;组成 [com-pose]
drone v.嗡嗡地响,单调地说;n.单调的低音 [drone]

musician 416

band n.带子;收音机波段 [band]
bard n.吟游诗人 [bard]
carol n.赞美诗,颂歌;v.欢唱 [car-ol]
chant n.圣歌;v.歌唱或背诵 [chant]
choir n.(教堂的)歌唱队 [choir]
chorus n.合唱队,歌舞团 [cho-rus]
composer n.作曲家 [com-pos-er]
instrumentalist n.乐器演奏者 [in-stru-men-tal-ist]
siren n.汽笛,警报器 [si-ren]
vocalist n.流行歌手,声乐家 [vo-cal-ist]
whistle n.口哨,口哨声;汽笛声;v.吹口哨 [whis-tle]
accompany v.伴随,陪伴 [ac-com-pa-ny]
compose v.写,创作;组成 [com-pose]
doodle v.胡乱画;混时间 [doo-dle]
execute v.执行,履行;将某人处死 [ex-e-cute]
quaver v.发颤音,颤抖;n.颤音 [qua-ver]

musical instruments 417

clarion a.声音高而清晰的;n.尖音小号声;尖音小号 [clar-i-on]
mute a.沉默的;v.减弱声音;n.弱音器 [mute]
piano a.(音乐)轻柔的 [pi-a-no]
band n.带子;收音机波段 [band]
gong n.锣 [gong]
harp n.竖琴;v.喋喋不休地说或写 [harp]
harpsichord n.键琴(钢琴前身) [harp-si-chord]
horn n.角,角质;喇叭 [horn]
orchestra n.管弦乐队 [or-ches-tra]
reed n.芦苇;簧片 [reed]
tambourine n.铃鼓,手鼓 [tam-bou-rine]
tenor n.男高音;要点,要旨 [ten-or]
trumpet n.喇叭,小号 [trum-pet]
whistle n.口哨,口哨声;汽笛声;v.吹口哨 [whis-tle]
rattle v.使格格作响;使慌乱 [rat-tle]

(IV) Perception Of Sound

hearing 418

acoustic a.听觉的,有关声音的 [a-cous-tic]
audience n.听众,观众;读者 [au-di-ence]
earshot n.听力所及范围 [ear-shot]
stethoscope n.听诊器 [steth-o-scope]
stylus n.铁笔 [sty-lus]
list v./n.倾斜 [list]
lug v./n.拖,拉 [lug]

(6) light

(I) Light in General

light 420

effulgent a.灿烂的 [ef-ful-gent]
garish a.俗丽的,过于艳丽的 [gar-ish]
glossy a.光泽的,光滑的 [gloss-y]
graphic a.图表的;生动的 [graph-ic]
lucid a.表达清楚的,明白易懂的 [lu-cid]
lustrous a.有光泽的 [lus-trous]
meteoric a.流星的;昙花一现的 [me-te-or-ic]
orient a.上升的;v.确定方向;使熟悉情况 [o-ri-ent]
refulgent a.辉煌的,灿烂的 [re-ful-gent]
resplendent a.华丽的,辉煌的 [re-splend-ent]
vivid a.清晰的,鲜艳的;大胆的,活泼的,逼真的 [viv-id]
beam n.(房屋等)大梁;光线 [beam]
breadth n.宽度 [breadth]
flare n./v.(火焰)摇曳,闪耀 [flare]
flush n./v.脸红;奔流;冲洗 [flush]
gloss n.光泽;注解 [gloss]
halo n.(日、月等)晕,神像之光环 [ha-lo]
refraction n.折射 [re-frac-tion]
spark n.火花,火星 [spark]
splendor n.壮丽;辉煌 [splen-dor]
streak n.线条,条纹;v.加线条 [streak]
stream n.小溪;水流;v.倾注,涌流 [stream]
enlighten v.启发,开导,教导,授予…知识 [en-light-en]
glare v.发出眩目光芒;怒目而视 [glare]
glimmer v.发微光;n.摇曳的微光 [glim-mer]
glisten v.闪烁,闪耀 [glis-ten]
glow v./n.光亮,发热;(脸)红 [glow]
illuminate v.阐明,解释;照亮 [il-lu-mi-nate]
kindle v.着火,点燃 [kin-dle]

darkness 421

dingy a.肮脏的;褪色的 [din-gy]
gloomy a.阴暗的;没有希望的;阴郁的 [gloom-y]
lurid a.耀眼的;骇人听闻的 [lu-rid]
murky a.黑暗的;朦胧的 [murk-y]
nocturnal a.夜晚的,夜间发生的 [noc-tur-nal]
obscure a.难理解的;不清楚的;v.隐藏;使…模糊 [ob-scure]
somber a.忧郁的;阴暗的 [som-ber]
extinction n.熄灭;消灭 [ex-tinc-tion]
gloom n.黑暗;忧郁 [gloom]
obscurity n.费解,不出名 [ob-scu-ri-ty]
adumbrate v.(对将来事件)预示 [ad-um-brate]
dim v.使暗淡,使模糊 [dim]
extinguish v.使…熄灭;使…不复存在 [ex-tin-guish]
obfuscate v.使困惑,使迷惑 [ob-fus-cate]
overshadow v.遮蔽,使失色 [o-ver-shad-ow]

dimness 422

dingy a.肮脏的;褪色的 [din-gy]
dull a.不鲜明的;迟钝的;v.变迟钝 [dull]
lackluster a.无光泽的;呆滞的 [lack-lus-ter]
lurid a.耀眼的;骇人听闻的 [lu-rid]
nebulous a.模糊不清的;云状的 [neb-u-lous]
obscure a.难理解的;不清楚的;v.隐藏;使…模糊 [ob-scure]
loom n.织布机;v.(威胁性)隐约出现 [loom]
dim v.使暗淡,使模糊 [dim]
fade v.褪色,消失,凋谢 [fade]
glimmer v.发微光;n.摇曳的微光 [glim-mer]

luminary 423

fluorescent a.萤光的,发光的 [flu-o-res-cent]
glowing a.热情赞扬的 [glow-ing]
brand n.商标;烙印;v.在某事物上打烙印 [brand]
chandelier n.枝形吊灯(烛台) [chan-de-lier]
constellation n.星座,星群 [con-stel-la-tion]
firefly n.萤火虫 [fire-fly]
galaxy n.(银河)星群;显赫的人群 [gal-ax-y]
luminary n.杰出人物,名人 [lu-mi-nar-y]
spark n.火花,火星 [spark]
taper n.细蜡烛;v.(长形物体的)逐渐变细 [ta-per]
wick n.蜡烛芯;灯芯 [wick]
illuminate v.阐明,解释;照亮 [il-lu-mi-nate]

shade 424

awning n.遮阳蓬,雨蓬 [awn-ing]
glade n.林中的空地 [glade]
mantle n.披风,斗篷;v.覆盖 [man-tle]
mask n.假面具;v.隐藏(感情) [mask]
umbrage n.不快,愤怒 [um-brage]
veil n.面纱;遮蔽物,掩蔽物;v.以面纱掩盖 [veil]

transparency 425

diaphanous a.精致的,透明的 [di-aph-a-nous]
limpid a.清澈的;透明的 [lim-pid]
lucid a.表达清楚的,明白易懂的 [lu-cid]
pellucid a.清晰的,清澈的 [pel-lu-cid]
serene a.清澈的,晴朗的,安静的 [se-rene]
translucent a.(半)透明的 [trans-lu-cent]
transparent a.透明的;直率的 [trans-par-ent]
clarity n.清楚 [clar-i-ty]

opacity 426

murky a.黑暗的;朦胧的 [murk-y]
opaque a.不透明的;难懂的 [o-paque]
vaporous a.无实质的 [va-por-ous]
opacity n.不透明性,晦涩 [o-pac-i-ty]
dim v.使暗淡,使模糊 [dim]
obfuscate v.使困惑,使迷惑 [ob-fus-cate]

turbidity 426.a

murky a.黑暗的;朦胧的 [murk-y]
vaporous a.无实质的 [va-por-ous]
obscurity n.费解,不出名 [ob-scu-ri-ty]

semitransparency 427

translucent a.(半)透明的 [trans-lu-cent]
opalescence n.(不透明的)乳白光 [opalescence]

(II) Specific Light

color 428

chromatic a.彩色的,五彩的 [chro-mat-ic]
delicate a.娇嫩的;精致的,优美的 [del-i-cate]
florid a.华丽的;(脸)红润的 [flor-id]
garish a.俗丽的,过于艳丽的 [gar-ish]
gaudy a.俗丽的 [gaud-y]
mordant a.讥讽的,尖酸的 [mor-dant]
vivid a.清晰的,鲜艳的;大胆的,活泼的,逼真的 [viv-id]
cast n.演员阵容;剧团;v.扔;铸造 [cast]
coloration n.着色法,染色法;颜色,色泽 [col-or-a-tion]
flush n./v.脸红;奔流;冲洗 [flush]
grain n.谷物;小的硬粒 [grain]
hue n.色彩,色泽 [hue]
medium n.媒介;(细菌等的)生存环境 [me-di-um]
pastel n.彩色粉笔或蜡笔画;柔和的色彩 [pas-tel]
pigment n.天然色素;干粉颜料 [pig-ment]
spectrum n.光谱;范围 [spec-trum]
tint n.色泽;v.给…淡淡地着色 [tint]
glow v./n.光亮,发热;(脸)红 [glow]
illuminate v.阐明,解释;照亮 [il-lu-mi-nate]
imbue v.灌输(某人)强烈的情感或意见 [im-bue]
stain v.玷污;染色 [stain]
tender v.(希望对方接受的意见等) [ten-der]

achromatism 429

dingy a.肮脏的;褪色的 [din-gy]
dull a.不鲜明的;迟钝的;v.变迟钝 [dull]
lackluster a.无光泽的;呆滞的 [lack-lus-ter]
monochrome a.单色的,单色画的 [mon-o-chrome]
pallid a.苍白的,没血色的 [pal-lid]
wan a.虚弱的;病态的 [wan]
tarnish n./v.失去光泽,晦暗 [tar-nish]
blanch v.使变白;使(脸色)变苍白 [blanch]
bleach v.漂白 [bleach]
fade v.褪色,消失,凋谢 [fade]

whiteness 430

alabaster a.雪白的 [al-a-bas-ter]
candid a.率直的 [can-did]
hoary a.(头发)灰白的;古老的 [hoar-y]
ivory n.象牙,长牙 [i-vo-ry]
blanch v.使变白;使(脸色)变苍白 [blanch]
bleach v.漂白 [bleach]
milk v.榨取 [milk]

blackness 431

dingy a.肮脏的;褪色的 [din-gy]
murky a.黑暗的;朦胧的 [murk-y]
nocturnal a.夜晚的,夜间发生的 [noc-tur-nal]
obscure a.难理解的;不清楚的;v.隐藏;使…模糊 [ob-scure]
somber a.忧郁的;阴暗的 [som-ber]
blotch n.(皮肤上的)红斑点;(墨水等)大斑点 [blotch]
soot n.黑烟灰,油烟 [soot]
buck v.反对;n.雄鹿;雄兔 [buck]
denigrate v.污蔑,诽谤 [den-i-grate]

gray 432

dingy a.肮脏的;褪色的 [din-gy]
drab a.枯黄色的;无聊的 [drab]
somber a.忧郁的;阴暗的 [som-ber]

brown 433

maroon n./a.栗色(的) [ma-roon]
tan v.鞣(革) [tan]

redness 434

florid a.华丽的;(脸)红润的 [flor-id]
lurid a.耀眼的;骇人听闻的 [lu-rid]
rubicund a.(脸色)红润的 [ru-bi-cund]
sanguine a.乐观的 [san-guine]
flush n./v.脸红;奔流;冲洗 [flush]
magenta n./a.紫红色(的);n.紫红色的染料 [ma-gen-ta]
mantle n.披风,斗篷;v.覆盖 [man-tle]
maroon n./a.栗色(的) [ma-roon]
blush v.因某事物脸红;n.因羞愧等脸上泛出的红晕 [blush]

greenness 435

green a.新鲜的,未成熟的,无经验的 [green]
verdant a.青葱的,翠绿的 [ver-dant]
novice n.生手,新手 [nov-ice]
verdigris n.铜锈,铜绿 [ver-di-gris]

yellowness 436

jaundiced a.有偏见的 [jaun-diced]
fallow n.休耕地;a.(土地)休耕的 [fal-low]
jaundice n.偏见;黄疸 [jaun-dice]

purple 437

mauve a.淡紫色的 [mauve]
violet a.紫罗兰色的;n.紫罗兰 [vi-o-let]

blueness 438

blue a.忧伤的,沮丧的 [blue]
retiring a.隐居的,不喜欢社交的 [re-tir-ing]
sapphire n.青石,蓝宝石;a.天蓝色的 [sap-phire]
turquoise n.绿松石;a.碧绿的 [tur-quoise]

orange 439

glowing a.热情赞扬的 [glow-ing]
gild v.镀金;虚饰 [gild]

variegation 440

dappled a.有斑点的,斑驳的 [dap-pled]
iridescent a.闪彩光的,现晕光的 [ir-i-des-cent]
motley a.混杂的;杂色的 [mot-ley]
mottled a.有杂色的,斑驳的 [mot-tled]
pied a.杂色的 [pied]
striated a.有条纹的 [stri-at-ed]
braid n.穗子;发辫;v.编成辫子 [braid]
chameleon n.变色龙,蜥蜴;善变之人 [cha-me-le-on]
marble n.大理石 [mar-ble]
mosaic n.马赛克;镶嵌细工(把小块玻璃石头等镶嵌成图画) [mo-sa-ic]
spectrum n.光谱;范围 [spec-trum]
streak n.线条,条纹;v.加线条 [streak]
variegation n.杂色,班驳 [var-i-e-ga-tion]
check v.使突然停止,阻止 [check]
embroider v.刺绣,修饰 [em-broi-der]
stipple v.点画,点描 [stip-ple]
variegate v.使…多样化 [var-i-e-gate]

(III) Perceptions of Light

vision 441

arena n.(角斗的)竞技场 [a-re-na]
espionage n.间谍活动 [es-pi-o-nage]
hawk n.隼,鹰 [hawk]
loophole n.枪眼,小窗,换气孔 [loop-hole]
peer n.同等之人,同辈 [peer]
periscope n.潜望镜 [per-i-scope]
reconnaissance n.侦察,预先探索 [re-con-nais-sance]
vista n.远景;展望 [vis-ta]
witness n.目击者;v.目击 [wit-ness]
contemplate v.深思 [con-tem-plate]
descry v.远远看到,望见 [de-scry]
discern v.(费劲)识别,看出 [dis-cern]
espy v.(从远处等)突然看到 [es-py]
gaze v./n.凝视,注视 [gaze]
glance v./n.一瞥 [glance]
glare v.发出眩目光芒;怒目而视 [glare]
gloat v.幸灾乐祸地看,窃喜 [gloat]
leer v.斜眼看,送秋波 [leer]
ogle v.送秋波;n.媚眼 [o-gle]
pry v.刺探;撬开 [pry]
speculate v.沉思,思索;投机 [spec-u-late]
squint v.斜视 [squint]

blindness 442

hoodwink v.蒙混,欺骗 [hood-wink]
wink v.使眼色;n.眨眼 [wink]

dimsightedness 443

myopic a.近视眼的;缺乏辨别力的 [my-op-ic]
apparition n.幽灵,神奇的现象 [ap-pa-ri-tion]
illusion n.假象,错觉 [il-lu-sion]
loom n.织布机;v.(威胁性)隐约出现 [loom]
mirage n.幻影,海市蜃楼 [mi-rage]
myopia n.近视;缺乏远见 [my-o-pi-a]
phantom n.鬼怪,幽灵;幻像 [phan-tom]
refraction n.折射 [re-frac-tion]
specter n.鬼魂,幽灵;恐惧 [spec-ter]
spectrum n.光谱;范围 [spec-trum]
glare v.发出眩目光芒;怒目而视 [glare]
glower v.怒目而视 [glow-er]
squint v.斜视 [squint]
wink v.使眼色;n.眨眼 [wink]

spectator 444

beholder n.目睹者,旁观者 [be-hold-er]
bystander n.旁观者 [by-stand-er]
sentinel n.哨兵,卫兵 [sen-ti-nel]
spectator n.观众,观看者 [spec-ta-tor]
witness n.目击者;v.目击 [wit-ness]

optical instruments 445

kaleidoscope n.万花筒;产生有趣的对称效果 [ka-lei-do-scope]
microscope n.显微镜 [mi-cro-scope]
monocle n.单片眼镜 [mon-o-cle]

visibility 446

conspicuous a.显著的,显而易见的 [con-spic-u-ous]
definite a.清楚的,明确的 [def-i-nite]
discernible a.可识别的,依稀可辨的 [dis-cern-i-ble]
distinct a.清楚的,明显的 [dis-tinct]
obvious a.明显的,显而易见的 [ob-vi-ous]
palpable a.可触知的,明显的 [pal-pa-ble]
plain a.简单的;清楚的;n.平原 [plain]
exposure n.暴露,显露,曝光 [ex-po-sure]
loom n.织布机;v.(威胁性)隐约出现 [loom]
manifestation n.表明,显示 [man-i-fes-ta-tion]
glare v.发出眩目光芒;怒目而视 [glare]
glimmer v.发微光;n.摇曳的微光 [glim-mer]
materialize v.赋予形体,使具体化;实现 [ma-te-ri-al-ize]

invisibility 447

covert a.秘密的,隐密的 [cov-ert]
obscure a.难理解的;不清楚的;v.隐藏;使…模糊 [ob-scure]
latency n.潜伏期 [la-ten-cy]
conceal v.隐藏,隐瞒 [con-ceal]
dim v.使暗淡,使模糊 [dim]
lurk v.潜伏,埋伏 [lurk]

appearance 448

ostensible a.表面上的 [os-ten-si-ble]
aspect n.(问题等的)方面;面貌,外表 [as-pect]
cast n.演员阵容;剧团;v.扔;铸造 [cast]
exposure n.暴露,显露,曝光 [ex-po-sure]
guise n.外观,装束 [guise]
insignia n.徽章,袖章 [in-sig-ni-a]
outline n.轮廓;梗概 [out-line]
pageant n.壮观的游行;露天历史剧 [pag-eant]
panorama n.概观,全景 [pan-o-ra-ma]
perspective n.(判断事物的)角度,方法;透视法 [per-spec-tive]
phantom n.鬼怪,幽灵;幻像 [phan-tom]
profile n.外形;轮廓侧面像 [pro-file]
vista n.远景;展望 [vis-ta]
countenance v.支持,赞成;容忍;n.表情 [coun-te-nance]
prospect v.勘探;n.期望;前景 [pros-pect]

disappearance 449

evanescent a.迅速消失的,短暂的 [ev-a-nes-cent]
dissolve v.使固体溶解 [dis-solve]
efface v.擦掉,抹去 [ef-face]
evaporate v.(使某物)蒸发掉 [e-vap-o-rate]
fade v.褪色,消失,凋谢 [fade]
vaporize v.(使)蒸发 [va-por-ize]

Class IV. Words Relating to the Intellectual Faculties

Division I. Formation of Ideas

Section I. Operations of Intellect in General

intellect 450

cerebral a.大脑的;深思的 [cer-e-bral]
intellectual a.智力的,理智的;n.知识分子 [in-tel-lec-tu-al]
metaphysical a.形而上学的,玄学的 [met-a-phys-i-cal]
rational a.理性的;合理的 [ra-tion-al]
spiritual a.精神的 [spir-it-u-al]
subjective a.主观的,想象的 [sub-jec-tive]
subliminal a.潜意识的 [sub-lim-i-nal]
conception n.概念;开始 [con-cep-tion]
ideology n.思想体系,思想意识,意识形态 [i-de-ol-o-gy]
intellect n.智力,思维能力 [in-tel-lect]
intuition n.直觉 [in-tu-i-tion]
metaphysics n.形而上学,玄学 [met-a-phys-ics]
psyche n.心智,精神 [psy-che]
psychology n.心理学,心理状态 [psy-chol-o-gy]
wit n.智力,机智 [wit]
appreciate v.欣赏;感激 [ap-pre-ci-ate]

absence of Intellect 450.a

mimic v.模仿,戏弄;n.模仿他人言行的人 [mim-ic]

thought 451

deliberate a.深思熟虑的,故意的;v.慎重考虑 [de-lib-er-ate]
introspective a.自省的 [in-tro-spec-tive]
meditative a.沉思的,善于思考的 [meditative]
sedate a.镇静的 [se-date]
speculative a.投机的;推理的,思索的 [spec-u-la-tive]
wistful a.惆怅的,渴望的 [wist-ful]
application n.请求,申请;应用,应用程序 [ap-pli-ca-tion]
meditation n.沉思,冥想 [med-i-ta-tion]
reverie n.幻想,梦幻曲 [rev-er-ie]
appreciate v.欣赏;感激 [ap-pre-ci-ate]
cogitate v.慎重思考,思索 [cog-i-tate]
contemplate v.深思 [con-tem-plate]
meditate v.沉思,反省 [med-i-tate]
ponder v.仔细考虑 [pon-der]
reflect v.反射;仔细考虑 [re-flect]
speculate v.沉思,思索;投机 [spec-u-late]

incogitancy 452

vacuous a.发呆的,愚笨的 [vac-u-ous]
fatuity n.愚蠢,愚昧 [fa-tu-i-ty]

idea 453

archetype n.原型;典型例子 [ar-che-type]
conceit n.自负,自大 [con-ceit]
conception n.概念;开始 [con-cep-tion]
impression n.印象,感想;盖印,压痕 [im-pres-sion]
perception n.感觉;洞察力 [per-cep-tion]
sentiment n.多愁善感;思想感情 [sen-ti-ment]

topic 454

proposition n.看法;提议 [prop-o-si-tion]
subject n.受支配的人,隶属 [sub-ject]
thesis n.论题,论文 [the-sis]

Section II. Precursory Conditions and Operations

curiosity 455

inquisitive a.过分好问的;好奇的 [in-quis-i-tive]
intellectual a.智力的,理智的;n.知识分子 [in-tel-lec-tu-al]
gape v.裂开;目瞪口呆地凝视 [gape]
lionize v.崇拜,看重 [li-on-ize]
pry v.刺探;撬开 [pry]

incuriosity 456

aloof a.冷淡的,疏远的 [a-loof]
detached a.分开的;超然的 [de-tached]
impassive a.无动于衷的,冷漠的 [im-pas-sive]
indifferent a.不感兴趣的,漠不关心的 [in-dif-fer-ent]
boredom n.厌烦;令人厌烦的事物 [bore-dom]
ennui n.倦怠,无聊;v.使无聊 [en-nui]
foreknowledge n.预知 [fore-knowl-edge]

attention 457

alert a.警惕的,机警的; n.警报 [a-lert]
rapt a.专心致志的,全神贯注的 [rapt]
riveting a.非常精彩的 [riv-et-ing]
steadfast a.忠实的;不变的 [stead-fast]
diligence n.勤勉,勤奋 [dil-i-gence]
revise n./v.改变,修正 [re-vise]
contemplate v.深思 [con-tem-plate]
heed v.注意,留心;n.关心 [heed]
indicate v.显示,指出;象征 [in-di-cate]
overhaul v.彻底检查;大修 [o-ver-haul]
scrutinize v.详细检查;细读 [scru-ti-nize]
skim v.从液体表面撇去;浏览,略读 [skim]

inattention 458

inadvertently adv.不小心地,非故意地 [in-ad-vert-ent-ly]
offhand adv./a.事先无准备地(的);随便地(的) [off-hand]
cursory a.粗略的,草率的 [cur-so-ry]
distracted a.心烦意乱的,精神不集中的 [dis-tract-ed]
giddy a.轻浮的,不严肃的 [gid-dy]
listless a.无精打采的 [list-less]
rapt a.专心致志的,全神贯注的 [rapt]
inadvertence n.漫不经心 [in-ad-vert-ence]
preoccupation n.全神贯注;使人专注的东西 [pre-oc-cu-pa-tion]
reverie n.幻想,梦幻曲 [rev-er-ie]
bewilder v.迷惑,混乱 [be-wil-der]
discompose v.使失态,慌张 [dis-com-pose]
disconcert v.使…尴尬 [dis-con-cert]
disregard v./n.疏忽,漠视 [dis-re-gard]
overlook v.忽视;俯视 [o-ver-look]

care 459

gingerly adj./adv.小心的(地);谨慎的(地) [gin-ger-ly]
accurate a.精确的,准确的 [ac-cu-rate]
alert a.警惕的,机警的; n.警报 [a-lert]
provident a.深谋远虑的;节俭的 [prov-i-dent]
prudent a.审慎的,三思而后行的,精明的 [pru-dent]
tidy a.整齐的,整洁的 [tidy]
vigilant a.机警的,警惕的 [vig-i-lant]
wistful a.惆怅的,渴望的 [wist-ful]
accuracy n.精确,准确 [ac-cu-ra-cy]
particular n.事实,细节 [par-tic-u-lar]
prudence n.谨慎,小心 [pru-dence]
scruple n.顾忌,迟疑;v.顾忌 [scru-ple]
solicitude n.关怀,牵挂 [so-lic-i-tude]
heed v.注意,留心;n.关心 [heed]

neglect 460

offhand adv./a.事先无准备地(的);随便地(的) [off-hand]
improvident a.无远见的,不节俭的 [im-prov-i-dent]
imprudent a.轻率的;不智的 [im-pru-dent]
insouciant a.漫不经心的 [in-sou-ci-ant]
perfunctory a.草率的,敷衍的 [per-func-to-ry]
remiss a.疏忽的,不留心的 [re-miss]
slight a.微小的;n./v.轻蔑 [slight]
supine a.仰卧的;懒散的 [su-pine]
unnoticed a.不引人注意的 [un-no-ticed]
negligence n.粗心,疏忽 [neg-li-gence]
nonchalance n.冷漠,缺少关怀;沉着 [non-cha-lance]
trifle n.微不足道,琐事 [tri-fle]
default v./n.拖债;未履行的责任 [de-fault]
disregard v./n.疏忽,漠视 [dis-re-gard]
distract v.分心,转移;使发狂,困扰 [dis-tract]
divert v.使某事物转向;使娱乐 [di-vert]
omit v.省略,遗漏;疏忽 [o-mit]
overlook v.忽视;俯视 [o-ver-look]
shelve v.搁置 [shelve]
skim v.从液体表面撇去;浏览,略读 [skim]
slur v.含糊不清地讲 [slur]
table v.搁置,不加考虑 [ta-ble]

inquiry 461

inquisitive a.过分好问的;好奇的 [in-quis-i-tive]
interrogative a.疑问的 [in-ter-rog-a-tive]
espionage n.间谍活动 [es-pi-o-nage]
fathom n.英寻(量水深用,相当于1.83米);v.彻底明白,了解 [fath-om]
induction n.就职,入伍仪式;归纳 [in-duc-tion]
inquiry n.询问 [in-quir-y]
peer n.同等之人,同辈 [peer]
reconnaissance n.侦察,预先探索 [re-con-nais-sance]
request n.要求,请求;v.要求,请求 [re-quest]
track n.足迹,踪迹;轨道;小道;v.跟踪 [track]
agitate v.搅动,煽动;使不安,使焦虑 [ag-i-tate]
analyze v.分析,分解 [an-a-lyze]
audit v.审计,核对;旁听 [au-dit]
canvass v.细查;拉选票 [can-vass]
demand v.要求,苛求 [de-mand]
dissect v.解剖 [dis-sect]
dodge v.闪开,躲避 [dodge]
interrogate v.审问,审讯 [in-ter-ro-gate]
investigate v.调查 [in-ves-ti-gate]
issue v.出来,流出;发给,分发;n.(书刊的)期 [is-sue]
overhaul v.彻底检查;大修 [o-ver-haul]
parse v.对…作语法分析 [parse]
probe v.探索,探测 [probe]
pry v.刺探;撬开 [pry]
pursue v.追赶,追求,追踪 [pur-sue]
quest v.搜寻,探求;n.探求 [quest]
scrutinize v.详细检查;细读 [scru-ti-nize]
sift v.筛,过滤 [sift]
unearth v.挖出;发现 [un-earth]
winnow v.把(谷物)的杂质吹掉,扬去 [win-now]

answer 462

conclusive a.最后的,结论的;确凿的,消除怀疑的 [con-clu-sive]
responsive a.敏感的,反应快的 [re-spon-sive]
fathom n.英寻(量水深用,相当于1.83米);v.彻底明白,了解 [fath-om]
oracle n.代神发布神谕的人 [or-a-cle]
repartee n.机灵的回答 [rep-ar-tee]
respondent n.被告 [re-spond-ent]
response n.反应,响应,回答 [re-sponse]
acknowledge v.承认;致谢 [ac-knowl-edge]
retort v.反驳 [re-tort]

experiment 463

empirical a.经验的,实证的 [em-pir-i-cal]
provisional a.暂时的,临时的 [pro-vi-sion-al]
speculative a.投机的;推理的,思索的 [spec-u-la-tive]
tentative a.试探性的,尝试性的 [ten-ta-tive]
criterion n.评判的标准,尺度 [cri-te-ri-on]
empiricism n.经验主义 [em-pir-i-cism]
induction n.就职,入伍仪式;归纳 [in-duc-tion]
ordeal n.严峻考验,痛苦经验 [or-deal]
poll n.民意测验;选举投票 [poll]
protocol n.外交礼节;协议,草案 [pro-to-col]
reagent n.试剂(导致化学反应) [re-a-gent]
subject n.受支配的人,隶属 [sub-ject]
assay v./n.试验,测定 [as-say]
check v.使突然停止,阻止 [check]
fumble v.摸索,笨拙搜寻;弄乱,搞糟 [fum-ble]
grope v.摸索,探索 [grope]
probe v.探索,探测 [probe]
rehearse v.排练,预演;详述 [re-hearse]
verify v.证明,证实 [ver-i-fy]

comparison 464

parallel a.平行的;类似的;n.平行线;v.与…相似 [par-al-lel]
allegory n.寓言 [al-le-go-ry]
analogy n.相似;类比 [a-nal-o-gy]
comparison n.比较,对照;比喻 [com-par-i-son]
collate v.对照,核对 [col-late]
confront v.面临;对抗 [con-front]
contrast v./n.对比 [con-trast]
juxtapose v.并排,并置 [jux-ta-pose]

incomparability 464.a

incommensurate a.不成比例的,不相称的 [in-com-men-su-rate]

discrimination 465

distinctive a.出众的,有特色的 [dis-tinc-tive]
nice a.精密的 [nice]
critique n.批评性的分析 [cri-tique]
distinction n.区别,差别;知名 [dis-tinc-tion]
nicety n.准确,精确 [ni-ce-ty]
quibble n.遁词;吹毛求疵的反对意见 [quib-ble]
tact n.机智;圆滑 [tact]
discriminate v.区分 [dis-crim-i-nate]
nitpick v.挑剔,吹毛求疵 [nitpick]
separate v.使分开;a.不同的;独自的 [sep-a-rate]
sift v.筛,过滤 [sift]

indiscrimination 465.a

confound v.使迷惑,搞混 [con-found]

identification 465.b

cognizance n.认识,察识,知识 [cog-ni-zance]
classify v.分类,归类 [clas-si-fy]
recall v.回想,回忆起;收回;n.唤回 [re-call]

measurement 466

plumb adv.精确地;v.深入了解;测水深 [plumb]
appreciable a.明显的 [ap-pre-ci-a-ble]
metrical a.测量的;韵律的 [met-ri-cal]
ponderable a.可估量的 [pon-der-a-ble]
assessment n.估计,评价 [as-sess-ment]
astrolabe n.星盘(古代星位观测仪) [as-tro-labe]
barometer n.气压计;晴雨表 [ba-rom-e-ter]
calipers n.测径器,双脚规 [calipers]
compass n.指南针,罗盘;界限,范围 [com-pass]
fathom n.英寻(量水深用,相当于1.83米);v.彻底明白,了解 [fath-om]
gauge n.标准规格;测量仪;v.测量 [gauge]
landmark n.陆标;里程碑 [land-mark]
odometer n.(汽车)里程表 [o-dom-e-ter]
scale n.鱼鳞;(音乐)音阶 [scale]
span n.跨度;两个界限间的距离 [span]
appraise v.评价,鉴定 [ap-praise]
appreciate v.欣赏;感激 [ap-pre-ci-ate]
assay v./n.试验,测定 [as-say]
assess v.确定,评定;估计…的质量 [as-sess]
check v.使突然停止,阻止 [check]
mete v.给予,分配;测量;n.边界 [mete]
probe v.探索,探测 [probe]

Section III. Materials for Reasoning

evidence 467

attest (to)v.证明 [at-test]
indicative a.暗示的 [in-dic-a-tive]
admission n.许可;入会费;承认 [ad-mis-sion]
criterion n.评判的标准,尺度 [cri-te-ri-on]
deed n.行为;(土地或建筑物的)转让契约、证书 [deed]
deposition n.免职;沉积;作证 [dep-o-si-tion]
ratification n.正式批准 [ratification]
testimony n.证言,证明 [tes-ti-mo-ny]
warrant n.正当理由;许可证 [war-rant]
warranty n.保证;辩解;有正当理由;批准 [war-ran-ty]
witness n.目击者;v.目击 [wit-ness]
acknowledge v.承认;致谢 [ac-knowl-edge]
allege v.(无证据)陈述,宣称 [al-lege]
cite v.引用,引述 [cite]
confirm v.证实,证明 [con-firm]
corroborate v.支持或证实;强化 [cor-rob-o-rate]
depose v.免职;作证 [de-pose]
document v.为…提供书面证明 [doc-u-ment]
evince v.表明,表示 [e-vince]
indicate v.显示,指出;象征 [in-di-cate]
plead v.恳求,提出…为理由 [plead]
quote v.引用,引述 [quote]
substantiate v.证实,确证 [sub-stan-ti-ate]
testify v.见证,证实 [tes-ti-fy]
uphold v.维护,支持 [up-hold]
verify v.证明,证实 [ver-i-fy]

counter evidence 468

contradictory a.反驳的,反对的,抗辩的 [con-tra-dic-to-ry]
disproof n.反证,反驳 [dis-proof]
negation n.否定,拒绝 [ne-ga-tion]
contradict v.反驳,驳斥 [con-tra-dict]
contravene v.违背(法规,习俗等) [con-tra-vene]
oppose v.反对 [op-pose]
subvert v.颠覆,推翻 [sub-vert]

qualification 469

contingent a.意外的;视情况或条件而定的 [con-tin-gent]
even a.平的 [e-ven]
exceptional a.特别(好)的 [ex-cep-tion-al]
hypothetical a.假设的 [hy-po-thet-i-cal]
qualified a.有资格的;有限制的 [qual-i-fied]
allowance n.津贴,补助;承认,允许 [al-low-ance]
discount n.折扣 [dis-count]
leaven n.发酵剂;影响力;v.发酵;影响 [leav-en]
prerequisite n.先决条件 [pre-req-ui-site]
provision n.(粮食)供应;(法律等)条款 [pro-vi-sion]
quibble n.遁词;吹毛求疵的反对意见 [quib-ble]
stipulation n.规定,约定 [stip-u-la-tion]
waffle n.蛋奶烘饼;v.胡扯,唠叨 [waf-fle]
equivocate v.模棱两可地说,支吾其词,说谎 [e-quiv-o-cate]
modify v.修改,变更 [mod-i-fy]
modulate v.调整(音的强弱) [mod-u-late]
temper v.锤炼;缓和;n.脾气 [tem-per]

possibility 470

accessible a.易达到的;易受影响的 [ac-ces-si-ble]
compatible a.和谐共处的,相容的 [com-pat-i-ble]
contingent a.意外的;视情况或条件而定的 [con-tin-gent]
credible a.可信的,可靠的 [cred-i-ble]
feasible a.可行的,可能的 [fea-si-ble]
obtainable a.能得到的 [obtainable]

impossibility 471

absurd a.荒谬的,可笑的 [ab-surd]
desperate a.不顾死活的,拼命的 [des-per-ate]
impervious a.不能渗透的;不为所动的 [im-per-vi-ous]
incompatible a.不能和谐共存的 [in-com-pat-i-ble]
prodigious a.巨大的 [pro-di-gious]
visionary a.有远见的;幻想的;n.空想家 [vi-sion-ar-y]

probability 472

credible a.可信的,可靠的 [cred-i-ble]
ostensible a.表面上的 [os-ten-si-ble]
plausible a.似是而非的,似乎合理的;嘴巧的 [plau-si-ble]
specious a.似是而非的;华而不实的 [spe-cious]
presumption n.冒昧,专横;假定 [pre-sump-tion]
semblance n.外貌;相似 [sem-blance]
prospect v.勘探;n.期望;前景 [pros-pect]

improbability 473

bizarre a.奇异的,古怪的 [bi-zarre]

certainty 474

absolute a.绝对的,完全的; 无(条件)限制的 [ab-so-lute]
assured a.自信的;确定的 [as-sured]
authentic a.真正的;法律证实的 [au-then-tic]
categorical a.无条件的,绝对的;分类的 [cat-e-gor-i-cal]
conclusive a.最后的,结论的;确凿的,消除怀疑的 [con-clu-sive]
definite a.清楚的,明确的 [def-i-nite]
incontrovertible a.无可辩驳的 [in-con-tro-vert-i-ble]
indubitable a.不容置疑的 [in-du-bi-ta-ble]
ineluctable a.不能逃避的 [in-e-luc-ta-ble]
trustworthy a.值得信赖的,可靠的 [trust-wor-thy]
unimpeachable a.无可指摘的,无可置疑的 [un-im-peach-a-ble]
unqualified a.无资格的;无限制的,绝对的 [un-qual-i-fied]
bigot n.(宗教、政治等的)盲信者;心胸狭窄者 [big-ot]
certainty n.确定的事情 [cer-tain-ty]
certitude n.确定无疑 [cer-ti-tude]
doctrinaire n.空论家;a.教条的,迂腐的 [doc-tri-naire]
dogmatism n.教条主义,武断 [dog-ma-tism]
gospel n.教义,信条 [gos-pel]
scripture n.经文,圣典 [scrip-ture]
assure v.向某人保证,确信 [as-sure]
clinch v.钉牢;彻底解决 [clinch]
ensure v.确保,担保 [en-sure]

uncertainty 475

ambiguous a.含糊的 [am-big-u-ous]
apocryphal a.假冒的,虚假的 [a-poc-ry-phal]
astray a.迷路的,误入歧途的 [a-stray]
casual a.偶然的 [cas-u-al]
contingent a.意外的;视情况或条件而定的 [con-tin-gent]
distracted a.心烦意乱的,精神不集中的 [dis-tract-ed]
distraught a.心神狂乱的 [dis-traught]
dubious a.可疑的;名声不大好的 [du-bi-ous]
fallible a.会犯错的,易犯错的 [fal-li-ble]
hypothetical a.假设的 [hy-po-thet-i-cal]
ignorant a.无知的,愚昧的 [ig-no-rant]
indecisive a.非决定性的,迟疑不决的 [in-de-ci-sive]
indeterminate a.不确定的,不明确的 [in-de-ter-mi-nate]
mystic a.神秘的,不可思议的;n.神秘主义者 [mys-tic]
precarious a.不稳的,危险的 [pre-car-i-ous]
provisional a.暂时的,临时的 [pro-vi-sion-al]
random a.没有明确目的、计划或者目标的;偶然的,随便的 [ran-dom]
slippery a.滑的;狡猾的 [slip-per-y]
ticklish a.怕痒的;易怒的 [tick-lish]
untold a.无数的,数不清的 [un-told]
vague a.模糊的 [vague]
dilemma n.困境,左右为难 [di-lem-ma]
fallibility n.易于出错,出错性 [fal-li-bil-i-ty]
obscurity n.费解,不出名 [ob-scu-ri-ty]
suspense n.悬念;挂念 [sus-pense]
timidity n.胆怯 [ti-mid-i-ty]
bewilder v.迷惑,混乱 [be-wil-der]
confound v.使迷惑,搞混 [con-found]
embarrass v.使忸怩,使难堪 [em-bar-rass]
flounder v.挣扎;艰苦地移动;n.比目鱼 [floun-der]
pose v.摆姿势;造作 [pose]

Section IV. Reasoning Processes

reasoning 476

conclusive a.最后的,结论的;确凿的,消除怀疑的 [con-clu-sive]
controversial a.引起或可能引起争论的 [con-tro-ver-sial]
discursive a.散漫的,无层次的 [dis-cur-sive]
polemical a.挑起论战的 [polemical]
contention n.争论;论点 [con-ten-tion]
debate n.正式的辩论,讨论 [de-bate]
dilemma n.困境,左右为难 [di-lem-ma]
induction n.就职,入伍仪式;归纳 [in-duc-tion]
inquiry n.询问 [in-quir-y]
principle n.原则,原理;道德准则 [prin-ci-ple]
proposition n.看法;提议 [prop-o-si-tion]
synthesis n.综合,合成 [syn-the-sis]
wrangler n.口角者,争论者;牧马者 [wran-gler]
canvass v.细查;拉选票 [can-vass]
contend v.与对手竞争;据理力争 [con-tend]
controvert v.反驳,驳斥 [con-tro-vert]
dispute v.争论 [dis-pute]
infer v.推断,推定 [in-fer]
postulate v.假定;要求 [pos-tu-late]

intuition 477

evasive a.迥避的,逃避的,托辞的 [e-va-sive]
fallacious a.欺骗的;谬误的 [fal-la-cious]
fallible a.会犯错的,易犯错的 [fal-li-ble]
feeble a.虚弱的 [fee-ble]
flimsy a.轻而薄的;脆弱的 [flim-sy]
frivolous a.轻薄的,轻佻的 [friv-o-lous]
gratuitous a.无缘无故的;免费的 [gra-tu-i-tous]
illusive a.迷惑人的,迷幻的 [il-lu-sive]
illusory a.虚幻的 [il-lu-so-ry]
impulsive a.易冲动的 [im-pul-sive]
inconsequential a.不重要的,微不足道的 [in-con-se-quen-tial]
instinctive a.本能的 [in-stinc-tive]
intuitive a.直觉的 [in-tu-i-tive]
nonsensical a.荒唐的,无意义的 [non-sen-si-cal]
plausible a.似是而非的,似乎合理的;嘴巧的 [plau-si-ble]
specious a.似是而非的;华而不实的 [spe-cious]
unsound a.不结实的,不坚固的;无根据的 [un-sound]
unwarranted a.没有根据的 [un-war-rant-ed]
vague a.模糊的 [vague]
astrology n.占星术;占星学 [as-trol-o-gy]
cant n.斜坡,斜面;隐语,术语,黑话;v.使倾斜 [cant]
chicanery n.诡计,狡诈 [chi-can-er-y]
equivocation n.模棱两可的话,含糊话 [e-quiv-o-ca-tion]
evasion n.躲避,借口 [e-va-sion]
fallacy n.谬误,错误 [fal-la-cy]
hunch n.直觉,预感 [hunch]
intuition n.直觉 [in-tu-i-tion]
premonition n.预感,预兆 [pre-mo-ni-tion]
quibble n.遁词;吹毛求疵的反对意见 [quib-ble]
quirk n.奇事;怪癖 [quirk]
sophism n.诡辩;诡辩法(术) [soph-ism]
sophistry n.诡辩 [soph-ist-ry]
subterfuge n.诡计,托辞 [sub-ter-fuge]
varnish n.清漆;v.涂上清漆 [var-nish]
assume v.假定 [as-sume]
cavil v.挑毛病,吹毛求疵 [cav-il]
elude v.逃避;搞不清 [e-lude]
equivocate v.模棱两可地说,支吾其词,说谎 [e-quiv-o-cate]
evade v.逃避;规避 [e-vade]
misrepresent v.误传,歪曲 [mis-rep-re-sent]

demonstration 478

categorical a.无条件的,绝对的;分类的 [cat-e-gor-i-cal]
cogent a.有说服力的 [co-gent]
conclusive a.最后的,结论的;确凿的,消除怀疑的 [con-clu-sive]
consequential a.傲慢的,自以为是的 [con-se-quen-tial]
crucial a.决定性的 [cru-cial]
demonstrative a.证明性的;喜怒形于色的 [de-mon-stra-tive]
manifest a.显然的 [man-i-fest]
conviction n.判罪;坚信 [con-vic-tion]
confirm v.证实,证明 [con-firm]
convince v.使某人确信;说服 [con-vince]
corroborate v.支持或证实;强化 [cor-rob-o-rate]
demonstrate v.证明,论证;示威 [dem-on-strate]
evince v.表明,表示 [e-vince]
substantiate v.证实,确证 [sub-stan-ti-ate]
verify v.证明,证实 [ver-i-fy]

confutation 479

conviction n.判罪;坚信 [con-vic-tion]
disproof n.反证,反驳 [dis-proof]
exposition n.阐释;博览会 [ex-po-si-tion]
exposure n.暴露,显露,曝光 [ex-po-sure]
confound v.使迷惑,搞混 [con-found]
contravene v.违背(法规,习俗等) [con-tra-vene]
controvert v.反驳,驳斥 [con-tro-vert]
demolish v.破坏;拆除 [de-mol-ish]
disprove v.证明…有误 [dis-prove]
overthrow v./n.推翻;终止 [o-ver-throw]
parry v.挡开,避开(武器,问题等) [par-ry]
refute v.驳斥 [re-fute]
retort v.反驳 [re-tort]

Section V. Results Of Reasoning

judgment 480

conclusive a.最后的,结论的;确凿的,消除怀疑的 [con-clu-sive]
judicious a.有判断力的;明智的 [ju-di-cious]
arbiter n.权威人士,泰斗 [ar-bi-ter]
assessment n.估计,评价 [as-sess-ment]
connoisseur n.鉴赏家,行家 [con-nois-seur]
critic n.批评者 [crit-ic]
critique n.批评性的分析 [cri-tique]
determination n.决心;确定;预测 [de-ter-mi-na-tion]
referee n.裁判员;仲裁者 [ref-er-ee]
umpire n.裁判;v.对…进行仲裁 [um-pire]
verdict n.判决,决定 [ver-dict]
appreciate v.欣赏;感激 [ap-pre-ci-ate]
arbitrate v.仲裁,公断 [ar-bi-trate]
assess v.确定,评定;估计…的质量 [as-sess]
censor v.审查,检查(书报) [cen-sor]
confirm v.证实,证明 [con-firm]
deduce v.演绎,推断 [de-duce]
investigate v.调查 [in-ves-ti-gate]
settle v.安置于;决定;栖息 [set-tle]

discovery 480.a

crack n.爆裂声;裂缝;v.裂开;破解,破译 [crack]
detection n.查出,探获 [de-tec-tion]
fathom n.英寻(量水深用,相当于1.83米);v.彻底明白,了解 [fath-om]
revelation n.显示;泄露的事实 [rev-e-la-tion]
disclose v.使某物显露 [dis-close]
disinter v.挖出,挖掘 [dis-in-ter]
elicit v.引出,探出 [e-lic-it]
elucidate v.阐明,说明 [e-lu-ci-date]
evolve v.使逐渐形成,进化 [e-volve]
unearth v.挖出;发现 [un-earth]
unravel v.解开,拆散 [un-rav-el]
verify v.证明,证实 [ver-i-fy]

misjudgment 481

credulous a.轻信的,易信的 [cred-u-lous]
fussy a.爱挑剔的 [fuss-y]
jaundiced a.有偏见的 [jaun-diced]
opinionated a.固执己见的 [o-pin-ion-at-ed]
partial a.局部的;偏袒的 [par-tial]
superficial a.表面的,肤浅的 [su-per-fi-cial]
assumption n.设想;夺取 [as-sump-tion]
doctrinaire n.空论家;a.教条的,迂腐的 [doc-tri-naire]
fad n.(流行一时的)狂热,时尚 [fad]
infatuation n.迷恋 [in-fat-u-a-tion]
partiality n.偏袒,偏心 [par-ti-al-i-ty]
predilection n.偏袒,爱好 [pre-di-lec-tion]
prejudice n.偏见,成见;v.使产生偏见 [prej-u-dice]
prestige n.威信,威望,声望 [pres-tige]
presumption n.冒昧,专横;假定 [pre-sump-tion]
quirk n.奇事;怪癖 [quirk]
presume v.假定,认定 [pre-sume]
warp v./n.翘起,弯曲 [warp]

overestimation 482

exaggeration n.夸张 [ex-ag-ger-a-tion]
optimism n.乐观主义 [op-ti-mism]
pessimism n.悲观;悲观主义 [pes-si-mism]
vanity n.虚荣,自负 [van-i-ty]
eulogize v.称赞,颂扬 [eu-lo-gize]
exaggerate v.夸张;夸大 [ex-ag-ger-ate]
extol v.赞美 [ex-tol]
magnify v.放大;赞美 [mag-ni-fy]

underestimation 483

slight a.微小的;n./v.轻蔑 [slight]
pessimism n.悲观;悲观主义 [pes-si-mism]
ridicule n.奚落;v.嘲笑 [rid-i-cule]
belittle v.轻视,贬抑 [be-lit-tle]
depreciate v.轻视;贬值 [de-pre-ci-ate]
disparage v.贬抑,轻蔑 [dis-par-age]
minimize v.把…减至最低数量或程度 [min-i-mize]
underrate v.低估,轻视 [un-der-rate]

belief 484

assured a.自信的;确定的 [as-sured]
credible a.可信的,可靠的 [cred-i-ble]
credulous a.轻信的,易信的 [cred-u-lous]
secure a.安全的;稳固的;v.固定;使安全 [se-cure]
trustworthy a.值得信赖的,可靠的 [trust-wor-thy]
certainty n.确定的事情 [cer-tain-ty]
conception n.概念;开始 [con-cep-tion]
confidence n.信任,自信,信心 [con-fi-dence]
conviction n.判罪;坚信 [con-vic-tion]
credence n.相信,信任 [cre-dence]
credit n.赊购;信任;(电影)片头字幕 [cred-it]
doctrine n.教义,主义;学说 [doc-trine]
dogma n.教条,信条 [dog-ma]
hazard n.危险 [haz-ard]
hold n.(船)货舱 [hold]
impression n.印象,感想;盖印,压痕 [im-pres-sion]
presumption n.冒昧,专横;假定 [pre-sump-tion]
principle n.原则,原理;道德准则 [prin-ci-ple]
school n.鱼群 [school]
surmise n.推测,猜测;v.推测 [sur-mise]
tenet n.信念;信条;教义 [ten-et]
apprehend v.逮捕;恐惧 [ap-pre-hend]
assent v.同意,赞成 [as-sent]
assume v.假定 [as-sume]
assure v.向某人保证,确信 [as-sure]
conceive v.想像,构想;怀孕 [con-ceive]
convert v.使改变(信仰等);n.改变信仰的人 [con-vert]
convince v.使某人确信;说服 [con-vince]
foster v.培养,鼓励;领养 [fos-ter]
indoctrinate v.教导;灌输思想 [in-doc-tri-nate]
opine v.想,以为 [o-pine]
presume v.假定,认定 [pre-sume]
swallow v.吞下,咽下;忍受 [swal-low]
wean v.(孩子)断奶;戒掉 [wean]

credulity 486

credulous a.轻信的,易信的 [cred-u-lous]
green a.新鲜的,未成熟的,无经验的 [green]
gullible a.易受骗的 [gul-li-ble]
infatuation n.迷恋 [in-fat-u-a-tion]
swallow v.吞下,咽下;忍受 [swal-low]

incredulity 487

suspicious a.怀疑的 [sus-pi-cious]
cynic n.犬儒主义者,愤世嫉俗者 [cyn-ic]
heretic n.异教徒 [her-e-tic]
incredulity n.怀疑,不相信 [in-cre-du-li-ty]
suspicion n.怀疑,觉察,嫌疑 [sus-pi-cion]

assent 488

content a.知足的,满意的;n.内容;满意 [con-tent]
unanimous a.全体意见一致的 [u-nan-i-mous]
admission n.许可;入会费;承认 [ad-mis-sion]
chorus n.合唱队,歌舞团 [cho-rus]
concord n.和睦;公约 [con-cord]
consensus n.意见一致 [con-sen-sus]
ratification n.正式批准 [ratification]
accede v.同意 [ac-cede]
accord v./n.同意;一致 [ac-cord]
acknowledge v.承认;致谢 [ac-knowl-edge]
acquiesce v.勉强同意,默许 [ac-qui-esce]
affirm v.确认;肯定 [af-firm]
assent v.同意,赞成 [as-sent]
avow v.承认;公开宣称 [a-vow]
coincide v.巧合;一致 [co-in-cide]
concede v.承认(为正确);让步 [con-cede]
concur v.意见相同,一致 [con-cur]
confess v.承认,供认 [con-fess]
confirm v.证实,证明 [con-firm]
consent v.同意,允许 [con-sent]
corroborate v.支持或证实;强化 [cor-rob-o-rate]
reciprocate v.回报,答谢 [re-cip-ro-cate]

dissent 489

nonconformist adj./n.不遵照传统生活的(人) [non-con-form-ist]
heterodox a.异端的,非正统的 [het-er-o-dox]
dissident n.唱反调者 [dis-si-dent]
heretic n.异教徒 [her-e-tic]
recantation n.改变宗教信仰 [recantation]
schism n.组织分裂 [schism]
cavil v.挑毛病,吹毛求疵 [cav-il]
contradict v.反驳,驳斥 [con-tra-dict]
demur v.表示异议,反对 [de-mur]
dissent v.不同意,持异议 [dis-sent]
protest v./n.抗议,反对 [pro-test]
recant v.改变,放弃(以前的信仰) [re-cant]
repudiate v.拒绝,抛弃 [re-pu-di-ate]
secede v.正式脱离或退出(组织) [se-cede]

knowledge 490

accomplished a.完成了的;有技巧的,有造诣的 [ac-com-plished]
blue a.忧伤的,沮丧的 [blue]
commonplace a.平常的 [com-mon-place]
erudite a.博学的,饱学的 [er-u-dite]
hackneyed a.陈腐的,平常的 [hack-neyed]
notorious a.臭名昭著的 [no-to-ri-ous]
omniscient a.无所不知的,博识的 [om-nis-ci-ent]
profound a.深的,深刻的;渊博的,深奥的 [pro-found]
savvy a.有见识和精明能干的 [sav-vy]
shrewd a.判断敏捷的,精明的 [shrewd]
trite a.陈腐的,陈词滥调的 [trite]
trivial a.琐细的 [triv-i-al]
acquaintance n.熟知;熟人 [ac-quaint-ance]
cognizance n.认识,察识,知识 [cog-ni-zance]
conscience n.良心,是非感 [con-science]
doctrine n.教义,主义;学说 [doc-trine]
encyclopedia n.百科全书 [en-cy-clo-pe-di-a]
familiarity n.精通;亲近;不拘礼仪 [fa-mil-i-ar-i-ty]
fathom n.英寻(量水深用,相当于1.83米);v.彻底明白,了解 [fath-om]
impression n.印象,感想;盖印,压痕 [im-pres-sion]
inkling n.暗示,迹象;略知,模糊概念 [ink-ling]
intuition n.直觉 [in-tu-i-tion]
perception n.感觉;洞察力 [per-cep-tion]
savant n.博学之士,大学士 [sa-vant]
school n.鱼群 [school]
suspicion n.怀疑,觉察,嫌疑 [sus-pi-cion]
appreciate v.欣赏;感激 [ap-pre-ci-ate]
apprehend v.逮捕;恐惧 [ap-pre-hend]
comprehend v.理解;包括 [com-pre-hend]
conceive v.想像,构想;怀孕 [con-ceive]
discern v.(费劲)识别,看出 [dis-cern]
glimmer v.发微光;n.摇曳的微光 [glim-mer]

ignorance 491

belated a.来得太迟的 [be-lat-ed]
green a.新鲜的,未成熟的,无经验的 [green]
ignorant a.无知的,愚昧的 [ig-no-rant]
illiterate a.文盲的 [il-lit-er-ate]
superficial a.表面的,肤浅的 [su-per-fi-cial]
unconscious a.不省人事的;未意识到的 [un-con-scious]
unenlightened a.愚昧无知的;不文明的 [un-en-light-ened]
uninitiated a.外行的,缺乏经验的 [un-in-i-ti-at-ed]
untutored a.未经教育的 [un-tu-tored]
unwitting a.无心的,不经意的 [un-wit-ting]
smattering n.略知;少数 [smat-ter-ing]

scholar 492

sage a.智慧的;n.智者 [sage]
academician n.院士;学会会员 [a-cad-e-mi-cian]
bibliophile n.爱书者,藏书家 [bib-li-o-phile]
connoisseur n.鉴赏家,行家 [con-nois-seur]
doctrinaire n.空论家;a.教条的,迂腐的 [doc-tri-naire]
illuminati n.先觉者,智者 [il-lu-mi-na-ti]
lexicographer n.词典编纂人 [lex-i-cog-ra-pher]
literati n.文人;学者(复数) [lit-e-ra-ti]
pedagogue n.教师,教育者 [ped-a-gogue]
pedant n.迂腐之人,书呆子 [ped-ant]
pundit n.权威人士,专家 [pun-dit]
savant n.博学之士,大学士 [sa-vant]
wrangler n.口角者,争论者;牧马者 [wran-gler]

ignoramus 493

ignorant a.无知的,愚昧的 [ig-no-rant]
amateur n.业余爱好者 [am-a-teur]
charlatan n.江湖郎中,骗子 [char-la-tan]
dilettante n.半瓶醋,业余爱好者 [dil-et-tan-te]
jerk n./v.突然猛拉 [jerk]
novice n.生手,新手 [nov-ice]
pedant n.迂腐之人,书呆子 [ped-ant]
tyro n.新手 [ty-ro]

truth 494

accurate a.精确的,准确的 [ac-cu-rate]
authentic a.真正的;法律证实的 [au-then-tic]
constant a.稳定的,不变的; n.常数 [con-stant]
definite a.清楚的,明确的 [def-i-nite]
delicate a.娇嫩的;精致的,优美的 [del-i-cate]
exact a.精确的;v.强求,强索付款 [ex-act]
genuine a.真的;真诚的 [gen-u-ine]
legitimate a.合法的;正当的 [le-git-i-mate]
literal a.字面上的;忠实原义的;精确的 [lit-er-al]
nice a.精密的 [nice]
orthodox a.正统的 [or-tho-dox]
precise a.精确的 [pre-cise]
rigid a.硬性的,刚硬的 [rig-id]
severe a.严格的;凶猛的 [se-vere]
substantial a.坚固的,结实的;实质的 [sub-stan-tial]
tangible a.可触摸的 [tan-gi-ble]
unaffected a.自然的,不矫揉造作的 [un-af-fect-ed]
unimpeachable a.无可指摘的,无可置疑的 [un-im-peach-a-ble]
veracious a.诚实的,说真话的 [ve-ra-cious]
verified a.检验的,核实的 [ver-i-fied]
veritable a.确实的,名副其实的 [ver-i-ta-ble]
accuracy n.精确,准确 [ac-cu-ra-cy]
authenticity n.确实性,真实性 [au-then-tic-i-ty]
delicacy n.细嫩;精致,优雅 [del-i-ca-cy]
exactitude n.极端的正确性或精确性 [ex-act-i-tude]
gospel n.教义,信条 [gos-pel]
nicety n.准确,精确 [ni-ce-ty]
particular n.事实,细节 [par-tic-u-lar]
rigor n.严酷;严格,苛刻;严密,精确 [ri-gor]
veracity n.真实性,诚实 [ve-rac-i-ty]
substantiate v.证实,确证 [sub-stan-ti-ate]

error 495

aberrant a.越轨的;异常的 [ab-er-rant]
apocryphal a.假冒的,虚假的 [a-poc-ry-phal]
astray a.迷路的,误入歧途的 [a-stray]
fallacious a.欺骗的;谬误的 [fal-la-cious]
heretical a.异端邪说的 [he-ret-i-cal]
illusive a.迷惑人的,迷幻的 [il-lu-sive]
illusory a.虚幻的 [il-lu-so-ry]
spurious a.假的;伪造的 [spu-ri-ous]
unsound a.不结实的,不坚固的;无根据的 [un-sound]
delusion n.欺骗,幻想 [de-lu-sion]
fallacy n.谬误,错误 [fal-la-cy]
fault n.错误;(地质学)断层 [fault]
flaw n.瑕疵;v.生裂缝;有瑕疵 [flaw]
hallucination n.幻觉,幻视 [hal-lu-ci-na-tion]
heresy n.异端邪说 [her-e-sy]
illusion n.假象,错觉 [il-lu-sion]
snare n.罗网,陷阱 [snare]
blunder v.犯大错;笨拙地做;n.愚蠢之举 [blun-der]
delude v.欺骗,哄骗 [de-lude]
err v.犯错误,出错 [err]
misinform v.向…提供错误信息 [mis-in-form]
mock v.嘲笑;模仿地嘲弄 [mock]

maxim 496

adage n.格言,古训 [ad-age]
aphorism n.格言 [aph-o-rism]
assumption n.设想;夺取 [as-sump-tion]
axiom n.公理;定理 [ax-i-om]
formula n.分子式;公式;套语,惯用语 [for-mu-la]
motto n.座右铭;箴言 [mot-to]
principle n.原则,原理;道德准则 [prin-ci-ple]
postulate v.假定;要求 [pos-tu-late]

absurdity 497

absurd a.荒谬的,可笑的 [ab-surd]
egregious a.(缺点等)过分的,惊人的 [e-gre-gious]
nonsensical a.荒唐的,无意义的 [non-sen-si-cal]
preposterous a.荒谬的 [pre-pos-ter-ous]
anticlimax n.令人扫兴的结局 [an-ti-cli-max]
exaggeration n.夸张 [ex-ag-ger-a-tion]
extravagance n.奢侈,挥霍 [ex-trav-a-gance]
farce n.闹剧;荒谬胡闹 [farce]
jargon n.暗语;行话 [jar-gon]
paradox n.矛盾;似矛盾而正确的说法 [par-a-dox]
pun n.双关语 [pun]
quibble n.遁词;吹毛求疵的反对意见 [quib-ble]
sophism n.诡辩;诡辩法(术) [soph-ism]
vagary n.奇想,异想天开 [va-gar-y]
blunder v.犯大错;笨拙地做;n.愚蠢之举 [blun-der]

intelligence, wisdom 498

acute a.灵敏的;[病]急性的 [a-cute]
astute a.机敏的,精明的 [as-tute]
calculating a.深谋远虑的,精明的 [cal-cu-lat-ing]
canny a.精明仔细的 [can-ny]
cunning a.善于骗人的;灵巧的;n.欺诈行为 [cun-ning]
discerning a.识别力强的 [dis-cern-ing]
hardheaded a.(商业上)现实的,精明的 [hard-head-ed]
impartial a.公平的,无私的 [im-par-tial]
judicious a.有判断力的;明智的 [ju-di-cious]
perspicacious a.独具慧眼的 [per-spi-ca-cious]
piercing a.(寒风)刺骨的;敏锐的 [pierc-ing]
profound a.深的,深刻的;渊博的,深奥的 [pro-found]
provident a.深谋远虑的;节俭的 [prov-i-dent]
prudent a.审慎的,三思而后行的,精明的 [pru-dent]
rational a.理性的;合理的 [ra-tion-al]
sagacious a.聪明的,睿智的 [sa-ga-cious]
sage a.智慧的;n.智者 [sage]
sapient a.有智慧的 [sa-pi-ent]
sensible a.明智的;可感觉到的 [sen-si-ble]
shrewd a.判断敏捷的,精明的 [shrewd]
sober a.清醒的;庄重的 [so-ber]
acumen n.敏锐,精明 [a-cu-men]
aplomb n.沉着,镇静 [a-plomb]
arch n.拱门,拱形 [arch]
ballast n.(船等)压舱物 [bal-last]
expedient n.权宜之计,临时手段;a.(指行动)有用的 [ex-pe-di-ent]
foresight n.远见,深谋远虑 [fore-sight]
inspiration n.启示,灵感 [in-spi-ra-tion]
intellect n.智力,思维能力 [in-tel-lect]
prudence n.谨慎,小心 [pru-dence]
sobriety n.节制,庄重 [so-bri-e-ty]
tact n.机智;圆滑 [tact]
wit n.智力,机智 [wit]
discern v.(费劲)识别,看出 [dis-cern]
discriminate v.区分 [dis-crim-i-nate]
penetrate v.刺穿;渗入;了解 [pen-e-trate]

imbecility folly 499

absurd a.荒谬的,可笑的 [ab-surd]
blatant a.厚颜无耻的;显眼的;炫耀的 [bla-tant]
blunt a.钝的;直率的;v.变钝 [blunt]
dull a.不鲜明的;迟钝的;v.变迟钝 [dull]
eccentric a.古怪的,反常的;n.古怪的人 [ec-cen-tric]
fatuous a.愚昧而不自知的 [fat-u-ous]
frivolous a.轻薄的,轻佻的 [friv-o-lous]
giddy a.轻浮的,不严肃的 [gid-dy]
idle a.(指人)无所事事的;无效的;v.懒散,无所事事 [i-dle]
inept a.无能的;不适当的 [in-ept]
infantile a.幼稚的,孩子气的 [in-fan-tile]
insensate a.无感觉的;蠢笨的 [in-sen-sate]
maudlin a.感情脆弱的,爱哭的 [maud-lin]
nonsensical a.荒唐的,无意义的 [non-sen-si-cal]
obtuse a.愚笨的;不锐利的 [ob-tuse]
prosaic a.单调的,无趣的 [pro-sa-ic]
puerile a.幼稚的;儿童的 [pu-er-ile]
stolid a.无动于衷的 [stol-id]
unenlightened a.愚昧无知的;不文明的 [un-en-light-ened]
conceit n.自负,自大 [con-ceit]
drivel n./v.说废话 [driv-el]
extravagance n.奢侈,挥霍 [ex-trav-a-gance]
fatuity n.愚蠢,愚昧 [fa-tu-i-ty]
folly n.愚蠢;愚蠢的行为,思想或做法 [fol-ly]
ineptitude n.无能,不称职 [in-ept-i-tude]
infatuation n.迷恋 [in-fat-u-a-tion]
ramble n./v.漫步 [ram-ble]
sophistry n.诡辩 [soph-ist-ry]
trifle n.微不足道,琐事 [tri-fle]
dote v.溺爱;昏聩 [dote]

sage 500

intellectual a.智力的,理智的;n.知识分子 [in-tel-lec-tu-al]
sage a.智慧的;n.智者 [sage]
luminary n.杰出人物,名人 [lu-mi-nar-y]
oracle n.代神发布神谕的人 [or-a-cle]

fool 501

incompetent a.无能力的,不能胜任的 [in-com-pe-tent]
stock a.普通的,惯用的;n.存货 [stock]
dolt n.傻瓜 [dolt]
infant n.婴儿 [in-fant]
loon n.愚人;疯子 [loon]
owl n.猫头鹰 [owl]
simpleton n.笨蛋 [sim-ple-ton]
sop n.泡过的食品;安慰品 [sop]
doodle v.胡乱画;混时间 [doo-dle]

sanity 502

lucid a.表达清楚的,明白易懂的 [lu-cid]
rational a.理性的;合理的 [ra-tion-al]
sane a.神志清楚的,明智的 [sane]
sober a.清醒的;庄重的 [so-ber]
sanity n.神志清楚 [san-i-ty]
sobriety n.节制,庄重 [so-bri-e-ty]

insanity 503

agitated a.被鼓动的;不安的 [ag-i-tat-ed]
daft a.傻的 [daft]
delirious a.精神错乱的 [de-lir-i-ous]
depressed a.消沉的;凹陷的 [de-pressed]
deranged a.精神错乱的,有精神病的 [de-ranged]
distracted a.心烦意乱的,精神不集中的 [dis-tract-ed]
distraught a.心神狂乱的 [dis-traught]
doting a.溺爱的 [dot-ing]
eccentric a.古怪的,反常的;n.古怪的人 [ec-cen-tric]
frantic a.疯狂的,狂乱的 [fran-tic]
frenetic a.狂乱的,发狂的 [fre-net-ic]
giddy a.轻浮的,不严肃的 [gid-dy]
insensate a.无感觉的;蠢笨的 [in-sen-sate]
possessed a.着迷的;疯狂的 [pos-sessed]
rabid a.患狂犬病的;失去理性的 [rab-id]
aberration n.离开正路,脱离常轨;变形 [ab-er-ra-tion]
delirium n.精神错乱 [de-lir-i-um]
delusion n.欺骗,幻想 [de-lu-sion]
depression n.忧愁,消沉;数量减少 [de-pres-sion]
drivel n./v.说废话 [driv-el]
frenzy n.极度激动的状态,狂暴 [fren-zy]
furor n.轰动;盛怒 [fu-ror]
hallucination n.幻觉,幻视 [hal-lu-ci-na-tion]
hysteria n.歇斯底里症 [hys-te-ri-a]
infatuation n.迷恋 [in-fat-u-a-tion]
lunatic n.疯子;a.极蠢的 [lu-na-tic]
mania n.癫狂;狂热 [ma-ni-a]
monomania n.偏狂症,狂热病 [mon-o-ma-ni-a]
paranoia n.偏执狂 [par-a-noi-a]
rabies n.狂犬病;恐水病 [ra-bies]
ramble n./v.漫步 [ram-ble]
rave n.热切赞扬;v.狂语 [rave]
vertigo n.眩晕 [ver-ti-go]
dote v.溺爱;昏聩 [dote]

madman 504

fanatic n.狂热者 [fa-nat-ic]
lunatic n.疯子;a.极蠢的 [lu-na-tic]

Section VI. Extension of Thought

1. To the Past

memory 505

green a.新鲜的,未成熟的,无经验的 [green]
indelible a.擦拭不掉的,不可磨灭的 [in-del-i-ble]
suggestive a.暗示的 [sug-ges-tive]
celebrity n.名声;知名人士 [ce-leb-ri-ty]
memorial n.纪念碑,纪念物;a.纪念的,悼念的 [me-mo-ri-al]
mnemonics n.记忆法,记忆规则 [mne-mon-ics]
recollection n.记忆力;记忆中的往事 [rec-ol-lec-tion]
relic n.遗物,遗迹 [rel-ic]
reminder n.提醒人记忆之物 [reminder]
renown n.名望,声誉 [re-nown]
reputation n.名声 [rep-u-ta-tion]
souvenir n.纪念品 [sou-ve-nir]
tenacity n.坚持,固执 [tenacity]
commemorate v.纪念(伟人、大事件等) [com-mem-o-rate]
prompt v.促使,激起;a.敏捷的,迅速的 [prompt]
rankle v.怨恨;激怒 [ran-kle]
recall v.回想,回忆起;收回;n.唤回 [re-call]
retrace v.回顾,追想 [re-trace]

oblivion 506

oblivious a.遗忘的,疏忽的 [o-bliv-i-ous]
amnesia n.健忘症 [am-ne-si-a]
amnesty n.大赦,特赦 [am-nes-ty]
efface v.擦掉,抹去 [ef-face]

2. To the Future

expectation 507

impending a.行将发生的,逼近的 [im-pend-ing]
ready a.机敏的,迅速的 [read-y]
abeyance n.中止,搁置 [a-bey-ance]
auspices n.资助,赞助 [aus-pi-ces]
confidence n.信任,自信,信心 [con-fi-dence]
foresight n.远见,深谋远虑 [fore-sight]
perspective n.(判断事物的)角度,方法;透视法 [per-spec-tive]
presumption n.冒昧,专横;假定 [pre-sump-tion]
reliance n.信赖,信任 [re-li-ance]
suspense n.悬念;挂念 [sus-pense]
vista n.远景;展望 [vis-ta]
abide v.容忍,忍受 [a-bide]
anticipate v.预期,期待 [an-tic-i-pate]
contemplate v.深思 [con-tem-plate]
forestall v.先发制人,预先阻止 [fore-stall]
prospect v.勘探;n.期望;前景 [pros-pect]

inexpectation 508

startle v.使吃惊 [star-tle]

disappointment 509

anticlimax n.令人扫兴的结局 [an-ti-cli-max]
balk n.大方木料;v.妨碍;(因困难等)不愿前进或从事某事 [balk]
bilk v.躲债;骗取 [bilk]
discomfit v.使懊恼;使难堪 [dis-com-fit]
frustrate v.挫折,使沮丧 [frus-trate]
tantalize v.挑惹,挑逗 [tan-ta-lize]

foresight 510

provident a.深谋远虑的;节俭的 [prov-i-dent]
sagacious a.聪明的,睿智的 [sa-ga-cious]
foreknowledge n.预知 [fore-knowl-edge]
foresight n.远见,深谋远虑 [fore-sight]
prescience n.预知,先见 [pre-sci-ence]
prognosis n.预后,对疾病的发作及结果的预言<e预后,对疾病的发作及结果的预言>(forecast of the likely course of a disease or an illness) [prog-no-sis]
prudence n.谨慎,小心 [pru-dence]
anticipate v.预期,期待 [an-tic-i-pate]
forecast v.预报,预测;n.预测 [fore-cast]
prospect v.勘探;n.期望;前景 [pros-pect]

prediction 511

auspicious a.幸运的;吉兆的 [aus-pi-cious]
ominous a.预兆的,不祥的 [om-i-nous]
portentous a.凶兆的,有危险的 [por-ten-tous]
prophetic a.先知的,预言的,预示的 [pro-phet-ic]
astrology n.占星术;占星学 [as-trol-o-gy]
augur n.占卜师;v.占卜 [au-gur]
augury n.预言,征兆,占卜 [au-gu-ry]
auspices n.资助,赞助 [aus-pi-ces]
oracle n.代神发布神谕的人 [or-a-cle]
premise n.前提 [prem-ise]
premonition n.预感,预兆 [pre-mo-ni-tion]
presage n.预感;v.预示 [pres-age]
prognosis n.预后,对疾病的发作及结果的预言<e预后,对疾病的发作及结果的预言>(forecast of the likely course of a disease or an illness) [prog-no-sis]
prophecy n.预言 [proph-e-cy]
prototype n.原型;典型 [pro-to-type]
announce v.宣布,发表;通报…的到来 [an-nounce]
divine v.推测,预言 [di-vine]
extrapolate v.预测,推测 [ex-trap-o-late]
forebode v.预感,凶兆 [fore-bode]
forecast v.预报,预测;n.预测 [fore-cast]
foreshadow v.预示 [fore-shad-ow]
signify v.表示;有重要性 [sig-ni-fy]

omen 512

augury n.预言,征兆,占卜 [au-gu-ry]
harbinger n.先驱,先兆 [har-bin-ger]
presage n.预感;v.预示 [pres-age]

oracle 513

augur n.占卜师;v.占卜 [au-gur]
oracle n.代神发布神谕的人 [or-a-cle]
prophet n.先知,预言家 [proph-et]
sibyl n.女预言家,女先知 [sib-yl]

Section VII. Creative Thought

supposition 514

academic a.学院的,学术的;理论的 [ac-a-dem-ic]
gratuitous a.无缘无故的;免费的 [gra-tu-i-tous]
hypothetical a.假设的 [hy-po-thet-i-cal]
speculative a.投机的;推理的,思索的 [spec-u-la-tive]
suggestive a.暗示的 [sug-ges-tive]
theoretical a.不切实际的;理论(上)的 [the-o-ret-i-cal]
assumption n.设想;夺取 [as-sump-tion]
conceit n.自负,自大 [con-ceit]
hypothesis n.假设,假说 [hy-poth-e-sis]
impression n.印象,感想;盖印,压痕 [im-pres-sion]
inkling n.暗示,迹象;略知,模糊概念 [ink-ling]
presumption n.冒昧,专横;假定 [pre-sump-tion]
presupposition n.预先假定,臆测 [presupposition]
proposal n.提案,建议 [pro-po-sal]
proposition n.看法;提议 [prop-o-si-tion]
surmise n.推测,猜测;v.推测 [sur-mise]
suspicion n.怀疑,觉察,嫌疑 [sus-pi-cion]
thesis n.论题,论文 [the-sis]
assume v.假定 [as-sume]
conjecture v./n.推测,臆测 [con-jec-ture]
divine v.推测,预言 [di-vine]
postulate v.假定;要求 [pos-tu-late]
presume v.假定,认定 [pre-sume]
speculate v.沉思,思索;投机 [spec-u-late]
submit v.屈服;提交,呈递 [sub-mit]
suspect v.怀疑;n.嫌疑犯;a.可疑的 [sus-pect]

analogy 514.a

analogy n.相似;类比 [a-nal-o-gy]
metaphor n.隐喻,暗喻 [met-a-phor]

imagination 515

fertile a.多产的;肥沃的 [fer-tile]
illusory a.虚幻的 [il-lu-so-ry]
original a.最初的,原始的;有创意的 [o-rig-i-nal]
utopian a.乌托邦式的,梦想的 [utopian]
visionary a.有远见的;幻想的;n.空想家 [vi-sion-ar-y]
whimsical a.古怪的,异想天开的 [whim-si-cal]
chimera n.神话怪物;梦幻 [chi-me-ra]
conceit n.自负,自大 [con-ceit]
conception n.概念;开始 [con-cep-tion]
ecstasy n.狂喜;激情状态 [ec-sta-sy]
fanatic n.狂热者 [fa-nat-ic]
fantasy n.想象,幻想 [fan-ta-sy]
figment n.虚构的东西 [fig-ment]
frenzy n.极度激动的状态,狂暴 [fren-zy]
illusion n.假象,错觉 [il-lu-sion]
inspiration n.启示,灵感 [in-spi-ra-tion]
nightmare n.恶梦;可怕的事 [night-mare]
originality n.创造性,独特性 [o-rig-i-nal-i-ty]
phantom n.鬼怪,幽灵;幻像 [phan-tom]
reverie n.幻想,梦幻曲 [rev-er-ie]
trance n.恍惚,昏睡状态 [trance]
vagary n.奇想,异想天开 [va-gar-y]
verve n.(艺术作品的)神韵;(人)生机 [verve]
whim n.多变,怪念头 [whim]
whimsy n.古怪,异想天开 [whimsy]
conceive v.想像,构想;怀孕 [con-ceive]
devise v.发明,设计;图谋;遗赠给 [de-vise]
envision v.想象,预想 [en-vi-sion]
fabricate v.捏造;制造 [fab-ri-cate]
improvise v.即席而作 [im-pro-vise]

Division II. Communication of Ideas

Section I. Nature of Ideas Communicated

meaning 516

explicit a.清楚明确的 [ex-plic-it]
intelligible a.可了解的,清晰的 [in-tel-li-gi-ble]
literal a.字面上的;忠实原义的;精确的 [lit-er-al]
mean a.卑贱的,吝啬的 [mean]
pithy a.(讲话或文章)简练的 [pith-y]
significant a.相当数量的;意义重大的 [sig-nif-i-cant]
suggestive a.暗示的 [sug-ges-tive]
tantamount a.与…相等的 [tan-ta-mount]
allusion n.暗示,间接提示 [al-lu-sion]
bearing n.关系,意义;方位 [bear-ing]
gist n.要点,要旨 [gist]
implication n.暗示 [im-pli-ca-tion]
import n./v.进口,输入;意义 [im-port]
scope n.眼界;范围 [scope]
subject n.受支配的人,隶属 [sub-ject]
substance n.大意,根据,实质;物质 [sub-stance]
tenor n.男高音;要点,要旨 [ten-or]
convey v.运载,运送;表达 [con-vey]
indicate v.显示,指出;象征 [in-di-cate]
signify v.表示;有重要性 [sig-ni-fy]

unmeaningness 517

nonsensical a.荒唐的,无意义的 [non-sen-si-cal]
tacit a.心照不宣的 [tac-it]
trivial a.琐细的 [triv-i-al]
bombast n.高调,夸大之辞 [bom-bast]
jargon n.暗语;行话 [jar-gon]
platitude n.陈词滥调 [plat-i-tude]
quibble n.遁词;吹毛求疵的反对意见 [quib-ble]
verbiage n.罗嗦,冗长 [ver-bi-age]
babble v.胡言乱语;牙牙学语;喋喋不休 [bab-ble]
jabber v.快而不清楚地说 [jab-ber]
rant v.咆哮;口出狂言 [rant]

intelligibility 518

definite a.清楚的,明确的 [def-i-nite]
distinct a.清楚的,明显的 [dis-tinct]
explicit a.清楚明确的 [ex-plic-it]
graphic a.图表的;生动的 [graph-ic]
intelligible a.可了解的,清晰的 [in-tel-li-gi-ble]
lucid a.表达清楚的,明白易懂的 [lu-cid]
obvious a.明显的,显而易见的 [ob-vi-ous]
perspicuous a.明晰的;明了的 [per-spic-u-ous]
plain a.简单的;清楚的;n.平原 [plain]
transparent a.透明的;直率的 [trans-par-ent]
perspicuity n.明晰;聪明睿智 [per-spi-cu-i-ty]
comprehend v.理解;包括 [com-pre-hend]
elucidate v.阐明,说明 [e-lu-ci-date]

unintelligibility 519

abstruse a.难懂的,深奥的 [ab-struse]
ambiguous a.含糊的 [am-big-u-ous]
crabbed a.暴躁的 [crab-bed]
garbled a.引起误解的;窜改的 [garbled]
impenetrable a.不能穿透的;不可理解的 [im-pen-e-tra-ble]
indecipherable a.无法破译的 [in-de-ci-pher-a-ble]
inexplicable a.无法解释的 [in-ex-pli-ca-ble]
inscrutable a.高深莫测的,神秘的 [in-scru-ta-ble]
insoluble a.不溶解的;不能解决的 [in-sol-u-ble]
latent a.潜伏的 [la-tent]
mystic a.神秘的,不可思议的;n.神秘主义者 [mys-tic]
nebulous a.模糊不清的;云状的 [neb-u-lous]
obscure a.难理解的;不清楚的;v.隐藏;使…模糊 [ob-scure]
occult a.秘密的,不公开的 [oc-cult]
opaque a.不透明的;难懂的 [o-paque]
recondite a.深奥的 [re-con-dite]
transcendental a.超越经验的 [tran-scen-den-tal]
vague a.模糊的 [vague]
jargon n.暗语;行话 [jar-gon]
latency n.潜伏期 [la-ten-cy]
obscurity n.费解,不出名 [ob-scu-ri-ty]
paradox n.矛盾;似矛盾而正确的说法 [par-a-dox]
riddle n.谜语 [rid-dle]
conceal v.隐藏,隐瞒 [con-ceal]
dim v.使暗淡,使模糊 [dim]

equivocalness 520

ambiguous a.含糊的 [am-big-u-ous]
indeterminate a.不确定的,不明确的 [in-de-ter-mi-nate]
anagram n.变形词 [an-a-gram]
conundrum n.(答案有双关意义的)谜语;难题 [co-nun-drum]
equivocation n.模棱两可的话,含糊话 [e-quiv-o-ca-tion]
pun n.双关语 [pun]
quibble n.遁词;吹毛求疵的反对意见 [quib-ble]
equivocate v.模棱两可地说,支吾其词,说谎 [e-quiv-o-cate]

metaphor 521

colloquial a.口语的,口头的 [col-lo-qui-al]
figurative a.比喻的,借喻的 [fig-ur-a-tive]
allegory n.寓言 [al-le-go-ry]
allusion n.暗示,间接提示 [al-lu-sion]
application n.请求,申请;应用,应用程序 [ap-pli-ca-tion]
exaggeration n.夸张 [ex-ag-ger-a-tion]
hyperbole n.夸张法;a.夸张的 [hy-per-bo-le]
irony n.反话 [i-ro-ny]
metaphor n.隐喻,暗喻 [met-a-phor]
parable n.寓言,比喻 [par-a-ble]
personification n.典型,化身,完美榜样 [per-son-i-fi-ca-tion]
adumbrate v.(对将来事件)预示 [ad-um-brate]

interpretation 522

equivalent a.相等的,等值的 [e-quiv-a-lent]
expository a.说明的 [ex-pos-i-to-ry]
literal a.字面上的;忠实原义的;精确的 [lit-er-al]
commentary n.实况报道;(对书等的)集注 [com-men-tar-y]
definition n.(轮廓等)清晰;定义 [def-i-ni-tion]
exposition n.阐释;博览会 [ex-po-si-tion]
gloss n.光泽;注解 [gloss]
rendering n.演出;翻译 [ren-der-ing]
annotate v.注解 [an-no-tate]
clarify v.澄清 [clar-i-fy]
construe v.解释;翻译 [con-strue]
decipher v.解开(疑团);破译(密码) [de-ci-pher]
disentangle v.解决,解脱,解开,澄清 [dis-en-tan-gle]
elucidate v.阐明,说明 [e-lu-ci-date]
exemplify v.是…的典型 [ex-em-pli-fy]
expound v.解释;阐述 [ex-pound]
illustrate v.为…作插图或图表;说明,阐明 [il-lus-trate]
paraphrase v.传译,释义 [par-a-phrase]
render v.呈递,表现;提供 [ren-der]
unfold v.展开,打开;逐渐呈现 [un-fold]
unravel v.解开,拆散 [un-rav-el]

misinterpretation 523

exaggeration n.夸张 [ex-ag-ger-a-tion]
misrepresentation n.歪曲 [mis-rep-re-sen-ta-tion]
parody n.模仿性嘲弄文章或表演;拙劣的模仿 [par-o-dy]
distort v.扭曲,弄歪 [dis-tort]
garble v.曲解,窜改 [gar-ble]
misrepresent v.误传,歪曲 [mis-rep-re-sent]
travesty v./n.歪曲模仿,曲解 [trav-es-ty]

interpreter 524

exponent n.说明者,支持者;指数 [ex-po-nent]

Section II. Modes of Communication

manifestation 525

barefaced a.厚颜无耻的,公然的 [bare-faced]
candid a.率直的 [can-did]
conspicuous a.显著的,显而易见的 [con-spic-u-ous]
defined a.定义的;清晰的 [de-fined]
definite a.清楚的,明确的 [def-i-nite]
demonstrative a.证明性的;喜怒形于色的 [de-mon-stra-tive]
distinct a.清楚的,明显的 [dis-tinct]
explicit a.清楚明确的 [ex-plic-it]
flagrant a.臭的,恶名昭彰的 [fla-grant]
indubitable a.不容置疑的 [in-du-bi-ta-ble]
intelligible a.可了解的,清晰的 [in-tel-li-gi-ble]
literal a.字面上的;忠实原义的;精确的 [lit-er-al]
manifest a.显然的 [man-i-fest]
notable a.明显的,出众的,重要的 [no-ta-ble]
notorious a.臭名昭著的 [no-to-ri-ous]
obvious a.明显的,显而易见的 [ob-vi-ous]
ostensible a.表面上的 [os-ten-si-ble]
overt a.公开的,非秘密的 [o-vert]
palpable a.可触知的,明显的 [pal-pa-ble]
patent a.显而易见的;n.专利权(证书) [pa-tent]
plain a.简单的;清楚的;n.平原 [plain]
prominent a.显著的;著名的 [prom-i-nent]
pronounced a.(观点等)强硬的,明显的 [pro-nounced]
salient a.显著的,突出的 [sa-li-ent]
striking a.引人注目的,明显的 [strik-ing]
unreserved a.无限制的;未被预定的 [un-re-served]
exposition n.阐释;博览会 [ex-po-si-tion]
manifestation n.表明,显示 [man-i-fes-ta-tion]
produce n.产品;农产品 [pro-duce]
bare v.暴露;a.赤裸的 [bare]
demonstrate v.证明,论证;示威 [dem-on-strate]
disclose v.使某物显露 [dis-close]
elicit v.引出,探出 [e-lic-it]
indicate v.显示,指出;象征 [in-di-cate]
proclaim v.宣告,宣布;显示 [pro-claim]

information 527

explicit a.清楚明确的 [ex-plic-it]
expository a.说明的 [ex-pos-i-to-ry]
informed a.见多识广的;消息灵通的 [in-formed]
intimate a.亲密的;n.密友;v.暗示 [in-ti-mate]
acquaintance n.熟知;熟人 [ac-quaint-ance]
bit n.钻头 [bit]
exponent n.说明者,支持者;指数 [ex-po-nent]
gazetteer n.地名词典,地名表 [gaz-et-teer]
gesture n.姿势,手势,姿态 [ges-ture]
inkling n.暗示,迹象;略知,模糊概念 [ink-ling]
innuendo n.含沙射影,暗讽 [in-nu-en-do]
itinerary n.行程表;旅行路线 [i-tin-er-ar-y]
pilot n.飞行员;领航员;领导人 [pi-lot]
segment n.部分 [seg-ment]
acquaint v.使…熟知;通知 [ac-quaint]
announce v.宣布,发表;通报…的到来 [an-nounce]
apprise v.通知,告诉 [ap-prise]
communicate v.传送信息,沟通 [com-mu-ni-cate]
cue v.暗示,提示;n.暗示,提示 [cue]
disabuse v.打消(某人的)错误念头;纠正 [dis-a-buse]
disclose v.使某物显露 [dis-close]
enlighten v.启发,开导,教导,授予…知识 [en-light-en]
impart v.传授,告知 [im-part]
insinuate v.暗指,暗示 [in-sin-u-ate]
prompt v.促使,激起;a.敏捷的,迅速的 [prompt]
retail v.零售;n.零售 [re-tail]
signify v.表示;有重要性 [sig-ni-fy]
transmit v.传送,传播 [trans-mit]
whisper v.耳语,低声说话 [whis-per]

correction 527.a

enlighten v.启发,开导,教导,授予…知识 [en-light-en]

concealment 528

clandestine a.秘密的,暗中从事的 [clan-des-tine]
confidential a.机密的 [con-fi-den-tial]
covert a.秘密的,隐密的 [cov-ert]
cryptic a.秘密的,神秘的 [cryp-tic]
esoteric a.秘传的;神秘的 [es-o-ter-ic]
evasive a.迥避的,逃避的,托辞的 [e-va-sive]
furtive a. 偷偷的,秘密的 [fur-tive]
inviolable a.不可侵犯的;不可亵渎的 [in-vi-o-la-ble]
mystic a.神秘的,不可思议的;n.神秘主义者 [mys-tic]
occult a.秘密的,不公开的 [oc-cult]
recondite a.深奥的 [re-con-dite]
reticent a.沉默不语的 [ret-i-cent]
secretive a.守口如瓶的 [se-cre-tive]
sly a.狡猾的,鬼鬼祟祟的 [sly]
surreptitious a.鬼鬼祟祟的 [sur-rep-ti-tious]
taciturn a.沉默寡言的 [tac-i-turn]
tortuous a.弯弯曲曲的 [tor-tu-ous]
untold a.无数的,数不清的 [un-told]
cipher n.零;无影响力的人;密码 [ci-pher]
evasion n.躲避,借口 [e-va-sion]
hide n.兽皮 [hide]
latency n.潜伏期 [la-ten-cy]
mask n.假面具;v.隐藏(感情) [mask]
masquerade n.化装舞会;v.伪装 [mas-quer-ade]
reserve n.储备(物),储藏量;缄默,谨慎;v.保留,储备,预订 [re-serve]
shroud n.寿衣;遮蔽物;v.覆盖 [shroud]
stealth n.秘密的行动 [stealth]
stowaway n.(藏于轮船、飞机中的)偷乘者 [stow-a-way]
veil n.面纱;遮蔽物,掩蔽物;v.以面纱掩盖 [veil]
conceal v.隐藏,隐瞒 [con-ceal]
disguise v.假扮;掩饰 [dis-guise]
ensconce v.安置,安坐 [en-sconce]
hoodwink v.蒙混,欺骗 [hood-wink]
lurk v.潜伏,埋伏 [lurk]
muffle v.使声音降低;裹住 [muf-fle]
prowl v.潜行于,偷偷地漫游 [prowl]
secrete v.隐藏;分泌 [se-crete]
smother v.覆盖;(使)闷死 [smoth-er]
stifle v.感到窒息;抑止 [sti-fle]
whisper v.耳语,低声说话 [whis-per]
withhold v.扣留,保留 [with-hold]

disclosure 529

utter a.完全的;v.发出声音 [ut-ter]
canary n.金丝雀;女歌星 [ca-nar-y]
denouement n.(小说的)结尾,结局 [de-noue-ment]
exposition n.阐释;博览会 [ex-po-si-tion]
exposure n.暴露,显露,曝光 [ex-po-sure]
revelation n.显示;泄露的事实 [rev-e-la-tion]
split n./v.分裂,裂开 [split]
acknowledge v.承认;致谢 [ac-knowl-edge]
avow v.承认;公开宣称 [a-vow]
bare v.暴露;a.赤裸的 [bare]
betray v.背叛;暴露 [be-tray]
concede v.承认(为正确);让步 [con-cede]
confess v.承认,供认 [con-fess]
disabuse v.打消(某人的)错误念头;纠正 [dis-a-buse]
disclose v.使某物显露 [dis-close]
divulge v.泄露,透露 [di-vulge]
grant v.同意给予 [grant]
snitch v.告密;偷 [snitch]
unfold v.展开,打开;逐渐呈现 [un-fold]
vent v.发泄(情绪);开孔;n.孔,口 [vent]

ambush 530

camouflage n./v.掩饰,伪装 [cam-ou-flage]
closet n.壁橱;a.秘密的 [clos-et]
hold n.(船)货舱 [hold]
mask n.假面具;v.隐藏(感情) [mask]
pitfall n.陷阱,未料到的危险或困难 [pit-fall]
recess n.壁凹(墙上装的架子、柜子等凹处);休假 [re-cess]
retreat n./v.撤退;隐居处 [re-treat]
veil n.面纱;遮蔽物,掩蔽物;v.以面纱掩盖 [veil]
ambush v.埋伏;伏击 [am-bush]
disguise v.假扮;掩饰 [dis-guise]
lurk v.潜伏,埋伏 [lurk]

publication 531

circular a.圆形的 [cir-cu-lar]
flagrant a.臭的,恶名昭彰的 [fla-grant]
notorious a.臭名昭著的 [no-to-ri-ous]
utter a.完全的;v.发出声音 [ut-ter]
blazon n.纹章,装饰;v.精确描绘 [bla-zon]
circulation n.循环,流通;发行额 [cir-cu-la-tion]
manifesto n.宣言,声明 [man-i-fes-to]
poster n.海报,招贴画 [post-er]
proclamation n.宣布,公告 [proc-la-ma-tion]
propagation n.繁殖 [prop-a-ga-tion]
advertise v.做广告 [ad-ver-tise]
broach v.开瓶;提出(讨论) [broach]
bruit v.散布(谣言) [bruit]
circulate v.循环;流通;发行 [cir-cu-late]
diffuse v.散布,(光等)漫射;a.漫射的,散漫的 [dif-fuse]
disseminate v.散布,传播 [dis-sem-i-nate]
emit v.放射(光、热、味等) [e-mit]
imprint v.盖印,刻印 [im-print]
issue v.出来,流出;发给,分发;n.(书刊的)期 [is-sue]
proclaim v.宣告,宣布;显示 [pro-claim]
promulgate v.颁布(法令);宣传 [prom-ul-gate]
propagate v.繁殖;传播 [prop-a-gate]

news 532

correspondent a.符合的;n.记者 [cor-re-spond-ent]
rife a.流行的,普遍的 [rife]
errand n.差使;差事 [er-rand]
scandal n.丑闻;恶意诽谤 [scan-dal]
tract n.传单;大片土地 [tract]
bruit v.散布(谣言) [bruit]
dispatch v.派遣;一下子做完;吃完;n.迅速 [dis-patch]

secret 533

confidential a.机密的 [con-fi-den-tial]
anagram n.变形词 [an-a-gram]
charade n.用动作等表演文字意义的字谜游戏 [cha-rade]
conundrum n.(答案有双关意义的)谜语;难题 [co-nun-drum]
intricacy n.错综,复杂,纷乱 [in-tri-ca-cy]
labyrinth n.迷宫 [lab-y-rinth]
latency n.潜伏期 [la-ten-cy]
maze n.迷宫 [maze]
paradox n.矛盾;似矛盾而正确的说法 [par-a-dox]
rebus n.(以音、画等提示的)字谜,画谜 [re-bus]
riddle n.谜语 [rid-dle]
meander v.蜿蜒而流;漫步 [me-an-der]

messenger 534

emissary n.密使;特使 [em-is-sar-y]
marshal v.整理,安排,设置 [mar-shal]

affirmation 535

attest (to)v.证明 [at-test]
absolute a.绝对的,完全的; 无(条件)限制的 [ab-so-lute]
categorical a.无条件的,绝对的;分类的 [cat-e-gor-i-cal]
definitive a.明确的,有权威的 [de-fin-i-tive]
distinct a.清楚的,明显的 [dis-tinct]
emphatic a.重视的,强调的 [em-phat-ic]
explicit a.清楚明确的 [ex-plic-it]
marked a.明显的;被监视的 [marked]
peremptory a.不容反抗的;专横的 [per-emp-to-ry]
solemn a.严肃的,庄严的;黑色的 [sol-emn]
trenchant a.一针见血的 [trench-ant]
affidavit n.宣誓书 [af-fi-da-vit]
deposition n.免职;沉积;作证 [dep-o-si-tion]
dogmatism n.教条主义,武断 [dog-ma-tism]
oath n.誓言;咒骂 [oath]
warrant n.正当理由;许可证 [war-rant]
acknowledge v.承认;致谢 [ac-knowl-edge]
affirm v.确认;肯定 [af-firm]
allege v.(无证据)陈述,宣称 [al-lege]
announce v.宣布,发表;通报…的到来 [an-nounce]
assert v.断言,主张 [as-sert]
assure v.向某人保证,确信 [as-sure]
aver v.极力声明;断言;确证 [a-ver]
avow v.承认;公开宣称 [a-vow]
broach v.开瓶;提出(讨论) [broach]
contend v.与对手竞争;据理力争 [con-tend]
depose v.免职;作证 [de-pose]
enunciate v.发音;(清楚地)表达 [e-nun-ci-ate]
pretend v.假装;装扮 [pre-tend]
protest v./n.抗议,反对 [pro-test]
vouch v.担保,证明 [vouch]

negation 536

contradictory a.反驳的,反对的,抗辩的 [con-tra-dic-to-ry]
negation n.否定,拒绝 [ne-ga-tion]
belie v.掩饰;证明为假 [be-lie]
contradict v.反驳,驳斥 [con-tra-dict]
contravene v.违背(法规,习俗等) [con-tra-vene]
controvert v.反驳,驳斥 [con-tro-vert]
disclaim v.放弃权利;拒绝承认 [dis-claim]
dispute v.争论 [dis-pute]
gainsay v.否认 [gain-say]
impugn v.指责,对…表示怀疑 [im-pugn]
protest v./n.抗议,反对 [pro-test]
recant v.改变,放弃(以前的信仰) [re-cant]
repudiate v.拒绝,抛弃 [re-pu-di-ate]
traverse v.横穿过,横跨 [trav-erse]

teaching 537

academic a.学院的,学术的;理论的 [ac-a-dem-ic]
didactic a.教诲的;说教的 [di-dac-tic]
instructive a.传授知识的,启蒙的 [in-struc-tive]
tame a.驯服的;沉闷的 [tame]
curriculum n.(全部的)课程 [cur-ric-u-lum]
discourse n.演讲,论述 [dis-course]
drill n.钻;钻床 [drill]
parable n.寓言,比喻 [par-a-ble]
prime n.全盛时期;a.首先的;最好的 [prime]
school n.鱼群 [school]
score n.乐谱 [score]
sermon n.布道;说教,训诫 [ser-mon]
tutor n.助教;监护人;v.辅导 [tu-tor]
breed v.繁殖;教养;n.品种,种类 [breed]
convince v.使某人确信;说服 [con-vince]
cram v.填塞,塞满;临时抱佛脚,为考试而学习 [cram]
discipline v.训练,训导;n.纪律;惩罚,处分 [dis-ci-pline]
disseminate v.散布,传播 [dis-sem-i-nate]
edify v.陶冶,启发 [ed-i-fy]
enlighten v.启发,开导,教导,授予…知识 [en-light-en]
expound v.解释;阐述 [ex-pound]
graft v./n.嫁接;贪污 [graft]
habituate v.使习惯于 [ha-bit-u-ate]
imbue v.灌输(某人)强烈的情感或意见 [im-bue]
implant v.注入;灌输 [im-plant]
inculcate v.灌输,谆谆教诲 [in-cul-cate]
indoctrinate v.教导;灌输思想 [in-doc-tri-nate]
infiltrate v.渗透,渗入 [in-fil-trate]
infuse v.灌输;鼓励 [in-fuse]
initiate v.发起,创始;接纳或介绍某人加入某团体等 [in-i-ti-ate]
inoculate v.预防注射 [in-oc-u-late]
instill v.滴注;逐渐灌输 [in-still]
nurture v.抚育,给…营养物,教养;n.养育,营养物;(总称)环境因素 [nur-ture]
preach v.传教,讲道 [preach]

misteaching 538

sophistry n.诡辩 [soph-ist-ry]
bewilder v.迷惑,混乱 [be-wil-der]
misinform v.向…提供错误信息 [mis-in-form]
misrepresent v.误传,歪曲 [mis-rep-re-sent]

learning 539

apt a.易于…的,恰当的 [apt]
docile a.驯服的,听话的 [doc-ile]
industrious a.勤劳的,勤勉的 [in-dus-tri-ous]
aptitude n.适宜;才能,资质 [ap-ti-tude]
attainment n.成就 [at-tain-ment]
grind n.枯燥乏味的工作;v.磨碎,碾碎 [grind]
inquiry n.询问 [in-quir-y]
spell n.连续的一段时间 [spell]
cram v.填塞,塞满;临时抱佛脚,为考试而学习 [cram]
expel v.排出;开除 [ex-pel]
peruse v.细读,精读 [pe-ruse]
transfer v.转移,传递;调任,转让 [trans-fer]

teacher 540

guru n.古鲁(印度的宗教领袖);(受尊敬的)教师或权威 [gu-ru]
mentor n.导师 [men-tor]
pedagogue n.教师,教育者 [ped-a-gogue]
tutor n.助教;监护人;v.辅导 [tu-tor]

learner 541

amateur n.业余爱好者 [am-a-teur]
apprentice n.学徒 [ap-pren-tice]
disciple n.信徒,弟子 [dis-ci-ple]
neophyte n.初学者,新手 [ne-o-phyte]
novice n.生手,新手 [nov-ice]
recruit n.新兵;新成员;v.征募 [re-cruit]
resident n.居民;a.定居的,常驻的 [res-i-dent]
school n.鱼群 [school]
tyro n.新手 [ty-ro]
intern v.拘禁,软禁;n.实习生 [in-tern]
remove v.移走;脱掉;迁移 [re-move]

school 542

academic a.学院的,学术的;理论的 [ac-a-dem-ic]
auditorium n.礼堂;观众席 [au-di-to-ri-um]
encyclopedia n.百科全书 [en-cy-clo-pe-di-a]
forum n.辩论的场所,讲坛 [fo-rum]
institution n.公共机构,协会;制度 [in-sti-tu-tion]
lectern n.教堂里的读经台 [lec-tern]
rostrum n.讲台,讲坛 [ros-trum]
school n.鱼群 [school]
seminary n.神学院 [sem-i-nar-y]
institute v.制定,创立(社团,规章);n.学院,协会 [in-sti-tute]

veracity 543

candid a.率直的 [can-did]
guileless a.厚道的,老实的 [guile-less]
ingenuous a.纯朴的,单纯的 [in-gen-u-ous]
outspoken a.直言不讳的 [out-spo-ken]
sincere a.诚实的,正直的;真挚的,纯净的 [sin-cere]
straightforward a.正直的;易懂的;直截了当的 [straight-for-ward]
trustworthy a.值得信赖的,可靠的 [trust-wor-thy]
unaffected a.自然的,不矫揉造作的 [un-af-fect-ed]
unfeigned a.真实的;不作假的 [unfeigned]
unreserved a.无限制的;未被预定的 [un-re-served]
veracious a.诚实的,说真话的 [ve-ra-cious]
candor n.坦白,率直 [can-dor]
probity n.刚直,正直 [pro-bi-ty]
veracity n.真实性,诚实 [ve-rac-i-ty]

falsehood 544

affected a.不自然的;假装的 [af-fect-ed]
artificial a.人造的,假的 [ar-ti-fi-cial]
contrived a.不自然的,做作的 [con-trived]
evasive a.迥避的,逃避的,托辞的 [e-va-sive]
fraudulent a.欺骗的,不诚实的 [fraud-u-lent]
hypocritical a.虚伪的 [hyp-o-crit-i-cal]
mendacious a.不真的;撒谎的 [mendacious]
perfidious a.不忠的,背信弃义的 [per-fid-i-ous]
plausible a.似是而非的,似乎合理的;嘴巧的 [plau-si-ble]
sincere a.诚实的,正直的;真挚的,纯净的 [sin-cere]
spurious a.假的;伪造的 [spu-ri-ous]
cant n.斜坡,斜面;隐语,术语,黑话;v.使倾斜 [cant]
deceit n.欺骗,欺诈 [de-ceit]
deception n.欺骗手段 [de-cep-tion]
duplicity n.欺骗,口是心非 [du-plic-i-ty]
equivocation n.模棱两可的话,含糊话 [e-quiv-o-ca-tion]
evasion n.躲避,借口 [e-va-sion]
exaggeration n.夸张 [ex-ag-ger-a-tion]
falsehood n.谎言 [false-hood]
forgery n.伪造(物) [for-ger-y]
fraud n.欺诈,欺骗;骗子 [fraud]
guile n.欺诈,狡猾 [guile]
hatch n.船舱盖;v.孵化 [hatch]
insincerity n.伪善 [in-sin-cer-i-ty]
mendacity n.虚假 [men-dac-i-ty]
misrepresentation n.歪曲 [mis-rep-re-sen-ta-tion]
perfidy n.不忠,背叛 [per-fi-dy]
perjury n.作伪证,发假誓 [per-ju-ry]
quibble n.遁词;吹毛求疵的反对意见 [quib-ble]
sham n.虚假;v.伪装 [sham]
varnish n.清漆;v.涂上清漆 [var-nish]
assume v.假定 [as-sume]
belie v.掩饰;证明为假 [be-lie]
counterfeit v.伪造,仿造 [coun-ter-feit]
disguise v.假扮;掩饰 [dis-guise]
dissemble v.隐藏,掩饰(感受、意图) [dis-sem-ble]
dissimulate v.隐藏,掩饰 [dis-sim-u-late]
distort v.扭曲,弄歪 [dis-tort]
embroider v.刺绣,修饰 [em-broi-der]
equivocate v.模棱两可地说,支吾其词,说谎 [e-quiv-o-cate]
exaggerate v.夸张;夸大 [ex-ag-ger-ate]
fabricate v.捏造;制造 [fab-ri-cate]
feign v.假装,伪装 [feign]
garble v.曲解,窜改 [gar-ble]
malinger v.装病以逃避工作 [ma-lin-ger]
misrepresent v.误传,歪曲 [mis-rep-re-sent]
palter v.含糊其词 [pal-ter]
pretend v.假装;装扮 [pre-tend]
prevaricate v.支吾其词,说谎 [pre-var-i-cate]
simulate v.假装,模仿 [sim-u-late]
trim v.修剪;a.井井有条的 [trim]

deception 545

cozen "v.欺骗, 哄骗" [co-zen]
artificial a.人造的,假的 [ar-ti-fi-cial]
bogus a.假装的,假的 [bo-gus]
cunning a.善于骗人的;灵巧的;n.欺诈行为 [cun-ning]
elusive a.难懂的 [e-lu-sive]
feigned a.假装的;不真诚的 [feigned]
fraudulent a.欺骗的,不诚实的 [fraud-u-lent]
illegitimate a.不合法的;私生的 [il-le-git-i-mate]
illusive a.迷惑人的,迷幻的 [il-lu-sive]
illusory a.虚幻的 [il-lu-so-ry]
insidious a.隐藏诡计的 [in-sid-i-ous]
meretricious a.华而不实的,俗艳的 [mer-e-tri-cious]
prestigious a.有名望的,有威信的 [pres-tig-ious]
snide a.讽刺的,含沙射影的 [snide]
sophisticated a.老于世故的;(仪器)精密的 [so-phis-ti-cat-ed]
spurious a.假的;伪造的 [spu-ri-ous]
surreptitious a.鬼鬼祟祟的 [sur-rep-ti-tious]
unsound a.不结实的,不坚固的;无根据的 [un-sound]
bait n.诱饵;v.逗弄;激怒 [bait]
balk n.大方木料;v.妨碍;(因困难等)不愿前进或从事某事 [balk]
chicanery n.诡计,狡诈 [chi-can-er-y]
contraband n.违禁品,走私货 [con-tra-band]
deceit n.欺骗,欺诈 [de-ceit]
deception n.欺骗手段 [de-cep-tion]
delusion n.欺骗,幻想 [de-lu-sion]
dupe n.易上当的人 [dupe]
forgery n.伪造(物) [for-ger-y]
fraud n.欺诈,欺骗;骗子 [fraud]
guile n.欺诈,狡猾 [guile]
gum n.树胶,橡皮 [gum]
hoax n./v.骗局,欺骗 [hoax]
illusion n.假象,错觉 [il-lu-sion]
imposture n.冒充 [im-pos-ture]
jockey n.骑师;v.用计谋获取 [jock-ey]
legerdemain n.手法;戏法 [leg-er-de-main]
mask n.假面具;v.隐藏(感情) [mask]
masquerade n.化装舞会;v.伪装 [mas-quer-ade]
mirage n.幻影,海市蜃楼 [mi-rage]
misrepresentation n.歪曲 [mis-rep-re-sen-ta-tion]
nick n.小伤口,刻痕 [nick]
pitfall n.陷阱,未料到的危险或困难 [pit-fall]
pluck n.在困难面前足智多谋的勇气,胆量;精力;v.拔毛;弹拉 [pluck]
sham n.虚假;v.伪装 [sham]
snare n.罗网,陷阱 [snare]
stratagem n.谋略,策略 [strat-a-gem]
veneer n.(镶于劣质东西上的)镶面板;外表 [ve-neer]
abuse v./n.辱骂; 滥用 [a-buse]
ambush v.埋伏;伏击 [am-bush]
betray v.背叛;暴露 [be-tray]
bilk v.躲债;骗取 [bilk]
brace v.使稳固,架稳;n.支撑物 [brace]
cajole v.(以甜言蜜语)哄骗 [ca-jole]
circumvent v.回避;用计谋战胜或规避 [cir-cum-vent]
conjure v.恳求,祈求;变魔术,变戏法 [con-jure]
counterfeit v.伪造,仿造 [coun-ter-feit]
defraud v.欺骗某人 [de-fraud]
delude v.欺骗,哄骗 [de-lude]
disguise v.假扮;掩饰 [dis-guise]
dissemble v.隐藏,掩饰(感受、意图) [dis-sem-ble]
divert v.使某事物转向;使娱乐 [di-vert]
enmesh v.通常被动)绊住,陷入网 [en-mesh]
entangle v.使纠缠,卷入 [en-tan-gle]
feint v./n.佯攻,佯击 [feint]
flatter v.恭维,奉承 [flat-ter]
hoodwink v.蒙混,欺骗 [hood-wink]
inveigle v.诱骗,诱使 [in-vei-gle]
kidnap v.诱拐,绑架,勒赎 [kid-nap]
misinform v.向…提供错误信息 [mis-in-form]
mock v.嘲笑;模仿地嘲弄 [mock]
overreach v.做事过头 [o-ver-reach]
spoof v.揶揄,嘲讽 [spoof]
swindle v.诈骗 [swin-dle]
victimize v.使受害,迫害 [vic-tim-ize]

untruth 546

fictitious a.假的;虚构的 [fic-ti-tious]
illusory a.虚幻的 [il-lu-so-ry]
surreptitious a.鬼鬼祟祟的 [sur-rep-ti-tious]
unfounded a.无事实根据的 [un-found-ed]
evasion n.躲避,借口 [e-va-sion]
exaggeration n.夸张 [ex-ag-ger-a-tion]
falsehood n.谎言 [false-hood]
farce n.闹剧;荒谬胡闹 [farce]
forgery n.伪造(物) [for-ger-y]
gloss n.光泽;注解 [gloss]
irony n.反话 [i-ro-ny]
misrepresentation n.歪曲 [mis-rep-re-sen-ta-tion]
pretext n.借口 [pre-text]
sham n.虚假;v.伪装 [sham]
subterfuge n.诡计,托辞 [sub-ter-fuge]
disguise v.假扮;掩饰 [dis-guise]

dupe 547

credulous a.轻信的,易信的 [cred-u-lous]
dupe n.易上当的人 [dupe]

deceiver 548

charlatan n.江湖郎中,骗子 [char-la-tan]
fraud n.欺诈,欺骗;骗子 [fraud]
hypocrite n.伪善者,伪君子 [hyp-o-crite]
jockey n.骑师;v.用计谋获取 [jock-ey]
knave n.流氓,恶棍 [knave]
quack n.冒充内行之人;庸医 [quack]

exaggeration 549

bombastic a.夸夸其谈的 [bom-bas-tic]
egregious a.(缺点等)过分的,惊人的 [e-gre-gious]
overwrought a.紧张过度的 [o-ver-wrought]
preposterous a.荒谬的 [pre-pos-ter-ous]
caricature n.讽刺画;滑稽模仿 [car-i-ca-ture]
exaggeration n.夸张 [ex-ag-ger-a-tion]
extravagance n.奢侈,挥霍 [ex-trav-a-gance]
fringe n.(窗帘等)须边;边缘 [fringe]
hyperbole n.夸张法;a.夸张的 [hy-per-bo-le]
yarn n.纱线 [yarn]
aggravate v.加重,恶化 [ag-gra-vate]
amplify v.放大;详述 [am-pli-fy]
exaggerate v.夸张;夸大 [ex-ag-ger-ate]
flourish v.昌盛,兴旺;活跃而有影响 [flour-ish]
magnify v.放大;赞美 [mag-ni-fy]
overstate v.夸张,对…言过其实 [o-ver-state]
rant v.咆哮;口出狂言 [rant]
stretch v.变长;伸展 [stretch]

Section III. Means of Communicating Ideas

1. Natural Means

indication 550

attest (to)v.证明 [at-test]
characteristic a.有特色的;典型性的;n.与众不同的特征 [char-ac-ter-is-tic]
demonstrative a.证明性的;喜怒形于色的 [de-mon-stra-tive]
emblematic a.作为象征的 [em-blem-at-ic]
indelible a.擦拭不掉的,不可磨灭的 [in-del-i-ble]
indicative a.暗示的 [in-dic-a-tive]
individual a.单独的,特有的;n.个人,个体 [in-di-vid-u-al]
marked a.明显的;被监视的 [marked]
apostrophe n.书写中撇号(’)(表示省略或所有格) [a-pos-tro-phe]
asterisk n.星号 [as-ter-isk]
badge n.徽章(如校徽等) [badge]
beacon n.烽火;灯塔 [bea-con]
brand n.商标;烙印;v.在某事物上打烙印 [brand]
chip n.薄片,碎片;集成电路片 [chip]
cipher n.零;无影响力的人;密码 [ci-pher]
colon n.冒号 [co-lon]
comma n.逗号 [com-ma]
crest n.山顶,浪尖;羽冠 [crest]
criterion n.评判的标准,尺度 [cri-te-ri-on]
ensign n.舰旗(船上表示所属国家的旗帜) [en-sign]
epaulet n.肩章,肩饰 [ep-au-let]
exponent n.说明者,支持者;指数 [ex-po-nent]
exposition n.阐释;博览会 [ex-po-si-tion]
feature n.特色,特点,特征 [fea-ture]
figurehead n.名义领袖;傀儡 [fig-ure-head]
gauge n.标准规格;测量仪;v.测量 [gauge]
gesture n.姿势,手势,姿态 [ges-ture]
hyphen n.连字号(即“-”) [hy-phen]
impression n.印象,感想;盖印,压痕 [im-pres-sion]
insignia n.徽章,袖章 [in-sig-ni-a]
landmark n.陆标;里程碑 [land-mark]
milestone n.里程碑;转折点 [mile-stone]
motto n.座右铭;箴言 [mot-to]
nick n.小伤口,刻痕 [nick]
notch n.V字形刻痕 [notch]
pantomime n.哑剧 [pan-to-mime]
pennant n.(船上用的)信号旗 [pen-nant]
score n.乐谱 [score]
shield n.盾;v.掩护,遮挡 [shield]
signal n.信号;v.发信号;a.显著的 [sig-nal]
stereotype n.固定形式,老套 [ste-re-o-type]
streak n.线条,条纹;v.加线条 [streak]
totem n.图腾,徽章 [to-tem]
trait n.人的显著特性 [trait]
trophy n.奖品,战利品 [tro-phy]
uniform n.制服;a.相同的,一致的 [u-ni-form]
witness n.目击者;v.目击 [wit-ness]
address v.处理,对付,着手解决;致词 [ad-dress]
check v.使突然停止,阻止 [check]
cue v.暗示,提示;n.暗示,提示 [cue]
denote v.表示;指示意义 [de-note]
engrave v.在(硬物)上雕刻 [en-grave]
flag v.减弱,衰退;枯萎 [flag]
glance v./n.一瞥 [glance]
imprint v.盖印,刻印 [im-print]
indicate v.显示,指出;象征 [in-di-cate]
leer v.斜眼看,送秋波 [leer]
nudge v.(用肘)轻触,轻推 [nudge]
shrug v.耸肩(表示怀疑等) [shrug]
stamp v./n.跺脚;在…上盖印 [stamp]
stroke v.抚摸;n.击,打;一笔 [stroke]
tally v.(使)一致,符合 [tal-ly]
testify v.见证,证实 [tes-ti-fy]
underscore v.在…之下划线;强调 [un-der-score]
wink v.使眼色;n.眨眼 [wink]

record 551

affidavit n.宣誓书 [af-fi-da-vit]
annals n.编年史 [an-nals]
archive n.档案室 [ar-chive]
deed n.行为;(土地或建筑物的)转让契约、证书 [deed]
deposition n.免职;沉积;作证 [dep-o-si-tion]
entry n.条目;登录;报关手续;入口 [en-try]
file n.锉刀;v.锉平 [file]
gazetteer n.地名词典,地名表 [gaz-et-teer]
ledger n.账簿 [ledg-er]
legend n.地图里的说明文字或图例 [leg-end]
log n./v.日志,记录;n.一段大木头;圆木 [log]
medal n.奖牌,勋章 [med-al]
memorial n.纪念碑,纪念物;a.纪念的,悼念的 [me-mo-ri-al]
notch n.V字形刻痕 [notch]
pillar n.柱子 [pil-lar]
portfolio n.文件夹;股份单 [port-fo-li-o]
relic n.遗物,遗迹 [rel-ic]
remains n.遗址,废墟 [re-mains]
scroll n.卷轴,纸卷;画卷 [scroll]
slab n.厚板,厚块 [slab]
trophy n.奖品,战利品 [tro-phy]
vestige n.痕迹,遗迹 [ves-tige]
commemorate v.纪念(伟人、大事件等) [com-mem-o-rate]
document v.为…提供书面证明 [doc-u-ment]
insert v.插入 [in-sert]

obliteration 552

erasure n.擦掉,擦痕 [e-ras-ure]
extinction n.熄灭;消灭 [ex-tinc-tion]
deface v.损坏 [de-face]
efface v.擦掉,抹去 [ef-face]
erase v.擦掉,抹去 [e-rase]
expunge v.删除 [ex-punge]
obliterate v.涂掉,擦掉 [o-blit-e-rate]

representation 554

figurative a.比喻的,借喻的 [fig-ur-a-tive]
graphic a.图表的;生动的 [graph-ic]
imitative a.模仿的 [im-i-ta-tive]
bust n.半身(雕)像 [bust]
daguerreotype n.(早期)银版照相 [da-guerre-o-type]
diagram n.图解,图表 [di-a-gram]
draft n.草稿,草案;汇票 [draft]
drought n.干旱;干旱时期 [drought]
figurine n.小塑像,小雕像 [fig-u-rine]
hieroglyphic n.象形文字 [hi-er-o-glyph-ic]
icon n.圣像,偶像 [i-con]
imitation n.赝品;效法,冒充 [im-i-ta-tion]
marionette n.木偶 [mar-i-on-ette]
mold n.模子;(美)霉;v.塑造 [mold]
outline n.轮廓;梗概 [out-line]
personification n.典型,化身,完美榜样 [per-son-i-fi-ca-tion]
plot n.情节;阴谋;策划 [plot]
projection n.凸出物 [pro-jec-tion]
scheme n.阴谋;(作品等)体系,结构 [scheme]
adumbrate v.(对将来事件)预示 [ad-um-brate]
carve v.雕刻 [carve]
delineate v.描画 [de-lin-e-ate]
depict v.描绘,描画 [de-pict]
engrave v.在(硬物)上雕刻 [en-grave]
illustrate v.为…作插图或图表;说明,阐明 [il-lus-trate]
impersonate v.模仿;扮演 [im-per-son-ate]
mimic v.模仿,戏弄;n.模仿他人言行的人 [mim-ic]
portray v.描绘,描述 [por-tray]

misrepresentation 555

burlesque n.讽刺或滑稽的戏剧 [bur-lesque]
caricature n.讽刺画;滑稽模仿 [car-i-ca-ture]
exaggeration n.夸张 [ex-ag-ger-a-tion]
lampoon n.讽刺文章;v.讽刺 [lam-poon]
misrepresentation n.歪曲 [mis-rep-re-sen-ta-tion]
parody n.模仿性嘲弄文章或表演;拙劣的模仿 [par-o-dy]
distort v.扭曲,弄歪 [dis-tort]
exaggerate v.夸张;夸大 [ex-ag-ger-ate]
misrepresent v.误传,歪曲 [mis-rep-re-sent]
travesty v./n.歪曲模仿,曲解 [trav-es-ty]

painting 556

graphic a.图表的;生动的 [graph-ic]
monochrome a.单色的,单色画的 [mon-o-chrome]
pictorial a.绘画的;有图片的,用图片表示的 [pic-to-ri-al]
canvas n.画布;帆布 [can-vas]
cartoon n.漫画 [car-toon]
daguerreotype n.(早期)银版照相 [da-guerre-o-type]
draft n.草稿,草案;汇票 [draft]
easel n.黑板,画架 [ea-sel]
enamel n.珐琅,瓷釉 [e-nam-el]
etching n.蚀刻术;蚀刻板画 [etch-ing]
fresco n.壁画 [fres-co]
genre n.(文艺的)类型 [gen-re]
hatch n.船舱盖;v.孵化 [hatch]
miniature n.小画像;缩影 [min-i-a-ture]
mosaic n.马赛克;镶嵌细工(把小块玻璃石头等镶嵌成图画) [mo-sa-ic]
outline n.轮廓;梗概 [out-line]
palette n.调色板,颜料配置 [pal-ette]
panorama n.概观,全景 [pan-o-ra-ma]
pastel n.彩色粉笔或蜡笔画;柔和的色彩 [pas-tel]
perspective n.(判断事物的)角度,方法;透视法 [per-spec-tive]
profile n.外形;轮廓侧面像 [pro-file]
school n.鱼群 [school]
stencil n.(用以刻写图案、文字的)模板;v.用模板刻写 [sten-cil]
tapestry n.挂毯 [tap-es-try]
varnish n.清漆;v.涂上清漆 [var-nish]
depict v.描绘,描画 [de-pict]
prospect v.勘探;n.期望;前景 [pros-pect]
stipple v.点画,点描 [stip-ple]

sculpture 557

cameo n.浮雕宝石;生动刻画;(演员)出演 [cam-e-o]
cast n.演员阵容;剧团;v.扔;铸造 [cast]
ceramic n.陶瓷制品;a.陶器的 [ce-ram-ic]
chisel n.凿子;v.凿;欺骗 [chis-el]
enamel n.珐琅,瓷釉 [e-nam-el]
marble n.大理石 [mar-ble]
medal n.奖牌,勋章 [med-al]
mold n.模子;(美)霉;v.塑造 [mold]
porcelain n.瓷;瓷器 [por-ce-lain]
pottery n.制陶;陶器 [pot-ter-y]
statuary n.雕像;雕塑艺术 [stat-u-ar-y]
carve v.雕刻 [carve]

engraving 558

grave a.严峻的;n.墓穴 [gra-ve]
die n.金属模子,印模 [die]
etching n.蚀刻术;蚀刻板画 [etch-ing]
impression n.印象,感想;盖印,压痕 [im-pres-sion]
stereotype n.固定形式,老套 [ste-re-o-type]
engrave v.在(硬物)上雕刻 [en-grave]
etch v.蚀刻);铭记 [etch]
punch v.以拳猛击;打洞 [punch]
stamp v./n.跺脚;在…上盖印 [stamp]
stipple v.点画,点描 [stip-ple]

artist 559

designer n.设计者,构思者 [de-sign-er]
enamel n.珐琅,瓷釉 [e-nam-el]
sculptor n.雕刻家 [sculp-tor]
statuary n.雕像;雕塑艺术 [stat-u-ar-y]
hack v.乱劈,乱砍;n.雇佣文人 [hack]

2. Conventional Means

1. Language Generally

language 560

bilingual a.(说)两种语言的 [bi-lin-gual]
linguistic a.语言的 [lin-guis-tic]
dialect n.方言 [di-a-lect]
linguistics n.语言学 [lin-guis-tics]
pantomime n.哑剧 [pan-to-mime]
vernacular n.本国语,地方语 [ver-nac-u-lar]

letter 561

alphabetical a.按字母表顺序的 [al-pha-bet-i-cal]
consonant a.调和的,一致的 [con-so-nant]
liquid a.清澈的 [liq-uid]
literal a.字面上的;忠实原义的;精确的 [lit-er-al]
minuscule a.极小的 [mi-nus-cule]
mute a.沉默的;v.减弱声音;n.弱音器 [mute]
anagram n.变形词 [an-a-gram]
cipher n.零;无影响力的人;密码 [ci-pher]
hieroglyphic n.象形文字 [hi-er-o-glyph-ic]
spell n.连续的一段时间 [spell]
affix v.粘上,贴上;在合同上添写某事物;n.词缀 [af-fix]

word 562

derivative a.派生的;无创意的 [de-riv-a-tive]
literal a.字面上的;忠实原义的;精确的 [lit-er-al]
nominal a.名义上的,有名无实的 [nom-i-nal]
titular a.有名无实的,名义上的 [tit-u-lar]
verbal a.口头的;与言辞有关的 [ver-bal]
derivation n.发展,起源;词源 [der-i-va-tion]
etymology n.语源学 [et-y-mol-o-gy]
glossary n.词汇表;难词表 [glos-sa-ry]

neologism 563

colloquial a.口语的,口头的 [col-lo-qui-al]
obsolete a.废弃的;过时的 [ob-so-lete]
anagram n.变形词 [an-a-gram]
argot n.隐语,黑话 [ar-got]
cant n.斜坡,斜面;隐语,术语,黑话;v.使倾斜 [cant]
dialect n.方言 [di-a-lect]
idiom n.习语,语言的习惯用法;特色 [id-i-om]
jargon n.暗语;行话 [jar-gon]
malapropism n.字的误用 [mal-a-prop-ism]
neologism n.新字,新义 [ne-ol-o-gism]
pseudonym n.假名,笔名 [pseu-do-nym]
pun n.双关语 [pun]
vernacular n.本国语,地方语 [ver-nac-u-lar]
clinch v.钉牢;彻底解决 [clinch]

nomenclature 564

nominal a.名义上的,有名无实的 [nom-i-nal]
titular a.有名无实的,名义上的 [tit-u-lar]
cant n.斜坡,斜面;隐语,术语,黑话;v.使倾斜 [cant]
caption n.标题 [cap-tion]
denomination n.命名;(长度,币值的)单位 [de-nom-i-na-tion]
designation n.指定;名称,称呼 [des-ig-na-tion]
epithet n.(贬低人的)短语或形容词 [ep-i-thet]
characterize v.描述或刻画…的特点 [char-ac-ter-ize]
entitle v.使有权(做某事) [en-ti-tle]

misnomer 565

anonymous a.匿名的 [a-non-y-mous]
alias n.化名,别名 [a-li-as]
misnomer n.名字的误用 [mis-no-mer]
pseudonym n.假名,笔名 [pseu-do-nym]

phrase 566

idiom n.习语,语言的习惯用法;特色 [id-i-om]
motto n.座右铭;箴言 [mot-to]
paraphrase v.传译,释义 [par-a-phrase]

grammar 567

parse v.对…作语法分析 [parse]

perspicuity 570

exact a.精确的;v.强求,强索付款 [ex-act]
explicit a.清楚明确的 [ex-plic-it]
lucid a.表达清楚的,明白易懂的 [lu-cid]
definition n.(轮廓等)清晰;定义 [def-i-ni-tion]
perspicuity n.明晰;聪明睿智 [per-spi-cu-i-ty]

obscurity 571

crabbed a.暴躁的 [crab-bed]
obscure a.难理解的;不清楚的;v.隐藏;使…模糊 [ob-scure]
obscurity n.费解,不出名 [ob-scu-ri-ty]

conciseness 572

summarily adv.概括地;仓促地 [sum-mar-i-ly]
compact a.结实的;简洁的;n.合同,协议 [com-pact]
concise a.简洁的 [con-cise]
curt a.(言词、行为)简略而草率的 [curt]
elliptical a.椭圆的;晦涩的;省略的 [el-lip-ti-cal]
exact a.精确的;v.强求,强索付款 [ex-act]
laconic a.简洁的 [la-con-ic]
pithy a.(讲话或文章)简练的 [pith-y]
pregnant a.怀孕的;充满的 [preg-nant]
quaint a.离奇有趣的 [quaint]
succinct a.简明的,简洁的 [suc-cinct]
terse a.简洁的,简明的 [terse]
trenchant a.一针见血的 [trench-ant]
abstract n.摘要;a.抽象的 [ab-stract]
ellipsis n.省略 [el-lip-sis]
epitome n.典型;梗概 [e-pit-o-me]
summary n.摘要,概要;a.摘要的,简略的 [sum-ma-ry]
abridge v.删减;缩短 [a-bridge]
condense v.浓缩 [con-dense]

diffuseness 573

copious a.丰富的,多产的 [co-pi-ous]
discursive a.散漫的,无层次的 [dis-cur-sive]
excursive a.离题的,随意的 [ex-cur-sive]
exuberant a.(人)充满活力的(植物)茂盛的 [ex-u-ber-ant]
frothy a.起泡的;空洞的 [froth-y]
long-winded a.冗长的 [long-wind-ed]
profuse a.很多的;浪费的 [pro-fuse]
prolix a.啰嗦的,冗长的 [pro-lix]
verbose a.冗长的,罗嗦的 [ver-bose]
circumlocution n.迂回累赘的陈述 [cir-cum-lo-cu-tion]
exuberance n.愉快;茁壮 [ex-u-ber-ance]
prolixity n.罗嗦 [pro-lix-i-ty]
prose n.散文 [prose]
ramble n./v.漫步 [ram-ble]
redundancy n.过剩;备份;似乎多余其实重要的后备力量 [re-dun-dan-cy]
verbiage n.罗嗦,冗长 [ver-bi-age]
amplify v.放大;详述 [am-pli-fy]
diffuse v.散布,(光等)漫射;a.漫射的,散漫的 [dif-fuse]
digress v.离题 [di-gress]
dilate v.(身体某部位)张大,扩大 [di-late]
expand v.扩大,膨胀 [ex-pand]
inflate v.使充气,使膨胀 [in-flate]
protract v.延长,拖长 [pro-tract]
rant v.咆哮;口出狂言 [rant]

vigor 574

glowing a.热情赞扬的 [glow-ing]
impassioned a.慷慨激昂的 [im-pas-sioned]
incisive a.一针见血的 [in-ci-sive]
intellectual a.智力的,理智的;n.知识分子 [in-tel-lec-tu-al]
lofty a.崇高的,高尚的 [loft-y]
petulant a.性急的,暴躁的 [pet-u-lant]
piquant a.辛辣的,开胃的;兴奋的 [pi-quant]
pithy a.(讲话或文章)简练的 [pith-y]
pungent a.味道刺激的;苛刻的 [pun-gent]
racy a.活泼的,生动的 [rac-y]
sublime a.崇高的 [sub-lime]
trenchant a.一针见血的 [trench-ant]
vigorous a.精力旺盛的,健壮的 [vig-or-ous]
antithesis n.对立;相对 [an-tith-e-sis]
eloquence n.雄辩,精彩演讲 [el-o-quence]
gravity n.严肃,正经 [grav-i-ty]
verve n.(艺术作品的)神韵;(人)生机 [verve]
glow v./n.光亮,发热;(脸)红 [glow]

feebleness 575

bland a.(人)情绪平稳的;(食物)无味的 [bland]
dull a.不鲜明的;迟钝的;v.变迟钝 [dull]
feeble a.虚弱的 [fee-ble]
frigid a.寒冷的;死板的 [frig-id]
jejune a.空洞的;不成熟的 [je-june]
languid a.没精打采的,倦怠的 [lan-guid]
lukewarm a.微温的,不热心的 [luke-warm]
meager a.贫乏的;削瘦的 [mea-ger]
monotonous a.单调的,无聊的 [mo-not-o-nous]
prosaic a.单调的,无趣的 [pro-sa-ic]
puerile a.幼稚的;儿童的 [pu-er-ile]
sketchy a.概略的,粗略的 [sketch-y]
slight a.微小的;n./v.轻蔑 [slight]
slipshod a.马虎的,草率的 [slip-shod]
tame a.驯服的;沉闷的 [tame]
vapid a.索然无味的 [vap-id]

plainness 576

chaste a.贞洁的;朴实的 [chaste]
commonplace a.平常的 [com-mon-place]
monotonous a.单调的,无聊的 [mo-not-o-nous]
plain a.简单的;清楚的;n.平原 [plain]
prosaic a.单调的,无趣的 [pro-sa-ic]
severe a.严格的;凶猛的 [se-vere]

ornament 577

artificial a.人造的,假的 [ar-ti-fi-cial]
bombastic a.夸夸其谈的 [bom-bas-tic]
figurative a.比喻的,借喻的 [fig-ur-a-tive]
florid a.华丽的;(脸)红润的 [flor-id]
frothy a.起泡的;空洞的 [froth-y]
grandiose a.宏伟的;夸大的 [gran-di-ose]
ornate a.华美的;充满装饰的 [or-nate]
pompous a.自大的 [pomp-ous]
stilted a.(文章,谈话)不自然的;夸张的 [stilt-ed]
turgid a.浮肿的,肿胀的;浮夸的 [tur-gid]
antithesis n.对立;相对 [an-tith-e-sis]
bombast n.高调,夸大之辞 [bom-bast]
declamation n.雄辩,高调 [dec-la-ma-tion]
euphemism n.婉言,委婉的说法 [eu-phe-mism]
pretension n.自命不凡,夸耀 [pre-ten-sion]
flourish v.昌盛,兴旺;活跃而有影响 [flour-ish]
rant v.咆哮;口出狂言 [rant]

elegance 578

chaste a.贞洁的;朴实的 [chaste]
euphonious a.悦耳的 [eu-pho-ni-ous]
felicitous a.(话语等)适当的,得体的 [fe-lic-i-tous]
mellifluous a.(音乐等)柔美流畅的 [mel-lif-lu-ous]
unaffected a.自然的,不矫揉造作的 [un-af-fect-ed]
antithesis n.对立;相对 [an-tith-e-sis]
euphemism n.婉言,委婉的说法 [eu-phe-mism]
grace n.优美 [grace]
purity n.纯洁,纯净;纯度 [pu-ri-ty]

inelegance 579

affected a.不自然的;假装的 [af-fect-ed]
artificial a.人造的,假的 [ar-ti-fi-cial]
awkward a.笨拙的;难用的;不便的 [awk-ward]
barbarous a.野蛮的;残暴的 [bar-ba-rous]
halting a.踌躇的,吞吞吐吐的 [halt-ing]
harsh a.严厉的;粗糙的;刺耳的 [harsh]
labored a.吃力的;(文体等)不自然的 [la-bored]
mannered a.做作的 [man-nered]
ponderous a.笨重的,笨拙的 [pon-der-ous]
stiff a.僵直的,呆板的,严厉的 [stiff]
turgid a.浮肿的,肿胀的;浮夸的 [tur-gid]
uncouth a.粗野笨拙的 [un-couth]
cacophony n.难听的声音 [ca-coph-o-ny]

2. Spoken Language

voice 580

distinct a.清楚的,明显的 [dis-tinct]
euphonious a.悦耳的 [eu-pho-ni-ous]
phonetic a.语音的 [pho-net-ic]
utter a.完全的;v.发出声音 [ut-ter]
exclamation n.惊叹词,惊呼 [ex-cla-ma-tion]
ventriloquist n.口技表演者,会口技的人 [ven-tril-o-quist]
accentuate v.重读;强调 [ac-cen-tu-ate]
articulate v.清楚说话 [ar-tic-u-late]
enunciate v.发音;(清楚地)表达 [e-nun-ci-ate]

aphony 581

husky a.声音沙哑的 [husk-y]
mute a.沉默的;v.减弱声音;n.弱音器 [mute]
raucous a.(声音)沙哑的,粗糙的 [rau-cous]
sepulchral a.坟墓的;阴深的 [se-pul-chral]
dummy n.人体模型,假人 [dum-my]
muffle v.使声音降低;裹住 [muf-fle]
smother v.覆盖;(使)闷死 [smoth-er]
whisper v.耳语,低声说话 [whis-per]

speech 582

outspoken a.直言不讳的 [out-spo-ken]
phonetic a.语音的 [pho-net-ic]
utter a.完全的;v.发出声音 [ut-ter]
declamation n.雄辩,高调 [dec-la-ma-tion]
discourse n.演讲,论述 [dis-course]
elocution n.演说术 [el-o-cu-tion]
eloquence n.雄辩,精彩演讲 [el-o-quence]
harangue n.长篇指责性演说 [ha-rangue]
oration n.正式演说,演讲 [o-ra-tion]
oratory n.演讲术 [or-a-to-ry]
parlance n.说法,用语,词汇 [par-lance]
rave n.热切赞扬;v.狂语 [rave]
rhetoric n.修辞学,浮夸的言语 [rhet-o-ric]
sermon n.布道;说教,训诫 [ser-mon]
tirade n.长篇的攻击性讲话 [ti-rade]
declaim v.高谈阔论 [de-claim]
flourish v.昌盛,兴旺;活跃而有影响 [flour-ish]
rant v.咆哮;口出狂言 [rant]

stammering 583

affected a.不自然的;假装的 [af-fect-ed]
croak n.蛙鸣声;v.发牢骚,抱怨 [croak]
hammer n.锤子,槌 [ham-mer]
stutter n./v.口吃,结巴 [stut-ter]
drawl v./n.慢吞吞地说话(态度) [drawl]
falter v.摇晃,蹒跚;支吾地说 [fal-ter]
jabber v.快而不清楚地说 [jab-ber]
mince v.切碎;小步走路 [mince]
muffle v.使声音降低;裹住 [muf-fle]
mumble v.咕哝,含糊不清地说 [mum-ble]
mutter v.咕哝,嘀咕 [mut-ter]
stammer v.口吃,结巴 [stam-mer]
whisper v.耳语,低声说话 [whis-per]

loquacity 584

flippant a.无礼的;轻率的 [flip-pant]
garrulous a.唠叨的,多话的 [gar-ru-lous]
glib a.流利圆滑的,善辩的 [glib]
loquacious a.多嘴的,饶舌的 [lo-qua-cious]
voluble a.健谈的;易旋转的 [vol-u-ble]
garrulity n.唠叨,饶舌 [gar-ru-li-ty]
magpie n.鹊;饶舌的人 [mag-pie]
poll n.民意测验;选举投票 [poll]
prose n.散文 [prose]
babble v.胡言乱语;牙牙学语;喋喋不休 [bab-ble]
jabber v.快而不清楚地说 [jab-ber]
prate v.瞎扯,胡说 [prate]
rattle v.使格格作响;使慌乱 [rat-tle]

taciturnity 585

curt a.(言词、行为)简略而草率的 [curt]
mute a.沉默的;v.减弱声音;n.弱音器 [mute]
reticent a.沉默不语的 [ret-i-cent]
taciturn a.沉默寡言的 [tac-i-turn]
reserve n.储备(物),储藏量;缄默,谨慎;v.保留,储备,预订 [re-serve]
hush v./n.肃静,安静 [hush]

allocution 586

apostrophe n.书写中撇号(’)(表示省略或所有格) [a-pos-tro-phe]
audience n.听众,观众;读者 [au-di-ence]
salutation n.招呼,致意,敬礼 [sal-u-ta-tion]
accost v.搭话 [ac-cost]
address v.处理,对付,着手解决;致词 [ad-dress]
appeal v.恳求;吸引;上诉 [ap-peal]
invoke v.祈求;恳求;(法律的)实施生效 [in-voke]
salute v.行举手礼;向…致意;n.敬礼 [sa-lu-te]

conversation 588

colloquial a.口语的,口头的 [col-lo-qui-al]
discursive a.散漫的,无层次的 [dis-cur-sive]
audience n.听众,观众;读者 [au-di-ence]
conference n.讨论会,协商会 [con-fer-ence]
debate n.正式的辩论,讨论 [de-bate]
discourse n.演讲,论述 [dis-course]
babble v.胡言乱语;牙牙学语;喋喋不休 [bab-ble]
converse v.谈话;a.逆向的n.相反的事物 [con-verse]
prate v.瞎扯,胡说 [prate]

soliloquy 589

apostrophe n.书写中撇号(’)(表示省略或所有格) [a-pos-tro-phe]
monologue n.独白;个人长篇演说 [mon-o-logue]

3. Written Language

writing 590

manifold a.繁多的;多种的 [man-i-fold]
calligraphy n.书法 [cal-lig-ra-phy]
draft n.草稿,草案;汇票 [draft]
hieroglyphic n.象形文字 [hi-er-o-glyph-ic]
manuscript n.手稿;手抄本 [man-u-script]
marble n.大理石 [mar-ble]
papyrus n.莎草;莎草纸 [pa-py-rus]
pen n.围栏;监禁;母天鹅 [pen]
pillar n.柱子 [pil-lar]
quill n.(豪猪等动物的)刺 [quill]
script n.剧本,脚本 [script]
slate n.石板;候选人名单;v.提名 [slate]
compose v.写,创作;组成 [com-pose]
dictate v.口述;命令 [dic-tate]
engross v.全神贯注于 [en-gross]
inscribe v.在某物上写,题 [in-scribe]
scrawl v.潦草地写,乱涂 [scrawl]
scribble v.乱写,乱涂 [scrib-ble]
table v.搁置,不加考虑 [ta-ble]
transcribe v.抄写,转录 [tran-scribe]

printing 591

bourgeois a.中产阶级的;自私拜物的 [bour-geois]
typographical a.印刷上的 [ty-po-graph-i-cal]
context n.(语句等的)上下文 [con-text]
impression n.印象,感想;盖印,压痕 [im-pres-sion]
justification n.正当理由,好的(正义的)原因;辨护 [jus-ti-fi-ca-tion]
matrix n.模子;矩阵 [ma-trix]
revise n./v.改变,修正 [re-vise]
scale n.鱼鳞;(音乐)音阶 [scale]
shoulder n.肩;路肩 [shoul-der]
stereotype n.固定形式,老套 [ste-re-o-type]
compose v.写,创作;组成 [com-pose]
distribute v.分发,分配某事物 [dis-trib-ute]
offset v.补偿,抵消 [off-set]

correspondence 592

circular a.圆形的 [cir-cu-lar]
dispatch v.派遣;一下子做完;吃完;n.迅速 [dis-patch]

book 593

circular a.圆形的 [cir-cu-lar]
serial a.连续的,一系列的 [se-ri-al]
bibliography n.文献学;参考书目 [bib-li-og-ra-phy]
brochure n.小册子,说明书 [bro-chure]
clause n.从句;(法律等)条款 [clause]
encyclopedia n.百科全书 [en-cy-clo-pe-di-a]
libretto n.(歌剧等)歌词;剧本 [li-bret-to]
pamphlet n.小册子 [pam-phlet]
pen n.围栏;监禁;母天鹅 [pen]
periodical n.期刊 [pe-ri-od-i-cal]
portfolio n.文件夹;股份单 [port-fo-li-o]
ream n.令(纸张的计数单位) [ream]
tract n.传单;大片土地 [tract]
treatise n.论文 [trea-tise]
issue v.出来,流出;发给,分发;n.(书刊的)期 [is-sue]
press v.挤压 [press]

description 594

graphic a.图表的;生动的 [graph-ic]
narrative a.叙述的,讲故事的 [nar-ra-tive]
suggestive a.暗示的 [sug-ges-tive]
anecdote n.短故事;轶事 [an-ec-dote]
annals n.编年史 [an-nals]
autobiography n.自传 [au-to-bi-og-ra-phy]
epic n.叙事诗,史诗;a.英雄的;大规模的 [ep-ic]
legend n.地图里的说明文字或图例 [leg-end]
memoir n.回忆录,自传;记事录 [mem-oir]
obituary n.讣闻,讣告 [o-bi-tu-ar-y]
parable n.寓言,比喻 [par-a-ble]
raconteur n.善于讲故事的人 [rac-on-teur]
recital n.独奏;吟诵 [re-cit-al]
rehearsal n.排演,演习 [re-hears-al]
trait n.人的显著特性 [trait]
characterize v.描述或刻画…的特点 [char-ac-ter-ize]
particularize v.详述,列举 [par-tic-u-lar-ize]
portray v.描绘,描述 [por-tray]
recapitulate v.扼要重述 [re-ca-pit-u-late]
rehearse v.排练,预演;详述 [re-hearse]
relate v.讲述;有关联 [re-late]

dissertation 595

discursive a.散漫的,无层次的 [dis-cur-sive]
expository a.说明的 [ex-pos-i-to-ry]
commentary n.实况报道;(对书等的)集注 [com-men-tar-y]
critic n.批评者 [crit-ic]
critique n.批评性的分析 [cri-tique]
discourse n.演讲,论述 [dis-course]
dissertation n.专题论文 [dis-ser-ta-tion]
exposition n.阐释;博览会 [ex-po-si-tion]
memoir n.回忆录,自传;记事录 [mem-oir]
sermon n.布道;说教,训诫 [ser-mon]
thesis n.论题,论文 [the-sis]
tract n.传单;大片土地 [tract]
treatise n.论文 [trea-tise]

compendium 596

synoptic a.摘要的 [syn-op-tic]
abstract n.摘要;a.抽象的 [ab-stract]
anthology n.诗集,文选 [an-thol-o-gy]
compendium n.简要,概略 [com-pen-di-um]
draft n.草稿,草案;汇票 [draft]
epitome n.典型;梗概 [e-pit-o-me]
summary n.摘要,概要;a.摘要的,简略的 [sum-ma-ry]
syllabus n.教学纲要 [syl-la-bus]
synopsis n.摘要,概要 [syn-op-sis]
abbreviate v.缩短;缩写 [ab-bre-vi-ate]
abridge v.删减;缩短 [a-bridge]
compile v.汇集;编辑 [com-pile]
condense v.浓缩 [con-dense]
epitomize v.概括,摘要 [e-pit-o-mize]
recapitulate v.扼要重述 [re-ca-pit-u-late]
resume v.重新开始,继续 [re-su-me]
skim v.从液体表面撇去;浏览,略读 [skim]

poetry 597

bucolic a.乡村的;牧羊的 [bu-col-ic]
lyric a.抒情的;n.抒情诗;歌词 [lyr-ic]
metrical a.测量的;韵律的 [met-ri-cal]
pastoral a.田园生活的;宁静的 [pas-to-ral]
anthology n.诗集,文选 [an-thol-o-gy]
ballad n.歌谣,小曲 [bal-lad]
bard n.吟游诗人 [bard]
canto n.(长诗的)篇 [can-to]
doggerel n.歪诗,打油诗 [dog-ger-el]
elegy n.哀歌,挽歌 [el-e-gy]
epic n.叙事诗,史诗;a.英雄的;大规模的 [ep-ic]
lullaby n.摇篮曲 [lull-a-by]
madrigal n.抒情短诗,情歌,合唱曲 [mad-ri-gal]
ode n.长诗,颂歌 [ode]
rhyme n.押韵;v.押韵 [rhyme]
sonnet n.十四行诗 [son-net]
stanza n.(诗)节,段 [stan-za]
verse n.诗歌 [verse]

prose 598

prosaic a.单调的,无趣的 [pro-sa-ic]
prose n.散文 [prose]

drama 599

offstage adv./a.台后(的),幕后(的) [off-stage]
comic a.可笑的;喜剧的;n.喜剧演员 [com-ic]
histrionic a.演戏的;剧院的 [his-tri-on-ic]
mute a.沉默的;v.减弱声音;n.弱音器 [mute]
acrobat n.特技演员,杂技演员 [ac-ro-bat]
auditorium n.礼堂;观众席 [au-di-to-ri-um]
buffoon n.演出时的丑角;粗俗而愚蠢的人 [buf-foon]
burlesque n.讽刺或滑稽的戏剧 [bur-lesque]
charade n.用动作等表演文字意义的字谜游戏 [cha-rade]
entrepreneur n.企业家,创业人 [en-tre-pre-neur]
epilogue n.收场白;尾声 [ep-i-logue]
farce n.闹剧;荒谬胡闹 [farce]
gesture n.姿势,手势,姿态 [ges-ture]
impresario n.(剧院或乐团等)经理人,主办者 [im-pre-sa-ri-o]
induction n.就职,入伍仪式;归纳 [in-duc-tion]
interlude n.(活动间的)暂时休息 [in-ter-lude]
libretto n.(歌剧等)歌词;剧本 [li-bret-to]
melodrama n.情节剧;音乐戏剧 [mel-o-dra-ma]
mime n.哑剧表演;哑剧(演员) [mime]
orchestra n.管弦乐队 [or-ches-tra]
pantomime n.哑剧 [pan-to-mime]
parquet n.镶木地板 [par-quet]
prologue n.开场白;序幕 [pro-logue]
protagonist n.提议者,支持者 [pro-tag-o-nist]
repertoire n.(剧团等)常备剧目 [rep-er-toire]
tragedy n.悲剧,惨事,灾难 [trag-e-dy]
enact v.制定(法律);扮演(角色) [en-act]
mimic v.模仿,戏弄;n.模仿他人言行的人 [mim-ic]
rant v.咆哮;口出狂言 [rant]
rehearse v.排练,预演;详述 [re-hearse]
sock v.重击,痛打 [sock]

Class V. Words Relating to the Voluntary Powers

Division I. Individual Volition

Section I. Volition in General

1. Acts Of Volition

will 600

discretionary a.自由决定的 [dis-cre-tion-ar-y]
optional a.可自由选择的 [op-tion-al]
original a.最初的,原始的;有创意的 [o-rig-i-nal]
spontaneous a.自发的;自然的 [spon-ta-ne-ous]
willful a.任性的;故意的 [will-ful]
determination n.决心;确定;预测 [de-ter-mi-na-tion]
discretion n.谨慎,审慎 [dis-cre-tion]
originality n.创造性,独特性 [o-rig-i-nal-i-ty]
spontaneity n.自然,自发 [spon-ta-ne-i-ty]
volition n.决断力,意志 [vo-li-tion]
enjoin v.命令,吩咐 [en-join]
list v./n.倾斜 [list]
settle v.安置于;决定;栖息 [set-tle]

necessity 601

impulsive a.易冲动的 [im-pul-sive]
inexorable a.不为所动的;坚决不变的 [in-ex-o-ra-ble]
instinctive a.本能的 [in-stinc-tive]
involuntary a.无意的 [in-vol-un-tar-y]
irrevocable a.无法取消的 [ir-rev-o-ca-ble]
mechanical a.机械的,机械制造的;机械似的,呆板的,体力的 [me-chan-i-cal]
unconscious a.不省人事的;未意识到的 [un-con-scious]
unwitting a.无心的,不经意的 [un-wit-ting]
compulsion n.强迫;难以抗拒的冲动 [com-pul-sion]
obligation n.责任;债务,欠的人情 [ob-li-ga-tion]
planet n.行星 [plan-et]
spell n.连续的一段时间 [spell]
compel v.强迫 [com-pel]
predestine v.注定 [pre-des-tine]

willingness 602

content a.知足的,满意的;n.内容;满意 [con-tent]
disposed a.愿意的,想干的 [dis-posed]
docile a.驯服的,听话的 [doc-ile]
earnest a.认真的 [ear-nest]
facile a.容易做的;肤浅的 [fac-ile]
favorable a.有利的;赞成的 [fa-vor-a-ble]
forward a.过激的,莽撞的 [for-ward]
genial a.愉快的,脾气好的 [ge-ni-al]
gracious a.大方的,和善的;奢华的 [gra-cious]
gratuitous a.无缘无故的;免费的 [gra-tu-i-tous]
ready a.机敏的,迅速的 [read-y]
spontaneous a.自发的;自然的 [spon-ta-ne-ous]
tractable a.易于驾驭的,温顺的 [trac-ta-ble]
alacrity n.乐意,欣然;敏捷,活泼 [a-lac-ri-ty]
animus n.敌意,憎恨 [an-i-mus]
aptitude n.适宜;才能,资质 [ap-ti-tude]
asset n.财产;可取之处 [as-set]
bent n.特长,爱好;a.弯曲的 [bent]
compliance n.顺从,遵从 [com-pli-ance]
disposition n.处理;天性,气质 [dis-po-si-tion]
goodwill n.友好 [good-will]
penchant n.爱好,嗜好 [pen-chant]
acquiesce v.勉强同意,默许 [ac-qui-esce]
humor v.纵容,迁就 [hu-mor]

unwillingness 603

adverse a.不利的,相反的;敌对 [ad-verse]
averse a.不愿的,反对的 [a-verse]
indifferent a.不感兴趣的,漠不关心的 [in-dif-fer-ent]
involuntary a.无意的 [in-vol-un-tar-y]
loath a.不情愿的,勉强的 [loath]
remiss a.疏忽的,不留心的 [re-miss]
repugnant a.令人厌恶的 [re-pug-nant]
restive a.不安静的,不安宁的 [res-tive]
slack a.懒散的,懈怠的;(绳)松弛的;v.松懈,怠惰 [slack]
delicacy n.细嫩;精致,优雅 [del-i-ca-cy]
scruple n.顾忌,迟疑;v.顾忌 [scru-ple]
avoid v.避开,躲避 [a-void]
begrudge v.吝啬,勉强给 [be-grudge]
demur v.表示异议,反对 [de-mur]
dissent v.不同意,持异议 [dis-sent]
oppose v.反对 [op-pose]
recoil v.退却,退缩 [re-coil]
shrink v.收缩,皱缩 [shrink]
swerve v.突然改变方向 [swerve]

resolution 604

definitive a.明确的,有权威的 [de-fin-i-tive]
earnest a.认真的 [ear-nest]
inexorable a.不为所动的;坚决不变的 [in-ex-o-ra-ble]
obstinate a.固执的,倔强的 [ob-sti-nate]
peremptory a.不容反抗的;专横的 [per-emp-to-ry]
relentless a.无情的,残酷的 [re-lent-less]
aplomb n.沉着,镇静 [a-plomb]
determination n.决心;确定;预测 [de-ter-mi-na-tion]
grit n.沙粒;决心,勇气;v.下定决心,咬紧牙关 [grit]
obstinacy n.固执,倔强,顽固 [ob-sti-na-cy]
pluck n.在困难面前足智多谋的勇气,胆量;精力;v.拔毛;弹拉 [pluck]
tenacity n.坚持,固执 [tenacity]

perseverance 604.a

constant a.稳定的,不变的; n.常数 [con-stant]
indefatigable a.不知疲倦的 [in-de-fat-i-ga-ble]
industrious a.勤劳的,勤勉的 [in-dus-tri-ous]
pertinacious a.固执的;无法驾御的;不妥协的 [per-ti-na-cious]
steadfast a.忠实的;不变的 [stead-fast]
sturdy a.(身体)强健的;结实的 [stur-dy]
unremitting a.不间断的,持续的 [un-re-mit-ting]
grit n.沙粒;决心,勇气;v.下定决心,咬紧牙关 [grit]
permanence n.永久,持久 [per-ma-nence]
persistence n.坚持不懈,持续 [per-sis-tence]
pluck n.在困难面前足智多谋的勇气,胆量;精力;v.拔毛;弹拉 [pluck]
sedulity n.勤奋,勤勉 [se-du-li-ty]
plod v.重步走;吃力地干 [plod]
stanch v.制止(血液),止住 [stanch]

irresolution 605

alternate a.轮流的,交替的;v.轮流,交替n.候选人,替代性选择 [al-ter-nate]
capricious a.变化无常的,任性的 [ca-pri-cious]
facile a.容易做的;肤浅的 [fac-ile]
fickle a.(爱情或友谊上)易变的,不坚定的 [fick-le]
frail a.脆弱的;不坚实的 [frail]
frothy a.起泡的;空洞的 [froth-y]
giddy a.轻浮的,不严肃的 [gid-dy]
pliant a.易受影响的;易弯的 [pli-ant]
timid a.胆怯的 [tim-id]
volatile a.反复无常的;挥发性的 [vol-a-tile]
caprice n.奇思怪想,变化无常,任性 [ca-price]
debate n.正式的辩论,讨论 [de-bate]
levity n.轻率;轻浮 [lev-i-ty]
suspense n.悬念;挂念 [sus-pense]
timidity n.胆怯 [ti-mid-i-ty]
boggle v.畏缩不前;使退缩 [bog-gle]
compromise v.妥协;危害 [com-pro-mise]
dawdle v.闲荡,虚度 [daw-dle]
demur v.表示异议,反对 [de-mur]
falter v.摇晃,蹒跚;支吾地说 [fal-ter]
fluctuate v.波动;变化 [fluc-tu-ate]
hover v.翱翔;(人)徘徊 [hov-er]
palter v.含糊其词 [pal-ter]
retract v.缩回,收回 [re-tract]
trim v.修剪;a.井井有条的 [trim]

obstinacy 606

arbitrary a.专横的,不理智的 [ar-bi-trar-y]
contumacious a.违抗的,不服从的 [con-tu-ma-cious]
dogged a.顽强的 [dog-ged]
headstrong a.刚愎自用的 [head-strong]
hidebound a.顽固的,心胸狭窄的 [hide-bound]
impervious a.不能渗透的;不为所动的 [im-per-vi-ous]
incorrigible a.积习难改的,不可救药的 [in-cor-ri-gi-ble]
inert a.惰性的;行动迟钝的 [in-ert]
inexorable a.不为所动的;坚决不变的 [in-ex-o-ra-ble]
intractable a.倔强的;难管的 [in-trac-ta-ble]
mulish a.骡一样的,执拗的 [mul-ish]
obdurate a.固执的,顽固的 [ob-du-rate]
obstinate a.固执的,倔强的 [ob-sti-nate]
refractory a.倔强的;反应迟钝的 [re-frac-to-ry]
restive a.不安静的,不安宁的 [res-tive]
stubborn a.固执的;难以改变的 [stub-born]
sulky a.生气的 [sulk-y]
sullen a.忧郁的 [sul-len]
tenacious a.坚韧不拔的 [te-na-cious]
unmoved a.无动于衷的,冷漠的;镇定的 [un-moved]
willful a.任性的;故意的 [will-ful]
bigot n.(宗教、政治等的)盲信者;心胸狭窄者 [big-ot]
dogmatism n.教条主义,武断 [dog-ma-tism]
fanatic n.狂热者 [fa-nat-ic]
infatuation n.迷恋 [in-fat-u-a-tion]
monomania n.偏狂症,狂热病 [mon-o-ma-ni-a]
obstinacy n.固执,倔强,顽固 [ob-sti-na-cy]
stickler n.坚持细节之人 [stick-ler]
tenacity n.坚持,固执 [tenacity]
zealotry n.狂热行为 [zeal-ot-ry]

tergiversation 607

ambidextrous a.十分灵巧的 [am-bi-dex-trous]
reactionary a.保守的,反动的 [re-ac-tion-ar-y]
apostasy n.背教,脱党 [a-pos-ta-sy]
apostate n.背教者;变节者 [a-pos-tate]
deserter n.背弃者,逃亡者 [de-sert-er]
recantation n.改变宗教信仰 [recantation]
renegade n.叛教者,叛徒 [ren-e-gade]
abjure v.发誓放弃 [ab-jure]
convert v.使改变(信仰等);n.改变信仰的人 [con-vert]
flinch v.畏缩,退缩 [flinch]
recall v.回想,回忆起;收回;n.唤回 [re-call]
recant v.改变,放弃(以前的信仰) [re-cant]
renounce v.(正式)放弃 [re-nounce]
rescind v.废除,取消 [re-scind]
retract v.缩回,收回 [re-tract]
swerve v.突然改变方向 [swerve]
trim v.修剪;a.井井有条的 [trim]
vacillate v.游移不定,踌躇 [vac-il-late]
waver v.摇摆,犹豫 [wa-ver]

caprice 608

arbitrary a.专横的,不理智的 [ar-bi-trar-y]
capricious a.变化无常的,任性的 [ca-pri-cious]
captious a.吹毛求疵的 [cap-tious]
eccentric a.古怪的,反常的;n.古怪的人 [ec-cen-tric]
erratic a.反复无常的;古怪的 [er-rat-ic]
fickle a.(爱情或友谊上)易变的,不坚定的 [fick-le]
frivolous a.轻薄的,轻佻的 [friv-o-lous]
giddy a.轻浮的,不严肃的 [gid-dy]
volatile a.反复无常的;挥发性的 [vol-a-tile]
whimsical a.古怪的,异想天开的 [whim-si-cal]
caprice n.奇思怪想,变化无常,任性 [ca-price]
fad n.(流行一时的)狂热,时尚 [fad]
particular n.事实,细节 [par-tic-u-lar]
prank n.恶作剧,玩笑 [prank]
quirk n.奇事;怪癖 [quirk]
vagary n.奇想,异想天开 [va-gar-y]
whim n.多变,怪念头 [whim]
whimsy n.古怪,异想天开 [whimsy]
humor v.纵容,迁就 [hu-mor]

choice 609

choice a.上等的;精选的 [choice]
eclectic a.折衷的,综合性的 [ec-lec-tic]
optional a.可自由选择的 [op-tion-al]
dilemma n.困境,左右为难 [di-lem-ma]
discretion n.谨慎,审慎 [dis-cre-tion]
eclecticism n.折衷主义 [ec-lec-ti-cism]
poll n.民意测验;选举投票 [poll]
predilection n.偏袒,爱好 [pre-di-lec-tion]
adopt v.收养;采纳 [a-dopt]
embrace v.拥抱;包含 [em-brace]
espouse v.支持,拥护 [es-pouse]
glean v.拾落穗;收集(材料等) [glean]
list v./n.倾斜 [list]
settle v.安置于;决定;栖息 [set-tle]
winnow v.把(谷物)的杂质吹掉,扬去 [win-now]

absence of choice 609.a

indifferent a.不感兴趣的,漠不关心的 [in-dif-fer-ent]
coercion n.强制,高压统治 [co-er-cion]

rejection 610

cast n.演员阵容;剧团;v.扔;铸造 [cast]
pluck n.在困难面前足智多谋的勇气,胆量;精力;v.拔毛;弹拉 [pluck]
decline v.拒绝;变弱,变小;n.消减 [de-cline]
discard v.扔掉,抛弃 [dis-card]
disclaim v.放弃权利;拒绝承认 [dis-claim]
exclude v.排斥;排除 [ex-clude]
repudiate v.拒绝,抛弃 [re-pu-di-ate]
spin v.旋转;纺,纺纱;n.旋转 [spin]

predetermination 611

calculated a.蓄意的 [cal-cu-lat-ed]
cunning a.善于骗人的;灵巧的;n.欺诈行为 [cun-ning]
premeditated a.预谋的,事先计划的 [pre-med-i-tat-ed]
studied a.慎重的;认真习得的 [stud-ied]
predestine v.注定 [pre-des-tine]
premeditate v.预先想过,预谋 [pre-med-i-tate]

impulse 612

offhand adv./a.事先无准备地(的);随便地(的) [off-hand]
extemporaneous a.即席的,没有准备的 [ex-tem-po-ra-ne-ous]
impromptu a.即席的,即兴的 [im-promp-tu]
improvised a.临时准备的,即席而作的 [im-pro-vised]
impulsive a.易冲动的 [im-pul-sive]
instinctive a.本能的 [in-stinc-tive]
spontaneous a.自发的;自然的 [spon-ta-ne-ous]
unpremeditated a.非预谋的 [un-pre-med-i-tat-ed]
impulse n.冲动;刺激 [im-pulse]
inspiration n.启示,灵感 [in-spi-ra-tion]
extemporize v.即席演说 [ex-tem-po-rize]
improvise v.即席而作 [im-pro-vise]

habit 613

commonplace a.平常的 [com-mon-place]
conventional a.因循守旧的,传统的 [con-ven-tion-al]
hackneyed a.陈腐的,平常的 [hack-neyed]
ingrained a.根深蒂固的 [in-grained]
inveterate a.积习已深的 [in-vet-er-ate]
permanent a.长久的,永久的 [per-ma-nent]
seasoned a.有经验的,训练有素的 [seasoned]
stock a.普通的,惯用的;n.存货 [stock]
trite a.陈腐的,陈词滥调的 [trite]
conformity n.一致,遵从;顺众 [con-form-i-ty]
etiquette n.礼仪;礼节 [et-i-quette]
groove n.凹线;(刻出的)线条;习惯 [groove]
knack n.特殊能力;窍门 [knack]
mode n.样式,时尚;模式 [mode]
prescription n.处方(上的药) [pre-scrip-tion]
seasoning n.调味品,佐料 [sea-son-ing]
vernacular n.本国语,地方语 [ver-nac-u-lar]
vogue n.时髦,时尚;a.流行的 [vogue]
frequent v.时常来访;a.惯常的 [fre-quent]
habituate v.使习惯于 [ha-bit-u-ate]
harden v.变硬,变坚强 [hard-en]
jog v.慢而平静地前进 [jog]
prevail v.战胜;盛行 [pre-vail]

desuetude 614

green a.新鲜的,未成熟的,无经验的 [green]
unwonted a.不寻常的,不习惯的 [un-wont-ed]

2. Causes of Volition

motive 615

advocate >v.拥护,支持,鼓吹;n.支持者,拥护者 [ad-vo-cate]
animate a.活的,有生命的;v.赋予生命 [an-i-mate]
disposed a.愿意的,想干的 [dis-posed]
hortative a.激励的 [hor-ta-tive]
impulsive a.易冲动的 [im-pul-sive]
incendiary a.放火的,纵火的 [in-cen-di-ar-y]
inspired a.有创见的,有灵感的 [in-spired]
advocacy n.拥护,支持 [ad-vo-ca-cy]
bait n.诱饵;v.逗弄;激怒 [bait]
blandishment n.奉承,甘言劝诱 [blan-dish-ment]
charm n.魅力;咒语,咒符 [charm]
court n.法庭,法院;宫廷,朝廷;v.献殷勤;追求 [court]
goad n.赶牛棒;v./n.刺激,激励 [goad]
impulse n.冲动;刺激 [im-pulse]
incentive n.刺激,鼓励;刺激因素 [in-cen-tive]
inspiration n.启示,灵感 [in-spi-ra-tion]
lash n.鞭子;v.鞭打;捆住 [lash]
lobby n.大厅,休息厅 [lob-by]
principle n.原则,原理;道德准则 [prin-ci-ple]
provocation n.挑衅,激怒 [prov-o-ca-tion]
siren n.汽笛,警报器 [si-ren]
sop n.泡过的食品;安慰品 [sop]
spell n.连续的一段时间 [spell]
stimulus n.刺激物,激励 [stim-u-lus]
susceptibility n.易感性 [sus-cep-ti-bil-i-ty]
temptation n.诱惑,诱惑物 [temp-ta-tion]
arouse v.唤醒;激发 [a-rouse]
bribe v.贿赂 [bribe]
cajole v.(以甜言蜜语)哄骗 [ca-jole]
captivate v.迷惑,吸引 [cap-ti-vate]
coax v.哄诱,巧言诱哄 [co-ax]
concede v.承认(为正确);让步 [con-cede]
conciliate v.安抚,驯服 [con-cil-i-ate]
dictate v.口述;命令 [dic-tate]
dispose v.使倾向;处理掉 [dis-pose]
enlist v.(使)入伍从军,征募 [en-list]
entice v.怂恿,引诱 [en-tice]
exhort v.力劝,勉励 [ex-hort]
foment v.煽动,助长(坏事) [fo-ment]
impel v.推进;驱使 [im-pel]
incite v.激发,刺激 [in-cite]
induce v.诱导;引起 [in-duce]
inoculate v.预防注射 [in-oc-u-late]
instigate v.发起,煽动 [in-sti-gate]
inveigle v.诱骗,诱使 [in-vei-gle]
press v.挤压 [press]
procure v.取得,获得 [pro-cure]
prompt v.促使,激起;a.敏捷的,迅速的 [prompt]
propel v.推进 [pro-pel]
spur v.刺激,激励;用马刺刺马 [spur]
suborn v.收买,贿赂 [sub-orn]
sway v.摇动,摇摆;影响使改变;n.摇动 [sway]
tantalize v.挑惹,挑逗 [tan-ta-lize]
wheedle v.(用花言巧语)哄骗 [whee-dle]
whet v.磨快;刺激 [whet]

absence of motive 615.a

capricious a.变化无常的,任性的 [ca-pri-cious]
whimsical a.古怪的,异想天开的 [whim-si-cal]
caprice n.奇思怪想,变化无常,任性 [ca-price]
scruple n.顾忌,迟疑;v.顾忌 [scru-ple]

dissuasion 616

averse a.不愿的,反对的 [a-verse]
blunt a.钝的;直率的;v.变钝 [blunt]
repressed a.被压制的,被压抑的 [repressed]
repugnant a.令人厌恶的 [re-pug-nant]
curb n.路缘,(街道的)镶边石;马勒;v.控制 [curb]
check v.使突然停止,阻止 [check]
damp v.减弱,制止振动;a.潮湿的 [damp]
deprecate v.反对,轻视 [dep-re-cate]
deter v.威慑,吓住;阻止 [de-ter]
disabuse v.打消(某人的)错误念头;纠正 [dis-a-buse]
disenchant v.对…不再抱幻想,使清醒 [dis-en-chant]
disillusion v.梦想破灭,醒悟 [dis-il-lu-sion]
dissuade v.劝阻,阻止 [dis-suade]
expostulate v.(对人或行为进行)抗议,告诫 [ex-pos-tu-late]
quench v.熄灭(火);抑制(欲望) [quench]
repel v.击退,使…反感 [re-pel]

pretext 617

gloss n.光泽;注解 [gloss]
guise n.外观,装束 [guise]
handle n.柄,把手;v.处理 [han-dle]
pretension n.自命不凡,夸耀 [pre-ten-sion]
pretext n.借口 [pre-text]
subterfuge n.诡计,托辞 [sub-ter-fuge]
allege v.(无证据)陈述,宣称 [al-lege]
cue v.暗示,提示;n.暗示,提示 [cue]
plead v.恳求,提出…为理由 [plead]
pretend v.假装;装扮 [pre-tend]

3. Objects of Volition

good 618

boon n.恩惠,天赐福利 [boon]

evil 619

awry a.扭曲的,走样的 [a-wry]
bale n.大包裹;灾祸,不幸 [bale]
bane n.祸根 [bane]
calamity n.大灾祸,不幸之事 [ca-lam-i-ty]
casualty n.伤亡事故;伤亡者 [cas-u-al-ty]
catastrophe n.突如其来的大灾难 [ca-tas-tro-phe]
disaster n.灾难,大不幸 [dis-as-ter]
gash n.深长的伤口,裂缝 [gash]
grievance n.委屈,抱怨 [griev-ance]
outrage n.暴行 [out-rage]
prejudice n.偏见,成见;v.使产生偏见 [prej-u-dice]
tragedy n.悲剧,惨事,灾难 [trag-e-dy]
bruise v.受伤,擦伤 [bruise]
stroke v.抚摸;n.击,打;一笔 [stroke]

Section II. Prospective Volition

1. Conceptional Volition

intention 620

intent a.专心的,渴望的;n.目的,意向 [in-tent]
intentional a.存心的,故意的 [in-ten-tion-al]
mean a.卑贱的,吝啬的 [mean]
animus n.敌意,憎恨 [an-i-mus]
compass n.指南针,罗盘;界限,范围 [com-pass]
determination n.决心;确定;预测 [de-ter-mi-na-tion]
prey n.被捕食的动物 [prey]
proposal n.提案,建议 [pro-po-sal]
quarry n.猎物 [quar-ry]
butt v.用头抵撞,顶撞;n.粗大的一端;烟蒂 [butt]
meditate v.沉思,反省 [med-i-tate]
premeditate v.预先想过,预谋 [pre-med-i-tate]
pursue v.追赶,追求,追踪 [pur-sue]

chance 621

fortuitous a.偶然的,意外的;幸运的 [for-tu-i-tous]
random a.没有明确目的、计划或者目标的;偶然的,随便的 [ran-dom]
speculative a.投机的;推理的,思索的 [spec-u-la-tive]
undirected a.未受指导的 [un-di-rect-ed]
unpremeditated a.非预谋的 [un-pre-med-i-tat-ed]
fluke n.侥幸;意想不到的事 [fluke]
hazard n.危险 [haz-ard]
lot n.签;命运;v.抽签,划分 [lot]
raffle n.(尤指为公益事业举办的)抽奖售物(活动) [raf-fle]
stake n.柱桩;赌注 [stake]
gamble v./n.赌博;孤注一掷 [gam-ble]
speculate v.沉思,思索;投机 [spec-u-late]

pursuit 622

court n.法庭,法院;宫廷,朝廷;v.献殷勤;追求 [court]
enterprise n.公司,事业单位;进取心 [en-ter-prise]
prosecution n.起诉;实行,经营 [pros-e-cu-tion]
chase v.雕镂;追捕 [chase]
prosecute v.告发,检举 [pros-e-cute]
pursue v.追赶,追求,追踪 [pur-sue]
quest v.搜寻,探求;n.探求 [quest]
sport v.炫耀,卖弄 [sport]

avoidance 623

elusive a.难懂的 [e-lu-sive]
evasive a.迥避的,逃避的,托辞的 [e-va-sive]
abstention n.节制 [ab-sten-tion]
evasion n.躲避,借口 [e-va-sion]
flight n.飞行,飞翔;逃跑 [flight]
maroon n./a.栗色(的) [ma-roon]
refugee n.难民,流亡者 [ref-u-gee]
retreat n./v.撤退;隐居处 [re-treat]
abandon v./n.放弃;放纵 [a-ban-don]
abscond v.潜逃,逃亡 [ab-scond]
abstain v.禁绝,放弃 [ab-stain]
avoid v.避开,躲避 [a-void]
bolt v.急逃(to dash out; dart);螺栓,门栓 [bolt]
desert v.放弃,离弃 [de-sert]
dodge v.闪开,躲避 [dodge]
elude v.逃避;搞不清 [e-lude]
eschew v.避开,戒绝 [es-chew]
evade v.逃避;规避 [e-vade]
flinch v.畏缩,退缩 [flinch]
flit v.掠过,迅速飞过 [flit]
parry v.挡开,避开(武器,问题等) [par-ry]
recoil v.退却,退缩 [re-coil]
refrain v.抑制;n.歌曲的反复句,叠句 [re-frain]
shirk v.逃避,规避 [shirk]
shun v.避免,闪避 [shun]

relinquishment 624

cession n.割让,转让 [ces-sion]
desertion n.离弃,遗弃 [de-ser-tion]
resignation n.听从,顺从;辞职 [res-ig-na-tion]
abandon v./n.放弃;放纵 [a-ban-don]
desert v.放弃,离弃 [de-sert]
discard v.扔掉,抛弃 [dis-card]
forsake v.遗弃,放弃 [for-sake]
relinquish v.放弃,废除 [re-lin-quish]
renounce v.(正式)放弃 [re-nounce]

business 625

functional a.起作用的,能运转的;实用的 [func-tion-al]
commission n.委托;佣金 [com-mis-sion]
craft n.行业;手艺 [craft]
errand n.差使;差事 [er-rand]
faculty n.全体教员;官能 [fac-ul-ty]
occupation n.工作,职业;占领 [oc-cu-pa-tion]
vocation n.擅长;工作,职业 [vo-ca-tion]
beat v.心跳;搅拌 [beat]
cue v.暗示,提示;n.暗示,提示 [cue]

plan 626

graphic a.图表的;生动的 [graph-ic]
mature a.成熟的;深思熟虑的 [ma-ture]
schematic a.纲要的,图解的 [sche-mat-ic]
artifice n.巧办法;诡计 [ar-ti-fice]
cabal n.政治阴谋小集团 [ca-bal]
cast n.演员阵容;剧团;v.扔;铸造 [cast]
conspiracy n.共谋,阴谋 [con-spir-a-cy]
coup n.意外而成功的行动 [cou-p]
designer n.设计者,构思者 [de-sign-er]
draft n.草稿,草案;汇票 [draft]
expedient n.权宜之计,临时手段;a.(指行动)有用的 [ex-pe-di-ent]
germ n.胚芽,芽孢;微生物,细菌 [germ]
hatch n.船舱盖;v.孵化 [hatch]
loophole n.枪眼,小窗,换气孔 [loop-hole]
machination n.阴谋 [mach-i-na-tion]
nostrum n.家传秘方;万灵丹 [nos-trum]
outline n.轮廓;梗概 [out-line]
plot n.情节;阴谋;策划 [plot]
projector n.电影放映机,幻灯机 [pro-jec-tor]
proposal n.提案,建议 [pro-po-sal]
proposition n.看法;提议 [prop-o-si-tion]
protocol n.外交礼节;协议,草案 [pro-to-col]
receipt n.收到,接到;发票,收据 [re-ceipt]
revise n./v.改变,修正 [re-vise]
scheme n.阴谋;(作品等)体系,结构 [scheme]
skeleton n.骨架,骨骼;提纲 [skel-e-ton]
stratagem n.谋略,策略 [strat-a-gem]
contrive v.计划,设计 [con-trive]
devise v.发明,设计;图谋;遗赠给 [de-vise]
forecast v.预报,预测;n.预测 [fore-cast]
intrigue v.密谋;引起…极大兴趣 [in-trigue]
recast v.重铸;更换演员 [re-cast]
stroke v.抚摸;n.击,打;一笔 [stroke]

method 627

artery n.动脉,命脉 [ar-ter-y]
drawbridge n.吊挢 [draw-bridge]
ford n.浅滩,水浅可涉处;v.涉水 [ford]
gait n.步法,步态 [gait]
gangway n.(上下船的)跳板 [gang-way]
guise n.外观,装束 [guise]
lobby n.大厅,休息厅 [lob-by]
mode n.样式,时尚;模式 [mode]
track n.足迹,踪迹;轨道;小道;v.跟踪 [track]
trajectory n.(抛射物)弹道轨道 [tra-jec-to-ry]
viaduct n.高架桥 [vi-a-duct]
approach v.接近,靠近;着手处理;n.方法 [ap-proach]
beat v.心跳;搅拌 [beat]

mid-course 628

mean a.卑贱的,吝啬的 [mean]
compromise v.妥协;危害 [com-pro-mise]

circuit 629

backhanded a.间接的;反手击球的 [back-hand-ed]
circuitous a.迂回的,绕圈子的 [cir-cu-i-tous]
winding a.蜿蜒的,迂回的 [wind-ing]
circuit n.环行,环行道;线路;电路 [cir-cuit]
detour n.弯路;绕行之路 [de-tour]
digression n.离题,题外话 [di-gres-sion]
loop n.圈,金属线圈 [loop]
zigzag n./a.之字形(的);v.弯弯曲曲地行进 [zig-zag]
meander v.蜿蜒而流;漫步 [me-an-der]

requirement 630

essential a.本质的;n.要素,实质 [es-sen-tial]
exigent a.需要立即采取行动的 [ex-i-gent]
imperative a.急需的 [im-per-a-tive]
pressing a.紧迫的,迫切的;恳切要求的 [press-ing]
urgent a.迫切的,紧急的 [ur-gent]
indispensability n.不可缺少 [in-dis-pen-sa-bil-i-ty]
injunction n.命令,强制令 [in-junc-tion]
mandate n.命令,指令 [man-date]
precept n.箴言,格言 [pre-cept]
prerequisite n.先决条件 [pre-req-ui-site]
requisite n.必需物;a.必要的 [req-ui-site]
want n.缺乏,贫困,需要 [want]
claim v.要求或索; 要n.声称拥有的权力 [claim]
demand v.要求,苛求 [de-mand]
pinch v.捏,掐;n.一撮,一点 [pinch]

2. Subservience to Ends

1. Actual Subservience

instrumentality 631

conducive a.有助于…的 [con-du-cive]
instrumental a.有帮助的,有作用的 [in-stru-men-tal]
expedient n.权宜之计,临时手段;a.(指行动)有用的 [ex-pe-di-ent]
medium n.媒介;(细菌等的)生存环境 [me-di-um]
vehicle n.交通工具;传播媒介 [ve-hi-cle]
intervene v.干涉,介入 [in-ter-vene]
mediate v.调停 [me-di-ate]
tend v.照料,看顾 [tend]

means 632

instrumental a.有帮助的,有作用的 [in-stru-men-tal]
mechanical a.机械的,机械制造的;机械似的,呆板的,体力的 [me-chan-i-cal]
medium n.媒介;(细菌等的)生存环境 [me-di-um]
provision n.(粮食)供应;(法律等)条款 [pro-vi-sion]
revenue n.总收入;国家的税收收入 [rev-e-nue]

instrument 633

instrumental a.有帮助的,有作用的 [in-stru-men-tal]
mechanical a.机械的,机械制造的;机械似的,呆板的,体力的 [me-chan-i-cal]
apparatus n.仪器,设备 [ap-pa-rat-us]
blade n.刀锋,刀口 [blade]
gear n.齿轮;装备;仪器 [gear]
hammer n.锤子,槌 [ham-mer]
handle n.柄,把手;v.处理 [han-dle]
harness n.马具;v.束以马具;利用 [har-ness]
implement n.工具,器具;v.实现,实施 [im-ple-ment]
lathe n.车床 [lathe]
lever n.杠杆;v.撬动 [lev-er]
limb n.肢(手或脚),翼 [limb]
mechanism n.结构,机制 [mech-a-nism]
mill n.磨坊;压榨机;制造厂 [mill]
pedal n.踏板,脚蹬;v.骑脚踏车 [pe-dal]
pulley n.滑轮;滑车 [pul-ley]
screw n.螺丝钉,螺旋;吝啬鬼 [screw]
screwdriver n.螺丝起子;改锥 [screw-driv-er]
trigger n.扳机;v.引发,导致 [trig-ger]
glut v./n.过多;供过于求 [glut]
rig v.欺骗,舞弊,伪造 [rig]
tackle v.处理;n.滑车 [tack-le]

substitute 634

deputy n.代表;副警长 [dep-u-ty]
substitute n.代替品;v.代替 [sub-sti-tute]

materials 635

concrete a.具体存在的;n.混凝土 [con-crete]
stock a.普通的,惯用的;n.存货 [stock]
adobe n.泥砖,土坯 [a-do-be]
cement n.水泥;胶粘剂;v.粘合,巩固 [ce-ment]
clay n.黏土 [clay]
munition n.军火,弹药 [mu-ni-tion]
ore n.矿,矿石 [o-re]
shingle n.木瓦,屋顶板;木质小招牌 [shin-gle]
staple n.主要产品 [sta-ple]
timber n.木材;(人)品质 [tim-ber]

store 636

stock a.普通的,惯用的;n.存货 [stock]
armory n.军械库 [ar-mor-y]
arsenal n.军械库 [ar-se-nal]
budget n.预算 [budg-et]
cache n.贮藏处;v.将…藏于 [cache]
cistern n.贮水池 [cis-tern]
conservatory n.温室;音乐学院 [con-serv-a-to-ry]
file n.锉刀;v.锉平 [file]
larder n.食品室 [lar-der]
lode n.矿脉 [lode]
portfolio n.文件夹;股份单 [port-fo-li-o]
quarry n.猎物 [quar-ry]
quiver n.箭筒,箭囊 [quiv-er]
reserve n.储备(物),储藏量;缄默,谨慎;v.保留,储备,预订 [re-serve]
warehouse n.仓库,货栈 [ware-house]
accumulate v.积聚,积累 [ac-cu-mu-late]
amass v.积聚 [a-mass]
garner v.收藏,积累 [gar-ner]
hoard v./n.贮藏,秘藏 [hoard]
husband v.妥善而又节约地管理;做…的丈夫 [hus-band]
lumber v.蹒跚而行,笨拙地走;n.杂物;木材 [lum-ber]

provision 637

stock a.普通的,惯用的;n.存货 [stock]
forage n.(牛马的)饲料,粮草;v.搜寻,翻寻 [for-age]
provender n.(牛马吃的)草料,粮秣 [prov-en-der]
provision n.(粮食)供应;(法律等)条款 [pro-vi-sion]
recruit n.新兵;新成员;v.征募 [re-cruit]
cater v.迎合;提供饮食及服务 [ca-ter]
purvey v.(大量)供给,供应 [pur-vey]
replenish v.补充,再装满 [re-plen-ish]

waste 638

exhaust n.(机器排出的)废气,蒸气;v.使非常疲倦 [ex-haust]
expenditure n.消耗,支出 [ex-pend-i-ture]
leakage n.渗漏,漏出 [leak-age]
disperse v.消散,驱散 [dis-perse]
drain v.排出沟外;喝光 [drain]
ebb v.退潮;衰退 [ebb]
expend v.花费;用光 [ex-pend]
impoverish v.使成赤贫 [im-pov-er-ish]
leak v.泄漏;n.泄漏;漏出量,漏洞 [leak]
squander v.浪费,挥霍 [squan-der]
waste v.使身体消瘦,损耗 [waste]

sufficiency 639

abundant a.丰富的,盛产的 [a-bun-dant]
adequate a.足够的 [ad-e-quate]
affluent a.富裕的,丰富的 [af-flu-ent]
ample a.富足的;充足的 [am-ple]
commensurate a.同样大小的;相称的 [com-men-su-rate]
copious a.丰富的,多产的 [co-pi-ous]
inexhaustible a.用不完的,取之不竭的 [in-ex-haust-i-ble]
lavish a.浪费的;丰富的 [lav-ish]
luxuriant a.繁茂的;肥沃的 [lux-u-ri-ant]
measured a.精确的;慎重的 [meas-ured]
replete a.饱满的,塞满的 [re-plete]
sufficient a.足够的 [suf-fi-cient]
tangible a.可触摸的 [tan-gi-ble]
unstinting a.极为慷慨的,大方的 [un-stint-ing]
abundance n.充裕,多量 [a-bun-dance]
affluence n.充裕,富足 [af-flu-ence]
amplitude n.广大,广阔 [am-pli-tude]
competence n.胜任,能力 [com-pe-tence]
cornucopia n.象征丰收的羊角(羊角装饰器内装满花、果、谷物等以示富饶) [cor-nu-co-pi-a]
flush n./v.脸红;奔流;冲洗 [flush]
mediocrity n.平庸,碌碌无为 [me-di-oc-ri-ty]
plenitude n.完全;大量 [plen-i-tude]
stream n.小溪;水流;v.倾注,涌流 [stream]
replenish v.补充,再装满 [re-plen-ish]
suffice v.足够,(食物)满足 [suf-fice]

insufficiency 640

incompetent a.无能力的,不能胜任的 [in-com-pe-tent]
insufficient a.不足的 [in-suf-fi-cient]
jejune a.空洞的;不成熟的 [je-june]
meager a.贫乏的;削瘦的 [mea-ger]
perfunctory a.草率的,敷衍的 [per-func-to-ry]
scant a.不足的,缺乏的 [scant]
scurvy a.卑鄙的,可鄙的 [scurvy]
slack a.懒散的,懈怠的;(绳)松弛的;v.松懈,怠惰 [slack]
sparing a.节俭的 [spar-ing]
stingy a.吝啬的,小气的 [stin-gy]
dearth n.缺乏,短缺 [dearth]
deficiency n.缺陷;不足 [de-fi-cien-cy]
drought n.干旱;干旱时期 [drought]
famine n.饥荒 [fam-ine]
indigence n.贫穷 [in-di-gence]
insolvency n.无力偿还;破产 [in-sol-ven-cy]
mite n.极小量;小虫 [mite]
paucity n.小量,缺乏 [pau-ci-ty]
pittance n.微薄的薪俸,少量的收入 [pit-tance]
scarcity n.不足,缺乏 [scar-ci-ty]
want n.缺乏,贫困,需要 [want]
bare v.暴露;a.赤裸的 [bare]
impoverish v.使成赤贫 [im-pov-er-ish]
stint v.吝惜,节省 [stint]

redundancy 641

drenched a.湿透的 [drenched]
exorbitant a.过分的,过度的 [ex-or-bi-tant]
exuberant a.(人)充满活力的(植物)茂盛的 [ex-u-ber-ant]
inordinate a.过度的,过分的 [in-or-di-nate]
lavish a.浪费的;丰富的 [lav-ish]
obese a.极肥胖的 [o-bese]
prodigal a.挥霍的;n.挥霍者 [prod-i-gal]
profuse a.很多的;浪费的 [pro-fuse]
redundant a.累赘的,多余的 [re-dun-dant]
replete a.饱满的,塞满的 [re-plete]
superfluous a.多余的,累赘的 [su-per-flu-ous]
surplus a.过剩的;盈余的 [sur-plus]
turgid a.浮肿的,肿胀的;浮夸的 [tur-gid]
avalanche n.雪崩 [av-a-lanche]
deluge n.大洪水;暴雨 [del-uge]
excess n.过分,过度 [ex-cess]
extravagance n.奢侈,挥霍 [ex-trav-a-gance]
exuberance n.愉快;茁壮 [ex-u-ber-ance]
gorge n.峡谷 [gorge]
luxury n.奢侈(品) [lux-u-ry]
margin n.页边空白,边缘;差额;余地;利润 [mar-gin]
overdose n.(药物)过大的剂量 [o-ver-dose]
plethora n.过量,过剩 [pleth-o-ra]
redundancy n.过剩;备份;似乎多余其实重要的后备力量 [re-dun-dan-cy]
remainder n.剩余物 [re-main-der]
superfluity n.多余的量 [su-per-flu-i-ty]
surfeit n.(食物)过量,过度;v.使过量 [sur-feit]
choke v.(使)窒息,阻塞 [choke]
drench v.使湿透 [drench]
exaggerate v.夸张;夸大 [ex-ag-ger-ate]
glut v./n.过多;供过于求 [glut]
inundate v.淹没;泛滥 [in-un-date]
overflow v.溢出;洋溢 [o-ver-flow]
overwhelm v.泛滥;压倒 [o-ver-whelm]
suffocate v.(使)窒息而死 [suf-fo-cate]
surcharge v.对…收取额外费用;n.附加费 [sur-charge]

2. Degree of Subservience

importance 642

cardinal a.最重要的;n.红衣主教 [car-di-nal]
considerable a.相当多的;值得考虑的 [con-sid-er-a-ble]
critical a.挑毛病的;关键的,危急的 [crit-i-cal]
earnest a.认真的 [ear-nest]
egregious a.(缺点等)过分的,惊人的 [e-gre-gious]
emphatic a.重视的,强调的 [em-phat-ic]
essential a.本质的;n.要素,实质 [es-sen-tial]
grave a.严峻的;n.墓穴 [gra-ve]
imposing a.壮丽的,雄伟的 [im-pos-ing]
marked a.明显的;被监视的 [marked]
momentous a.极重要的,严重的 [mo-men-tous]
notable a.明显的,出众的,重要的 [no-ta-ble]
paramount a.最重要的,最高权力的 [par-a-mount]
pregnant a.怀孕的;充满的 [preg-nant]
pressing a.紧迫的,迫切的;恳切要求的 [press-ing]
principal a.主要的,重要的 [prin-ci-pal]
prominent a.显著的;著名的 [prom-i-nent]
salient a.显著的,突出的 [sa-li-ent]
significant a.相当数量的;意义重大的 [sig-nif-i-cant]
solemn a.严肃的,庄严的;黑色的 [sol-emn]
telling a.有效的,显著的 [tell-ing]
trenchant a.一针见血的 [trench-ant]
urgent a.迫切的,紧急的 [ur-gent]
vital a.极其重要的;充满活力的 [vi-tal]
consequence n.结果;重要性;价值 [con-se-quence]
core n.果心;核心);v.去掉某物的中心部分 [core]
gist n.要点,要旨 [gist]
gravity n.严肃,正经 [grav-i-ty]
import n./v.进口,输入;意义 [im-port]
kernel n.果仁;核心 [ker-nel]
moment n.瞬间;重要 [mo-ment]
nucleus n.(原子)核 [nu-cle-us]
prime n.全盛时期;a.首先的;最好的 [prime]
signal n.信号;v.发信号;a.显著的 [sig-nal]
solemnity n.庄严,肃穆 [so-lem-ni-ty]
substance n.大意,根据,实质;物质 [sub-stance]
superiority n.优越(感) [su-pe-ri-or-i-ty]
accentuate v.重读;强调 [ac-cen-tu-ate]
signify v.表示;有重要性 [sig-ni-fy]

unimportance 643

commonplace a.平常的 [com-mon-place]
contemptible a.令人轻视的 [con-tempt-i-ble]
flimsy a.轻而薄的;脆弱的 [flim-sy]
frivolous a.轻薄的,轻佻的 [friv-o-lous]
frothy a.起泡的;空洞的 [froth-y]
idle a.(指人)无所事事的;无效的;v.懒散,无所事事 [i-dle]
inane a.无意义的;空洞的 [in-ane]
inappreciable a.微不足道的 [in-ap-pre-ci-a-ble]
indifferent a.不感兴趣的,漠不关心的 [in-dif-fer-ent]
meager a.贫乏的;削瘦的 [mea-ger]
mean a.卑贱的,吝啬的 [mean]
mediocre a.平庸的,平凡的 [me-di-o-cre]
paltry a.无价值的,微不足道的 [pal-try]
petty a.琐碎的;小心眼的 [pet-ty]
piddling a.琐碎的,微不足道的 [pid-dling]
pitiful a.值得同情的,可怜的 [pit-i-ful]
puerile a.幼稚的;儿童的 [pu-er-ile]
scurvy a.卑鄙的,可鄙的 [scurvy]
slight a.微小的;n./v.轻蔑 [slight]
trivial a.琐细的 [triv-i-al]
vain a.自负的;徒劳的 [vain]
vile a.恶劣的,卑鄙的 [vile]
wretched a.可怜的 [wretch-ed]
chaff n.谷物的皮壳,米糠 [chaff]
cipher n.零;无影响力的人;密码 [ci-pher]
fig n.无花果;一点儿 [fig]
levity n.轻率;轻浮 [lev-i-ty]
mill n.磨坊;压榨机;制造厂 [mill]
nonentity n.不重要之人或事 [non-en-ti-ty]
trifle n.微不足道,琐事 [tri-fle]
trinket n.小装饰品;不值钱的珠宝 [trin-ket]
vanity n.虚荣,自负 [van-i-ty]
weed n.杂草,野草;v.除草 [weed]
jest v./n.说笑,玩笑 [jest]
jot v.摘要记录 [jot]
toy v.不认真考虑,玩弄 [toy]

utility 644

adaptable a.有适应能力的;可改编的 [a-dapt-a-ble]
adequate a.足够的 [ad-e-quate]
applicable a.生效的,适合的 [ap-pli-ca-ble]
available a.可用的,可得到的 [a-vail-a-ble]
commodious a.宽敞的 [com-mo-di-ous]
conducive a.有助于…的 [con-du-cive]
efficacious a.有效的 [ef-fi-ca-cious]
prolific a.多产的,多结果的 [pro-lif-ic]
ready a.机敏的,迅速的 [read-y]
remunerative a.报酬高的,有利润的 [re-mu-ner-a-tive]
serviceable a.可用的,耐用的 [ser-vice-a-ble]
subsidiary a.辅助的;次要的 [sub-sid-i-ar-y]
tangible a.可触摸的 [tan-gi-ble]
efficacy n.功效,有效性 [ef-fi-ca-cy]
expedient n.权宜之计,临时手段;a.(指行动)有用的 [ex-pe-di-ent]

inutility 645

bootless a.无益处的;无用的 [boot-less]
dispensable a.不必要的,可有可无的 [dis-pen-sa-ble]
effete a.无生产力;虚弱的 [ef-fete]
futile a.无效的,无用的;(人)没出息的;琐细的 [fu-tile]
inane a.无意义的;空洞的 [in-ane]
incompetent a.无能力的,不能胜任的 [in-com-pe-tent]
ineffectual a.无效的,徒劳无益的 [in-ef-fec-tu-al]
inept a.无能的;不适当的 [in-ept]
obsolete a.废弃的;过时的 [ob-so-lete]
superfluous a.多余的,累赘的 [su-per-flu-ous]
unproductive a.徒然的,无成效的 [un-pro-duc-tive]
vain a.自负的;徒劳的 [vain]
debris n.废墟,残骸 [de-bris]
detritus n.碎屑;废墟 [de-tri-tus]
dregs n.糟粕,沉淀废物 [dregs]
futility n.无用,无益 [fu-til-i-ty]
ineptitude n.无能,不称职 [in-ept-i-tude]
litter n.垃圾;一窝(动物) [lit-ter]
shoddy n.劣质的,冒充好货的 [shod-dy]
vanity n.虚荣,自负 [van-i-ty]
dismantle v.拆除 [dis-man-tle]
lumber v.蹒跚而行,笨拙地走;n.杂物;木材 [lum-ber]
waste v.使身体消瘦,损耗 [waste]

expedience 646

conform (to)v.符合或遵守公认的规则 [con-form]
advisable a.适当的,可行的 [ad-vis-a-ble]
applicable a.生效的,适合的 [ap-pli-ca-ble]
desirable a.值得要的 [de-sir-a-ble]
eligible a.合格的 [el-i-gi-ble]
meet a.合适的 [meet]
opportune a.合适的,适当的 [op-por-tune]
seemly a.得体的,适宜的 [seem-ly]
expediency n.方便;权宜之计 [ex-pe-di-en-cy]
expedient n.权宜之计,临时手段;a.(指行动)有用的 [ex-pe-di-ent]
propriety n.礼节;适当 [pro-pri-e-ty]

inexpedience 647

awkward a.笨拙的;难用的;不便的 [awk-ward]
clumsy a.笨拙的;拙劣的 [clum-sy]
cumbersome a.笨重的 [cum-ber-some]
undesirable a.令人不悦的,讨厌的 [un-de-sir-a-ble]
unseemly a.不适当的,不宜的 [un-seem-ly]
unwieldy a.笨重的,笨拙的 [un-wield-y]
embarrass v.使忸怩,使难堪 [em-bar-rass]

goodness 648

cardinal a.最重要的;n.红衣主教 [car-di-nal]
choice a.上等的;精选的 [choice]
estimable a.值得尊敬的;可估计的 [es-ti-ma-ble]
exquisite a.精致的;近乎完美的 [ex-qui-site]
favorable a.有利的;赞成的 [fa-vor-a-ble]
genuine a.真的;真诚的 [gen-u-ine]
inimitable a.无法仿效的,不可比拟的 [in-im-i-ta-ble]
innocuous a.(行为,言论等)无害的 [in-noc-u-ous]
nice a.精密的 [nice]
propitious a.吉利的;顺利的 [pro-pi-tious]
salutary a.有益的,有益健康的 [sal-u-tar-y]
serviceable a.可用的,耐用的 [ser-vice-a-ble]
tidy a.整齐的,整洁的 [tidy]
unexceptionable a.无可非议的 [un-ex-cep-tion-a-ble]
champion n.冠军;斗士;拥护者;v.拥护 [cham-pi-on]
crack n.爆裂声;裂缝;v.裂开;破解,破译 [crack]
elite n.精华,中坚 [e-lite]
gem n.宝石,珠宝;精华 [gem]
prime n.全盛时期;a.首先的;最好的 [prime]
prodigy n.奇事;奇才 [prod-i-gy]
rival n.竞争者,对手;v.与…匹敌 [ri-val]
superiority n.优越(感) [su-pe-ri-or-i-ty]
bully v.以强欺弱,威胁;n.欺负别人者 [bul-ly]
emulate v.努力赶上或超越 [em-u-late]
excel v.善于,擅长于 [ex-cel]
merit v.值得 [mer-it]
transcend v.超越,胜过 [tran-scend]
vie v.竞争 [vie]

badness 649

baleful a.邪恶的,恶意的 [bale-ful]
base a.卑鄙的 [base]
corrosive a.腐蚀性的,腐蚀的,蚀坏的 [cor-ro-sive]
deleterious a.(对身心)有害的,有毒的 [del-e-te-ri-ous]
depraved a.堕落的,腐化的 [de-praved]
detrimental a.损害的,造成伤害的 [det-ri-men-tal]
dire a.可怕的 [dire]
execrable a.极坏的 [ex-e-cra-ble]
foul a.恶臭的;邪恶的;v.弄脏;n.(体育等)犯规 [foul]
fulsome a.虚情假意的;充足的 [ful-some]
grievous a.严重伤害的 [griev-ous]
incompetent a.无能力的,不能胜任的 [in-com-pe-tent]
injurious a.有害的 [in-ju-ri-ous]
irremediable a.无法治愈的,无法纠正的 [ir-re-me-di-a-ble]
mean a.卑贱的,吝啬的 [mean]
mischievous a.淘气的;有害处的 [mis-chie-vous]
noisome a.恶臭的;令人不快的 [noi-some]
noxious a.有害的,有毒的 [nox-ious]
obnoxious a.令人不愉快的;可憎的 [ob-nox-ious]
onerous a.繁重的,麻烦的 [on-er-ous]
pernicious a.有害的,致命的 [per-ni-cious]
pitiful a.值得同情的,可怜的 [pit-i-ful]
poisonous a.有毒的;有害的 [poi-son-ous]
reprehensible a.应受谴责的 [rep-re-hen-si-ble]
rotten a.腐败的;糟糕的 [rot-ten]
untoward a.不幸的,(坏事)没料到的 [un-to-ward]
vile a.恶劣的,卑鄙的 [vile]
virulent a.剧毒的;恶毒的 [vir-u-lent]
wretched a.可怜的 [wretch-ed]
bane n.祸根 [bane]
depravity n.堕落,恶习 [de-prav-i-ty]
guilt n.罪行;内疚 [guilt]
outrage n.暴行 [out-rage]
abuse v./n.辱骂; 滥用 [a-buse]
aggrieve v.使受委屈;使痛苦 [ag-grieve]
bruise v.受伤,擦伤 [bruise]
malign v.诽谤,中伤;a.邪恶的 [ma-lign]
maul v.撕裂皮肉,伤害 [maul]
oppress v.压迫,压制 [op-press]
persecute v.迫害 [per-se-cute]
pierce v.刺透;穿过 [pierce]
victimize v.使受害,迫害 [vic-tim-ize]

perfection 650

consummate a.完全的,完善的;v.完成 [con-sum-mate]
immaculate a.洁净的,无瑕的 [im-mac-u-late]
impeccable a.无瑕疵的 [im-pec-ca-ble]
inimitable a.无法仿效的,不可比拟的 [in-im-i-ta-ble]
intact a.完整的,未动过的 [in-tact]
mature a.成熟的;深思熟虑的 [ma-ture]
paragon n.模范,典型 [par-a-gon]
divine v.推测,预言 [di-vine]
ripen v.使成熟 [rip-en]
transcend v.超越,胜过 [tran-scend]

imperfection 651

adequate a.足够的 [ad-e-quate]
decent a.适当的,可接受的;得体的 [de-cent]
frail a.脆弱的;不坚实的 [frail]
indifferent a.不感兴趣的,漠不关心的 [in-dif-fer-ent]
inferior a.下级的,低等的,质次的,较差的 [in-fe-ri-or]
mediocre a.平庸的,平凡的 [me-di-o-cre]
unsound a.不结实的,不坚固的;无根据的 [un-sound]
defect n.缺点,瑕疵;v.变节,脱党 [de-fect]
deficiency n.缺陷;不足 [de-fi-cien-cy]
fault n.错误;(地质学)断层 [fault]
flaw n.瑕疵;v.生裂缝;有瑕疵 [flaw]
mediocrity n.平庸,碌碌无为 [me-di-oc-ri-ty]
blemish v.损害;玷污;n.瑕疵,缺点 [blem-ish]

cleanness 652

detergent a.净化的;n.清洁剂 [de-ter-gent]
immaculate a.洁净的,无瑕的 [im-mac-u-late]
laxative a.(药)通便的;放松的;n.轻泻药 [lax-a-tive]
tidy a.整齐的,整洁的 [tidy]
unspotted a.清白的,无污点的 [un-spot-ted]
ablution n.(宗教的)净礼,沐浴 [ab-lu-tion]
disinfectant n.消毒剂 [dis-in-fect-ant]
drainage n.排水;污水 [drain-age]
filter n.滤纸;v.过滤 [fil-ter]
flush n./v.脸红;奔流;冲洗 [flush]
purgative n.泻药 [pur-ga-tive]
purity n.纯洁,纯净;纯度 [pu-ri-ty]
riddle n.谜语 [rid-dle]
scrub n.矮树丛;身体矮小的人;v.用力擦洗 [scrub]
spruce n.云杉;a.整洁的 [spruce]
weed n.杂草,野草;v.除草 [weed]
buck v.反对;n.雄鹿;雄兔 [buck]
clarify v.澄清 [clar-i-fy]
disinfect v.杀菌,消毒 [dis-in-fect]
drain v.排出沟外;喝光 [drain]
expurgate v.删除;使纯洁 [ex-pur-gate]
fumigate v.以烟熏消毒 [fu-mi-gate]
lave v.洗浴;慢慢冲刷 [lave]
purge v.清洗,洗涤 [purge]
purify v.使洁净,净化 [pu-ri-fy]
sift v.筛,过滤 [sift]
trim v.修剪;a.井井有条的 [trim]
ventilate v.使…通风,透风 [ven-ti-late]
winnow v.把(谷物)的杂质吹掉,扬去 [win-now]

uncleanness 653

coarse a.粗糙的;低劣的;粗俗的 [coarse]
corrupt a.堕落的,腐败的;文体有错误的 [cor-rupt]
drab a.枯黄色的;无聊的 [drab]
effete a.无生产力;虚弱的 [ef-fete]
fetid a.有恶臭的 [fet-id]
foul a.恶臭的;邪恶的;v.弄脏;n.(体育等)犯规 [foul]
fusty a.陈腐的,霉臭的 [fus-ty]
gross a.总的;粗野的;n.整个,全部 [gross]
moldy a.发霉的 [mold-y]
offensive a.令人不快的,得罪人的 [of-fen-sive]
rancid a.不新鲜的,变味的 [ran-cid]
rotten a.腐败的;糟糕的 [rot-ten]
scurvy a.卑鄙的,可鄙的 [scurvy]
squalid a.污秽的,肮脏的 [squal-id]
unkempt a.(衣服、头发)不整洁的 [un-kempt]
blur n.模糊不清的事物;v.使…模糊 [blur]
bog n.沼泽;v.使…陷入泥沼 [bog]
carrion n.腐肉 [car-ri-on]
compost n.混合肥料 [com-post]
den n.兽穴,窝 [den]
dregs n.糟粕,沉淀废物 [dregs]
dross n.浮渣;糟粕 [dross]
filth n.肮脏;粗语 [filth]
grit n.沙粒;决心,勇气;v.下定决心,咬紧牙关 [grit]
lair n.野兽的巢穴;躲藏处 [lair]
leaven n.发酵剂;影响力;v.发酵;影响 [leav-en]
manure n.粪肥;v.给…施肥 [ma-nure]
mire n.泥沼;困境;v.使…陷入困境 [mire]
mold n.模子;(美)霉;v.塑造 [mold]
scrub n.矮树丛;身体矮小的人;v.用力擦洗 [scrub]
sediment n.沉淀物,渣 [sed-i-ment]
sewer n.排水沟,下水道 [sew-er]
silt n.淤泥,淤沙 [silt]
slag n.炉渣,矿渣 [slag]
smear n.油渍,污点;v.弄脏,玷污 [smear]
smudge n.渍痕;v.弄脏 [smudge]
soil n./v.弄脏,污损 [soil]
soot n.黑烟灰,油烟 [soot]
spawn n.(鱼等)卵子;v.大量生产 [spawn]
squalor n.不洁,污秽 [squal-or]
tarnish n./v.失去光泽,晦暗 [tar-nish]
contaminate v.使…受污染 [con-tam-i-nate]
dabble v.涉足,浅赏 [dab-ble]
debase v.贬低,贬损 [de-base]
defile v.弄污,弄脏;n.(山间)小道 [de-file]
drain v.排出沟外;喝光 [drain]
ferment v./n.(使)发酵;骚动 [fer-ment]
fester v.(指伤口)溃烂,化脓 [fes-ter]
precipitate v.加速,促成;a.鲁莽的 [pre-cip-i-tate]
rankle v.怨恨;激怒 [ran-kle]
reek v.发臭味;冒烟 [reek]
roil v.煽动,搅浑 [roil]
slough v.(蛇等)蜕皮;n.(蛇等的)蜕皮 [slough]
stain v.玷污;染色 [stain]

health 654

florid a.华丽的;(脸)红润的 [flor-id]
green a.新鲜的,未成熟的,无经验的 [green]
hale a.健壮的,矍铄的 [hale]
hardy a.耐寒的;强壮的 [har-dy]
robust a.健壮的 [ro-bust]
unscathed a.未受损伤的,未遭伤害的 [un-scathed]
vigorous a.精力旺盛的,健壮的 [vig-or-ous]
euphoria n.幸福愉快感 [eu-pho-ri-a]
flush n./v.脸红;奔流;冲洗 [flush]
recruit n.新兵;新成员;v.征募 [re-cruit]
sanity n.神志清楚 [san-i-ty]
tinker n.补锅工人;v.拙劣修补 [tink-er]
flourish v.昌盛,兴旺;活跃而有影响 [flour-ish]
stanch v.制止(血液),止住 [stanch]

disease 655

brash a.性急的;无礼的 [brash]
cranky a.怪癖的,任性的;不稳的 [crank-y]
decrepit a.衰老的,破旧的 [de-crep-it]
dyspeptic a.消化不良的;不高兴的 [dys-pep-tic]
endemic a.地方性的 [en-dem-ic]
epidemic a.传染性的,流行性的 [ep-i-dem-ic]
flagging a.下垂的;衰弱的 [flag-ging]
halting a.踌躇的,吞吞吐吐的 [halt-ing]
infirm a.虚弱的 [in-firm]
morbid a.病态的,不正常的 [mor-bid]
moribund a.即将结束的;垂死的 [mor-i-bund]
pandemic a.(病)大范围流行的 [pan-dem-ic]
prostrate a.俯卧的;沮丧的;v.使下跪鞠躬 [pros-trate]
rotten a.腐败的;糟糕的 [rot-ten]
unsound a.不结实的,不坚固的;无根据的 [un-sound]
atrophy n.萎缩,衰退 [at-ro-phy]
bacteria n.细菌,培养基 [bac-te-ri-a]
bacterium n.细菌 [bac-te-ri-um]
delicacy n.细嫩;精致,优雅 [del-i-ca-cy]
infection n.传染,感染 [in-fec-tion]
inflammation n.激怒;炽热;炎症 [in-flam-ma-tion]
mortification n.耻辱,屈辱 [mor-ti-fi-ca-tion]
pathology n.病理学 [pa-thol-o-gy]
pine n.松树;v.(因疾病等)憔悴;渴望 [pine]
plague n.瘟疫;讨厌的人或物;v.烦扰 [plague]
rupture n./v.破裂,断裂 [rup-ture]
ulcer n.溃疡;腐烂物 [ul-cer]
virus n.病毒 [vi-rus]
ail v.生病 [ail]
decline v.拒绝;变弱,变小;n.消减 [de-cline]
droop v.低垂;沮丧,萎靡 [droop]
fester v.(指伤口)溃烂,化脓 [fes-ter]
flag v.减弱,衰退;枯萎 [flag]
issue v.出来,流出;发给,分发;n.(书刊的)期 [is-sue]
languish v.变得消瘦;衰弱 [lan-guish]
peak v.憔悴,消瘦 [peak]
stroke v.抚摸;n.击,打;一笔 [stroke]

salubrity 656

benign a.慈祥的 [be-nign]
bracing a.令人振奋的 [brac-ing]
innocuous a.(行为,言论等)无害的 [in-noc-u-ous]
invigorating a.使人有精神的,使人健壮的 [in-vig-or-at-ing]
salubrious a.有益健康的 [sa-lu-bri-ous]
salutary a.有益的,有益健康的 [sal-u-tar-y]
wholesome a.促进健康的 [whole-some]
tonic n.增进健康之物,补品;a.滋补的 [ton-ic]
assimilate v.同化;吸收 [as-sim-i-late]

insalubrity 657

contagious a.传染的,有感染力的 [con-ta-gious]
deleterious a.(对身心)有害的,有毒的 [del-e-te-ri-ous]
epidemic a.传染性的,流行性的 [ep-i-dem-ic]
noisome a.恶臭的;令人不快的 [noi-some]
noxious a.有害的,有毒的 [nox-ious]
pestilent a.致死的;有害的 [pes-ti-lent]
poisonous a.有毒的;有害的 [poi-son-ous]
septic a.受感染的,腐败的 [sep-tic]
taking a.楚楚动人的 [tak-ing]
toxic a.有毒的,中毒的 [tox-ic]
virulent a.剧毒的;恶毒的 [vir-u-lent]
narcotic n.催眠药;a.催眠的 [nar-cot-ic]

improvement 658

elaborate a.精致的,复杂的;v.详尽地说明,阐明 [e-lab-o-rate]
forward a.过激的,莽撞的 [for-ward]
mature a.成熟的;深思熟虑的 [ma-ture]
amendment n.改正,修正;[法]修正案 [a-mend-ment]
elaboration n.详细的细节,详尽阐述 [e-lab-o-ra-tion]
prune n.梅干;v.修剪 [prune]
recruit n.新兵;新成员;v.征募 [re-cruit]
revise n./v.改变,修正 [re-vise]
ameliorate v.改善,改良 [a-me-lio-rate]
amend v.修正;通常向更好的方向变化 [a-mend]
cultivate v.种植;向…讨好 [cul-ti-vate]
enhance v.提高,增加,改善 [en-hance]
fatten v.使长肥;使土壤肥沃;装满 [fat-ten]
foster v.培养,鼓励;领养 [fos-ter]
invigorate v.鼓舞,激励 [in-vig-or-ate]
mend v.修改,改进 [mend]
mitigate v.减轻,缓和 [mit-i-gate]
palliate v.减轻(痛苦);掩饰(罪行) [pal-li-ate]
polish v.把…擦光亮,抛光;n.上光剂;(态度等)优雅 [pol-ish]
promote v.提升;促进 [pro-mote]
purify v.使洁净,净化 [pu-ri-fy]
rally v.召集,集会;n.召集;集会 [ral-ly]
rectify v.改正,调正;提纯 [rec-ti-fy]
refresh v.消除…的疲劳,使精神振作 [re-fresh]
ripen v.使成熟 [rip-en]

deterioration 659

blighted a.枯萎的;衰老的 [blighted]
corrupt a.堕落的,腐败的;文体有错误的 [cor-rupt]
deciduous a.非永久的;短暂的;脱落的;落叶的 [de-cid-u-ous]
decrepit a.衰老的,破旧的 [de-crep-it]
deleterious a.(对身心)有害的,有毒的 [del-e-te-ri-ous]
depraved a.堕落的,腐化的 [de-praved]
dilapidated a.破旧的,倒塌的 [di-lap-i-da-ted]
effete a.无生产力;虚弱的 [ef-fete]
moldy a.发霉的 [mold-y]
rotten a.腐败的;糟糕的 [rot-ten]
stale a.不新鲜的,陈腐的 [stale]
threadbare a.磨破的,陈腐的 [thread-bare]
atrophy n.萎缩,衰退 [at-ro-phy]
blight n.植物枯萎病;v.使…枯萎 [blight]
crack n.爆裂声;裂缝;v.裂开;破解,破译 [crack]
decadence n.衰落,颓废 [dec-a-dence]
degradation n.降低身份,受辱 [deg-ra-da-tion]
depravity n.堕落,恶习 [de-prav-i-ty]
deterioration n.恶化,堕落 [de-te-ri-o-ra-tion]
die n.金属模子,印模 [die]
havoc n.大破坏,混乱 [hav-oc]
inroad n.突袭;消耗 [in-road]
jade n.疲惫的老马;玉,翡翠 [jade]
lapse n.失误;(时间等)流逝 [lapse]
leaven n.发酵剂;影响力;v.发酵;影响 [leav-en]
outrage n.暴行 [out-rage]
prejudice n.偏见,成见;v.使产生偏见 [prej-u-dice]
recession n.经济萧条时期;撤回,退回 [re-ces-sion]
sap n.树液;活力;v.消弱,耗尽 [sap]
adulterate v.掺假 [a-dul-ter-ate]
aggravate v.加重,恶化 [ag-gra-vate]
blemish v.损害;玷污;n.瑕疵,缺点 [blem-ish]
collapse v.坍塌,塌陷;虚脱,晕倒 [col-lapse]
contaminate v.使…受污染 [con-tam-i-nate]
corrode v.腐蚀,侵蚀 [cor-rode]
crumble v.弄碎;崩毁 [crum-ble]
debase v.贬低,贬损 [de-base]
decimate v.毁掉大部分;大量杀死 [dec-i-mate]
decline v.拒绝;变弱,变小;n.消减 [de-cline]
deface v.损坏 [de-face]
defile v.弄污,弄脏;n.(山间)小道 [de-file]
demoralize v.使士气低落 [de-mor-al-ize]
deteriorate v.(使)变坏,恶化 [de-te-ri-o-rate]
dilapidate v.(使)荒废,(使)毁坏 [di-lap-i-date]
disfigure v.毁容 [dis-fig-ure]
dismantle v.拆除 [dis-man-tle]
droop v.低垂;沮丧,萎靡 [droop]
ebb v.退潮;衰退 [ebb]
exacerbate v.加重,恶化 [ex-ac-er-bate]
fade v.褪色,消失,凋谢 [fade]
gnaw v.啃,咬 [gnaw]
impair v.损害,使弱 [im-pair]
mangle v.毁损;撕成碎片,压碎 [man-gle]
mar v.破坏,损伤 [mar]
perish v.死,暴卒 [per-ish]
pierce v.刺透;穿过 [pierce]
rankle v.怨恨;激怒 [ran-kle]
ravage v.摧毁,使荒废 [rav-age]
scotch v.镇压,粉碎 [scotch]
spoil v.损坏,破坏;溺爱 [spoil]
stain v.玷污;染色 [stain]
totter v.摇摇欲坠;步履蹒跚 [tot-ter]
undermine v.破坏,损坏 [un-der-mine]
vitiate v.削弱,损害 [vi-ti-ate]
wane v.减少,衰微 [wane]
warp v./n.翘起,弯曲 [warp]
waste v.使身体消瘦,损耗 [waste]
wither v.枯萎,凋零 [with-er]

restoration 660

convalescent a./n.康复中的(病人) [con-va-les-cent]
restored a.恢复的,复修的 [re-stored]
cobbler n.补鞋匠 [cob-bler]
recruit n.新兵;新成员;v.征募 [re-cruit]
redress n.改正,修正 [re-dress]
reparation n.赔偿,补偿 [rep-a-ra-tion]
rescue n./v.解救;把…从法律监管下强行夺回 [res-cue]
restitution n.归偿;赔偿 [res-ti-tu-tion]
tinker n.补锅工人;v.拙劣修补 [tink-er]
caulk v.填塞(隙缝使不漏水) [caulk]
heal v.治愈 [heal]
rally v.召集,集会;n.召集;集会 [ral-ly]
reclaim v.纠正;开垦(土地) [re-claim]
reconstitute v.再组成;用水泡 [re-con-sti-tute]
rectify v.改正,调正;提纯 [rec-ti-fy]
redeem v.赎罪 [re-deem]
refresh v.消除…的疲劳,使精神振作 [re-fresh]
rehabilitate v.修复,恢复(职业等) [re-ha-bil-i-tate]
reinforce v.加强力量,增援 [re-in-force]
reinstate v.恢复(原职) [re-in-state]
rejuvenate v.使返老还童 [re-ju-ve-nate]
renovate v.修复,装修,翻新 [ren-o-vate]
restore v.使回复,恢复;修复,修补 [re-store]
resume v.重新开始,继续 [re-su-me]
resuscitate v.使复活,使苏醒 [re-sus-ci-tate]
retouch v.修描;润色 [re-touch]
retrieve v./n.寻回,取回;挽回(错误) [re-trieve]
revive v.使苏醒;再流 [re-vive]
splice v.接合,衔接 [splice]
stanch v.制止(血液),止住 [stanch]
survive v.幸存 [sur-vive]

relapse 661

deterioration n.恶化,堕落 [de-te-ri-o-ra-tion]
lapse n.失误;(时间等)流逝 [lapse]
relapse n.旧病复发;再恶化;v.旧病复发,再恶化 [re-lapse]

remedy 662

alimentary a.饮食的,营养的 [al-i-men-ta-ry]
detergent a.净化的;n.清洁剂 [de-ter-gent]
hypnotic a.催眠的;n.催眠药 [hyp-not-ic]
laxative a.(药)通便的;放松的;n.轻泻药 [lax-a-tive]
pharmaceutical a.制药的 [phar-ma-ceu-ti-cal]
sedative a.(药物)镇静的;n.镇静剂 [sed-a-tive]
therapeutic a.治病的 [ther-a-peu-tic]
analgesic n.镇痛剂;a.止痛的 [an-al-ge-sic]
antibiotic n.抗生素 [an-ti-bi-ot-ic]
antidote n.解毒药 [an-ti-dote]
antiseptic n.杀菌剂;a.防腐的 [an-ti-sep-tic]
apothecary n.药剂师 [a-poth-e-car-y]
balm n.香油,药膏;镇痛剂 [balm]
bandage n.绷带;v.用绷带包扎 [band-age]
dermatologist n.皮肤病学家 [der-ma-tol-o-gist]
disinfectant n.消毒剂 [dis-in-fect-ant]
dose n.剂量,一剂 [dose]
emollient n.润肤剂 [e-mol-lient]
injection n.注射;注射剂 [in-jec-tion]
narcotic n.催眠药;a.催眠的 [nar-cot-ic]
nostrum n.家传秘方;万灵丹 [nos-trum]
ointment n.油膏,软膏 [oint-ment]
palliative n.缓释剂;a.减轻的,缓和的 [pal-li-a-tive]
panacea n.万灵药 [pan-a-ce-a]
pediatrics n.小儿科 [pe-di-at-rics]
pharmacology n.药理学,药物学 [phar-ma-col-o-gy]
placebo n.安慰剂 [pla-ce-bo]
plaster n.灰泥,石膏;v.抹灰泥 [plas-ter]
podiatrist n.足医 [po-di-a-trist]
prescription n.处方(上的药) [pre-scrip-tion]
quack n.冒充内行之人;庸医 [quack]
receipt n.收到,接到;发票,收据 [re-ceipt]
recipe n.食谱 [rec-i-pe]
redress n.改正,修正 [re-dress]
salve n.药膏;v.减轻,缓和 [sal-ve]
stethoscope n.听诊器 [steth-o-scope]
stimulant n.兴奋剂,刺激物 [stim-u-lant]
surgeon n.外科医师;军医,船上的医生 [sur-geon]
tonic n.增进健康之物,补品;a.滋补的 [ton-ic]
vaccine n.牛痘苗,疫苗 [vac-cine]
compress v.压缩,浓缩 [com-press]
drain v.排出沟外;喝光 [drain]
excise v.切除,删去 [ex-cise]
incise v.切,切割 [in-cise]
palliate v.减轻(痛苦);掩饰(罪行) [pal-li-ate]
restore v.使回复,恢复;修复,修补 [re-store]

bane 663

poisonous a.有毒的;有害的 [poi-son-ous]
bane n.祸根 [bane]
fang n.(毒蛇的)尖牙 [fang]
leaven n.发酵剂;影响力;v.发酵;影响 [leav-en]
nettle n.荨麻;v.烦忧,激恼 [net-tle]
nicotine n.尼古丁 [nic-o-tine]
pest n.害虫;讨厌的人或物 [pest]
scourge n.鞭笞;磨难;v.鞭笞,磨难 [scourge]
thorn n.刺;荆棘 [thorn]
toxin n.毒素,毒质 [tox-in]
sting v.刺痛;叮螫;n.螫刺 [sting]

3. Contingent Subservience

safety 664

impenetrable a.不能穿透的;不可理解的 [im-pen-e-tra-ble]
impregnable a.攻不破的,征服不了的 [im-preg-na-ble]
invulnerable a.无法伤害的 [in-vul-ner-a-ble]
preservative a.防腐的;n.防腐剂 [pre-serv-a-tive]
secure a.安全的;稳固的;v.固定;使安全 [se-cure]
snug a.温暖的,舒适的 [snug]
tenable a.站得住脚的,无懈可击的 [ten-a-ble]
trustworthy a.值得信赖的,可靠的 [trust-wor-thy]
unscathed a.未受损伤的,未遭伤害的 [un-scathed]
unthreatening a.不威胁的 [un-threat-en-ing]
auspices n.资助,赞助 [aus-pi-ces]
confidence n.信任,自信,信心 [con-fi-dence]
custodian n.管理员,监护人 [cus-to-di-an]
custody n.监管,保管 [cus-to-dy]
quarantine n.隔离检疫期,隔离 [quar-an-tine]
safeguard n.防范措施 [safe-guard]
sentinel n.哨兵,卫兵 [sen-ti-nel]
shelter n.掩蔽处,掩蔽;v.庇护,保护 [shel-ter]
shield n.盾;v.掩护,遮挡 [shield]
shroud n.寿衣;遮蔽物;v.覆盖 [shroud]
anchor v.稳固;固定n.锚 [an-chor]
ensconce v.安置,安坐 [en-sconce]

danger 665

critical a.挑毛病的;关键的,危急的 [crit-i-cal]
hazardous a.危险的 [haz-ard-ous]
ominous a.预兆的,不祥的 [om-i-nous]
perilous a.危险的,冒险的 [per-i-lous]
precarious a.不稳的,危险的 [pre-car-i-ous]
ramshackle a.摇摇欲坠的 [ram-shack-le]
slippery a.滑的;狡猾的 [slip-per-y]
ticklish a.怕痒的;易怒的 [tick-lish]
vulnerable a.易受攻击的 [vul-ner-a-ble]
explosive n.炸药;a.爆炸性的;使人冲动的 [ex-plo-sive]
exposure n.暴露,显露,曝光 [ex-po-sure]
hazard n.危险 [haz-ard]
jeopardy n.危险 [jeop-ard-y]
peril n.危险 [per-il]
stake n.柱桩;赌注 [stake]
compromise v.妥协;危害 [com-pro-mise]
jeopardize v.危及,危害 [jeop-ard-ize]
totter v.摇摇欲坠;步履蹒跚 [tot-ter]

refuge 666

covert a.秘密的,隐密的 [cov-ert]
asylum n.避难所,庇护所 [a-sy-lum]
ballast n.(船等)压舱物 [bal-last]
barrier n.路障;障碍 [bar-ri-er]
fastness n.要塞,城堡 [fast-ness]
harbor n.港,避难所;v.包庇,隐匿 [har-bor]
haven n.安息所,避难所 [ha-ven]
quay n.码头 [quay]
retreat n./v.撤退;隐居处 [re-treat]
safeguard n.防范措施 [safe-guard]
shelter n.掩蔽处,掩蔽;v.庇护,保护 [shel-ter]
shield n.盾;v.掩护,遮挡 [shield]
anchor v.稳固;固定n.锚 [an-chor]

pitfall 667

latency n.潜伏期 [la-ten-cy]
pitfall n.陷阱,未料到的危险或困难 [pit-fall]
precipice n.悬崖 [prec-i-pice]
ambush v.埋伏;伏击 [am-bush]

warning 668

beacon n.烽火;灯塔 [bea-con]
caveat n.警告,告诫 [ca-ve-at]
croak n.蛙鸣声;v.发牢骚,抱怨 [croak]
premonition n.预感,预兆 [pre-mo-ni-tion]
sentinel n.哨兵,卫兵 [sen-ti-nel]
siren n.汽笛,警报器 [si-ren]
admonish v.训诫;警告 [ad-mon-ish]
menace v./n.威胁,危险 [men-ace]

preservation 670

conservative a.保守的,守旧的 [con-serv-a-tive]
intact a.完整的,未动过的 [in-tact]
preservative a.防腐的;n.防腐剂 [pre-serv-a-tive]
additive n.添加剂 [ad-di-tive]
charm n.魅力;咒语,咒符 [charm]
hold n.(船)货舱 [hold]
maintenance n.维持,维护 [main-te-nance]
rescue n./v.解救;把…从法律监管下强行夺回 [res-cue]
concentrate v.集中,浓缩 [con-cen-trate]
evaporate v.(使某物)蒸发掉 [e-vap-o-rate]
husband v.妥善而又节约地管理;做…的丈夫 [hus-band]
pasteurize v.加热杀菌,消毒 [pas-teur-ize]
sterilize v.使不育;杀菌 [ster-i-lize]
sustain v.承受(困难),支撑(重量) [sus-tain]

escape 671

drawbridge n.吊挢 [draw-bridge]
evasion n.躲避,借口 [e-va-sion]
flight n.飞行,飞翔;逃跑 [flight]
impunity n.免除惩罚 [im-pu-ni-ty]
loophole n.枪眼,小窗,换气孔 [loop-hole]
refugee n.难民,流亡者 [ref-u-gee]
retreat n./v.撤退;隐居处 [re-treat]
elude v.逃避;搞不清 [e-lude]
reprieve v.缓刑,暂时解救;n.缓刑,暂时解救 [re-prieve]
vent v.发泄(情绪);开孔;n.孔,口 [vent]

deliverance 672

extricable a.可解救的,能脱险的 [ex-tri-ca-ble]
ransom n.赎金;赎身;v.赎回 [ran-som]
rescue n./v.解救;把…从法律监管下强行夺回 [res-cue]
respite n.休息;暂缓 [res-pite]
emancipate v.解放,解除 [e-man-ci-pate]
extricate v.拯救,救出 [ex-tri-cate]
redeem v.赎罪 [re-deem]
reprieve v.缓刑,暂时解救;n.缓刑,暂时解救 [re-prieve]
retrieve v./n.寻回,取回;挽回(错误) [re-trieve]

3. Precursory Measures

preparation 673

attune (to)v.使调和 [at-tune]
elaborate a.精致的,复杂的;v.详尽地说明,阐明 [e-lab-o-rate]
inchoate a.刚开始的;未发展的 [in-cho-ate]
labored a.吃力的;(文体等)不自然的 [la-bored]
mature a.成熟的;深思熟虑的 [ma-ture]
preliminary a.预备的;初步的,开始的 [pre-lim-i-nar-y]
provident a.深谋远虑的;节俭的 [prov-i-dent]
provisional a.暂时的,临时的 [pro-vi-sion-al]
ready a.机敏的,迅速的 [read-y]
snug a.温暖的,舒适的 [snug]
barbecue n.烤肉架;烤肉 [bar-be-cue]
digestion n.消化,吸收 [di-ges-tion]
elaboration n.详细的细节,详尽阐述 [e-lab-o-ra-tion]
hatch n.船舱盖;v.孵化 [hatch]
incubation n.孵卵期;潜伏期 [in-cu-ba-tion]
maturity n.成熟,完备 [ma-tur-i-ty]
pack n.狼群;一群动物 [pack]
predisposition n.倾向,癖性 [pre-dis-po-si-tion]
prime n.全盛时期;a.首先的;最好的 [prime]
provision n.(粮食)供应;(法律等)条款 [pro-vi-sion]
rehearsal n.排演,演习 [re-hears-al]
scaffold n.脚手架(造房时搭的架子) [scaf-fold]
adjust v.整顿,整理;适应 [ad-just]
anticipate v.预期,期待 [an-tic-i-pate]
array v.部署;n.陈列;大批 [ar-ray]
breed v.繁殖;教养;n.品种,种类 [breed]
fledge v.小鸟长飞羽,变得羽毛丰满 [fledge]
forecast v.预报,预测;n.预测 [fore-cast]
garnish v.装饰 [gar-nish]
nurture v.抚育,给…营养物,教养;n.养育,营养物;(总称)环境因素 [nur-ture]
refurbish v.刷新,擦亮 [re-fur-bish]
rehearse v.排练,预演;详述 [re-hearse]
rig v.欺骗,舞弊,伪造 [rig]
ripen v.使成熟 [rip-en]
temper v.锤炼;缓和;n.脾气 [tem-per]

nonpreparation 674

coarse a.粗糙的;低劣的;粗俗的 [coarse]
extemporaneous a.即席的,没有准备的 [ex-tem-po-ra-ne-ous]
green a.新鲜的,未成熟的,无经验的 [green]
improvident a.无远见的,不节俭的 [im-prov-i-dent]
improvised a.临时准备的,即席而作的 [im-pro-vised]
precocious a.早熟的 [pre-co-cious]
premature a.过早的,早熟的 [pre-ma-ture]
shiftless a.没有决断力的;偷懒的;无能的 [shift-less]
spontaneous a.自发的;自然的 [spon-ta-ne-ous]
unpremeditated a.非预谋的 [un-pre-med-i-tat-ed]
unqualified a.无资格的;无限制的,绝对的 [un-qual-i-fied]
untutored a.未经教育的 [un-tu-tored]
crudity n.粗糙,生硬 [cru-di-ty]
fallow n.休耕地;a.(土地)休耕的 [fal-low]
germ n.胚芽,芽孢;微生物,细菌 [germ]
dismantle v.拆除 [dis-man-tle]
extemporize v.即席演说 [ex-tem-po-rize]
improvise v.即席而作 [im-pro-vise]

essay 675

empirical a.经验的,实证的 [em-pir-i-cal]
tentative a.试探性的,尝试性的 [ten-ta-tive]
debut n.初次登台,初次露面 [de-but]
speculate v.沉思,思索;投机 [spec-u-late]
strive v.奋斗,努力 [strive]

undertaking 676

compact a.结实的;简洁的;n.合同,协议 [com-pact]
contract n.合同;v.订合同;收缩 [con-tract]
enterprise n.公司,事业单位;进取心 [en-ter-prise]
tackle v.处理;n.滑车 [tack-le]

use 677

application n.请求,申请;应用,应用程序 [ap-pli-ca-tion]
disposal n.清除,处理 [dis-pos-al]
handle n.柄,把手;v.处理 [han-dle]
mold n.模子;(美)霉;v.塑造 [mold]
recourse n.求助,依靠 [re-course]
resort n.度假胜地 [re-sort]
absorb v.吸收;同化;吸引…的注意 [ab-sorb]
exert v.运用(力量等) [ex-ert]
expend v.花费;用光 [ex-pend]
manipulate v.操纵 [ma-nip-u-late]
utilize v.利用,使用 [u-ti-lize]
wield v.支配,掌权 [wield]

disuse 678

forbearance n.自制,忍耐 [for-bear-ance]
reserve n.储备(物),储藏量;缄默,谨慎;v.保留,储备,预订 [re-serve]
abstain v.禁绝,放弃 [ab-stain]
discard v.扔掉,抛弃 [dis-card]
dismantle v.拆除 [dis-man-tle]
shelve v.搁置 [shelve]
supersede v.淘汰,取代 [su-per-sede]

misuse 679

abuse v./n.辱骂; 滥用 [a-buse]
desecrate v.玷辱,亵渎 [des-e-crate]
profane v.亵渎,玷污 [pro-fane]
waste v.使身体消瘦,损耗 [waste]

Section III. Voluntary Action

1. Simple Voluntary Action

action 680

bout n.一回合,一阵 [bout]
coup n.意外而成功的行动 [cou-p]
deed n.行为;(土地或建筑物的)转让契约、证书 [deed]
feat n.功绩,壮举 [feat]
movement n.(交响乐)乐章 [move-ment]
stitch n.(缝纫时的)一针,一钩;v.缝合 [stitch]
commit v.托付;承诺;犯罪 [com-mit]
enact v.制定(法律);扮演(角色) [en-act]
execute v.执行,履行;将某人处死 [ex-e-cute]
exploit v.剥削;开发利用;n.英勇行为 [ex-ploit]
inflict v.遭受 [in-flict]
prosecute v.告发,检举 [pros-e-cute]
stroke v.抚摸;n.击,打;一笔 [stroke]

inaction 681

passive a.被动的,缺乏活力的 [pas-sive]
fallow n.休耕地;a.(土地)休耕的 [fal-low]
hold n.(船)货舱 [hold]
sinecure n.挂名差事,闲职 [si-ne-cure]
refrain v.抑制;n.歌曲的反复句,叠句 [re-frain]

activity 682

agile a.敏捷的,灵活的 [ag-ile]
alert a.警惕的,机警的; n.警报 [a-lert]
animated a.活泼的,生动的 [an-i-mat-ed]
assiduous a.勤勉的;专心的 [as-sid-u-ous]
brisk a.敏捷的,活泼的;清新健康的 [brisk]
expeditious a.迅速的,敏捷的 [ex-pe-di-tious]
forward a.过激的,莽撞的 [for-ward]
frisky a.活泼的,快活的 [frisk-y]
fussy a.爱挑剔的 [fuss-y]
indefatigable a.不知疲倦的 [in-de-fat-i-ga-ble]
industrious a.勤劳的,勤勉的 [in-dus-tri-ous]
intent a.专心的,渴望的;n.目的,意向 [in-tent]
meddlesome a.爱管闲事的 [med-dle-some]
notable a.明显的,出众的,重要的 [no-ta-ble]
officious a.爱发命令的,好忠告的;过度殷勤的 [of-fi-cious]
painstaking a.煞费苦心的 [pains-tak-ing]
ready a.机敏的,迅速的 [read-y]
restless a.不停的;不安静的 [rest-less]
sedulous a.聚精会神的,勤勉的 [sed-u-lous]
vivacious a.活泼的,快活的 [vi-va-cious]
agility n.敏捷 [a-gil-i-ty]
alacrity n.乐意,欣然;敏捷,活泼 [a-lac-ri-ty]
animation n.活泼,有生气;卡通制作 [an-i-ma-tion]
devotee n.爱好者 [dev-o-tee]
diligence n.勤勉,勤奋 [dil-i-gence]
drudgery n.苦工,苦活 [drudg-er-y]
fast n.绝食,斋戒;adv.很快地,紧紧地 [fast]
fuss n.大惊小怪 [fuss]
insomnia n.失眠症 [in-som-ni-a]
interference n.干涉,妨碍 [in-ter-fer-ence]
movement n.(交响乐)乐章 [move-ment]
sedulity n.勤奋,勤勉 [se-du-li-ty]
smart n.痛苦;a.时髦的;聪明的 [smart]
toll n.过路(桥)费;伤亡人数,损失;v.(缓慢而有规律地)敲 [toll]
velocity n.速度;迅速 [ve-loc-i-ty]
abandon v./n.放弃;放纵 [a-ban-don]
agitate v.搅动,煽动;使不安,使焦虑 [ag-i-tate]
dispatch v.派遣;一下子做完;吃完;n.迅速 [dis-patch]
fidget v.坐立不安;n.烦躁之人 [fidg-et]
hasten v.催促,促进 [has-ten]
interpose v.置于…之间;使介入 [in-ter-pose]
intrigue v.密谋;引起…极大兴趣 [in-trigue]
meddle v.干涉,干预 [med-dle]
plod v.重步走;吃力地干 [plod]
prompt v.促使,激起;a.敏捷的,迅速的 [prompt]
stir v.刺激 [stir]

inactivity 683

balmy a.(气候)温和的;芳香的 [balm-y]
comatose a.昏迷的 [co-ma-tose]
dilatory a.慢吞吞的,磨蹭的 [di-la-to-ry]
dormant a.冬眠的;静止的 [dor-mant]
dull a.不鲜明的;迟钝的;v.变迟钝 [dull]
flagging a.下垂的;衰弱的 [flag-ging]
hypnotic a.催眠的;n.催眠药 [hyp-not-ic]
idle a.(指人)无所事事的;无效的;v.懒散,无所事事 [i-dle]
indolent a.懒惰的 [in-do-lent]
inert a.惰性的;行动迟钝的 [in-ert]
lackadaisical a.无精打采的;无兴趣的 [lack-a-dai-si-cal]
languid a.没精打采的,倦怠的 [lan-guid]
lethargic a.昏睡的 [le-thar-gic]
listless a.无精打采的 [list-less]
maudlin a.感情脆弱的,爱哭的 [maud-lin]
remiss a.疏忽的,不留心的 [re-miss]
sedative a.(药物)镇静的;n.镇静剂 [sed-a-tive]
slack a.懒散的,懈怠的;(绳)松弛的;v.松懈,怠惰 [slack]
soporific a.催眠的;n.安眠药 [sop-o-rif-ic]
supine a.仰卧的;懒散的 [su-pine]
torpid a.懒散的,死气沉沉的 [tor-pid]
coma n.昏迷状态 [co-ma]
dummy n.人体模型,假人 [dum-my]
languor n.身心疲惫 [lan-guor]
lethargy n.昏睡;倦怠;呆滞懒散 [leth-ar-gy]
loaf n.一条(面包);v.虚度光阴 [loaf]
lull n.活动的暂停;v.使平静 [lull]
lullaby n.摇篮曲 [lull-a-by]
obstinacy n.固执,倔强,顽固 [ob-sti-na-cy]
relaxation n.松弛,消遣 [re-lax-a-tion]
sloth n.懒惰;树獭(一种动物) [sloth]
slouch n.没精打采的样子;v.没精打采地坐(站、走) [slouch]
sluggard n.懒鬼 [slug-gard]
stupor n.昏迷,不醒人事 [stu-por]
torpor n.死气沉沉 [tor-por]
trance n.恍惚,昏睡状态 [trance]
dabble v.涉足,浅赏 [dab-ble]
dally v.闲荡,嬉戏 [dal-ly]
dawdle v.闲荡,虚度 [daw-dle]
drawl v./n.慢吞吞地说话(态度) [drawl]
drone v.嗡嗡地响,单调地说;n.单调的低音 [drone]
flag v.减弱,衰退;枯萎 [flag]
goldbrick v.逃避责任,偷懒 [gold-brick]
hibernate v.冬眠,蛰伏 [hi-ber-nate]
lag v.落后,滞留 [lag]
languish v.变得消瘦;衰弱 [lan-guish]
loll v.懒洋洋地坐或卧 [loll]
lounge v.懒散地斜靠;n.休息室 [lounge]
mitigate v.减轻,缓和 [mit-i-gate]
poke v.刺,戳;嘲弄 [poke]
slumber v.睡眠,安睡;n.安睡 [slum-ber]
yawn v.打呵欠 [yawn]

haste 684

headlong adj./adv.轻率的(地),迅猛的(地) [head-long]
boisterous a.喧闹的;猛烈的 [bois-ter-ous]
brusque a.唐突的,鲁莽的 [brusque]
cursory a.粗略的,草率的 [cur-so-ry]
fussy a.爱挑剔的 [fuss-y]
hasty a.急急忙忙的 [has-ty]
impetuous a.冲动的,鲁莽的 [im-pet-u-ous]
urgent a.迫切的,紧急的 [ur-gent]
fuss n.大惊小怪 [fuss]
precipitation n.降水(量) [pre-cip-i-ta-tion]
velocity n.速度;迅速 [ve-loc-i-ty]
accelerate v.加速;促进 [ac-cel-er-ate]
dispatch v.派遣;一下子做完;吃完;n.迅速 [dis-patch]
fidget v.坐立不安;n.烦躁之人 [fidg-et]
flutter v.拍翅 [flut-ter]
hasten v.催促,促进 [has-ten]
plunge v.投入;俯冲 [plunge]
precipitate v.加速,促成;a.鲁莽的 [pre-cip-i-tate]

leisure 685

deliberate a.深思熟虑的,故意的;v.慎重考虑 [de-lib-er-ate]
convenience n.便利,有益;方便(的用具,机械等) [con-ven-i-ence]
relaxation n.松弛,消遣 [re-lax-a-tion]
repose n./v.躺着休息,安睡 [re-pose]

exertion 686

elaborate a.精致的,复杂的;v.详尽地说明,阐明 [e-lab-o-rate]
painstaking a.煞费苦心的 [pains-tak-ing]
wearisome a.使人感到疲倦或厌倦的 [wea-ri-some]
drudgery n.苦工,苦活 [drudg-er-y]
spell n.连续的一段时间 [spell]
stretch v.变长;伸展 [stretch]
strive v.奋斗,努力 [strive]
toil v./n.辛苦,辛勤劳作 [toil]

repose 687

recess n.壁凹(墙上装的架子、柜子等凹处);休假 [re-cess]
relaxation n.松弛,消遣 [re-lax-a-tion]
repose n./v.躺着休息,安睡 [re-pose]
respite n.休息;暂缓 [res-pite]
slacken v.(使)松弛,放松 [slack-en]
unbend v.弄直;放松 [un-bend]

fatigue 688

irksome a.令人苦恼的,讨厌的 [irk-some]
prostrate a.俯卧的;沮丧的;v.使下跪鞠躬 [pros-trate]
shattered a.粉碎的;破坏的 [shattered]
wearisome a.使人感到疲倦或厌倦的 [wea-ri-some]
weary a.疲劳的,令人厌倦的;v.厌烦 [wea-ry]
exhaust n.(机器排出的)废气,蒸气;v.使非常疲倦 [ex-haust]
fatigue n.疲乏,劳累 [fa-tigue]
jade n.疲惫的老马;玉,翡翠 [jade]
lassitude n.无力;没精打采 [las-si-tude]
tire n.轮胎(tyre);v.疲劳 [tire]
collapse v.坍塌,塌陷;虚脱,晕倒 [col-lapse]
droop v.低垂;沮丧,萎靡 [droop]
flag v.减弱,衰退;枯萎 [flag]
harass v.侵扰,烦忧 [har-ass]
irk v.使苦恼的,厌烦 [irk]
succumb v.屈从;因…死亡 [suc-cumb]
yawn v.打呵欠 [yawn]

refreshment 689

bracing a.令人振奋的 [brac-ing]
bait n.诱饵;v.逗弄;激怒 [bait]
recruit n.新兵;新成员;v.征募 [re-cruit]
spell n.连续的一段时间 [spell]
brace v.使稳固,架稳;n.支撑物 [brace]
refresh v.消除…的疲劳,使精神振作 [re-fresh]

agent 690

operative a.(计划等)实施中的;生效的 [op-er-a-tive]
architect n.建筑师 [ar-chi-tect]
bricklayer n.砌砖盖房者,泥瓦匠 [brick-lay-er]
carpenter n.木匠 [car-pen-ter]
factotum n.杂役,听差 [fac-to-tum]
forger n.伪造者;打铁匠 [forg-er]
mason n.泥瓦匠,石匠 [ma-son]
personnel n.全体人员,员工 [per-son-nel]
practitioner n.开业者;从事某种手艺者 [prac-ti-tion-er]
termite n.白蚁 [ter-mite]
hack v.乱劈,乱砍;n.雇佣文人 [hack]

workshop 691

armory n.军械库 [ar-mor-y]
cabinet n.橱柜;内阁 [cab-i-net]
caldron n.(煮汤用的)大锅 [cal-dron]
forge n.铁匠铺;v.锤炼;伪造 [forge]
furnace n.锅炉 [fur-nace]
hive n.蜂房;忙碌之地 [hive]
loom n.织布机;v.(威胁性)隐约出现 [loom]
matrix n.模子;矩阵 [ma-trix]
mill n.磨坊;压榨机;制造厂 [mill]
mint n.大量;巨额 [mint]
refinery n.提炼厂,精炼厂 [re-fin-er-y]

2. Complex Voluntary Action

conduct 692

bearing n.关系,意义;方位 [bear-ing]
campaign n.战役;竞选活动 [cam-paign]
conduct n.品德,行为;v.领导,引导 [con-duct]
dealing n.生意行为;作风 [deal-ing]
guise n.外观,装束 [guise]
husbandry n.耕种,务农;节敛管理 [hus-band-ry]
regime n.政权,政治制度 [re-gime]
transaction n.办理,交易 [trans-ac-tion]
discharge v.流出;释放;解雇;履行义务 [dis-charge]
dispatch v.派遣;一下子做完;吃完;n.迅速 [dis-patch]
enact v.制定(法律);扮演(角色) [en-act]
execute v.执行,履行;将某人处死 [ex-e-cute]
supervise v.监督,管理 [su-per-vise]

direction 693

compass n.指南针,罗盘;界限,范围 [com-pass]
conduct n.品德,行为;v.领导,引导 [con-duct]
control n.实验对照组 [con-trol]
legislation n.法律,法规,立法 [leg-is-la-tion]
legislature n.立法机关,立法团体 [leg-is-la-ture]
needle n.针;针叶 [nee-dle]
pilot n.飞行员;领航员;领导人 [pi-lot]
portfolio n.文件夹;股份单 [port-fo-li-o]
rudder n.船舵;领导者 [rud-der]
overlook v.忽视;俯视 [o-ver-look]
prescribe v.开处方;规定 [pre-scribe]
preside v.担任主席;负责;指挥 [pre-side]
regulate v.管制;调整 [reg-u-late]
steer v.操舵,驾驶;n.公牛,食用牛 [steer]
superintend v.监督 [su-per-in-tend]
supervise v.监督,管理 [su-per-vise]
tackle v.处理;n.滑车 [tack-le]

director 694

principal a.主要的,重要的 [prin-ci-pal]
arbiter n.权威人士,泰斗 [ar-bi-ter]
bellwether n.领导者,领头羊 [bell-weth-er]
demagogue n.蛊惑民心的政客 [dem-a-gogue]
factotum n.杂役,听差 [fac-to-tum]
functionary n.小官,低级公务员 [func-tion-ar-y]
pilot n.飞行员;领航员;领导人 [pi-lot]
proctor n.代理人,学监 [proc-tor]
ranger n.森林管理员;巡逻骑警 [rang-er]
surveyor n.测量员 [sur-vey-or]
vicar n.教区牧师 [vic-ar]
husband v.妥善而又节约地管理;做…的丈夫 [hus-band]

advice 695

advocate >v.拥护,支持,鼓吹;n.支持者,拥护者 [ad-vo-cate]
deliberate a.深思熟虑的,故意的;v.慎重考虑 [de-lib-er-ate]
hortative a.激励的 [hor-ta-tive]
advocacy n.拥护,支持 [ad-vo-ca-cy]
arbiter n.权威人士,泰斗 [ar-bi-ter]
conference n.讨论会,协商会 [con-fer-ence]
injunction n.命令,强制令 [in-junc-tion]
mentor n.导师 [men-tor]
admonish v.训诫;警告 [ad-mon-ish]
confer v.讨论,商谈;赠予 [con-fer]
dictate v.口述;命令 [dic-tate]
enjoin v.命令,吩咐 [en-join]
exhort v.力劝,勉励 [ex-hort]
expostulate v.(对人或行为进行)抗议,告诫 [ex-pos-tu-late]
prescribe v.开处方;规定 [pre-scribe]
prompt v.促使,激起;a.敏捷的,迅速的 [prompt]

council 696

meet a.合适的 [meet]
bench n.法官席;长凳 [bench]
cabinet n.橱柜;内阁 [cab-i-net]
caucus n.政党高层会议 [cau-cus]
clique n.朋党派系,小集团 [clique]
conclave n.秘密会议 [con-clave]
conference n.讨论会,协商会 [con-fer-ence]
court n.法庭,法院;宫廷,朝廷;v.献殷勤;追求 [court]
assemble v.集合,聚集 [as-sem-ble]
confer v.讨论,商谈;赠予 [con-fer]

precept 697

canon n.经典,真作 [ca-non]
code n.密码;法典;v.将某事物编写成密码 [code]
formula n.分子式;公式;套语,惯用语 [for-mu-la]
norm n.规范,准则 [norm]
precept n.箴言,格言 [pre-cept]
prescription n.处方(上的药) [pre-scrip-tion]
receipt n.收到,接到;发票,收据 [re-ceipt]
recipe n.食谱 [rec-i-pe]
statute n.法规,法令 [stat-ute]

skill 698

accomplished a.完成了的;有技巧的,有造诣的 [ac-com-plished]
adroit a.熟练的,灵巧的 [a-droit]
ambidextrous a.十分灵巧的 [am-bi-dex-trous]
apt a.易于…的,恰当的 [apt]
conversant a.精通的,熟知的 [con-ver-sant]
cunning a.善于骗人的;灵巧的;n.欺诈行为 [cun-ning]
deft a.灵巧的,熟练的 [deft]
dexterous a.灵巧的,熟练的 [dex-ter-ous]
discreet a.言行谨慎的 [dis-creet]
felicitous a.(话语等)适当的,得体的 [fe-lic-i-tous]
hackneyed a.陈腐的,平常的 [hack-neyed]
ingenious a.聪明的,有发明天才的 [in-gen-ious]
proficient a.熟练的,精通的 [pro-fi-cient]
qualified a.有资格的;有限制的 [qual-i-fied]
ready a.机敏的,迅速的 [read-y]
shipshape a.整洁的,井然有序的 [ship-shape]
shrewd a.判断敏捷的,精明的 [shrewd]
slick a.熟练的;圆滑的;光滑的 [slick]
aptitude n.适宜;才能,资质 [ap-ti-tude]
attainment n.成就 [at-tain-ment]
competence n.胜任,能力 [com-pe-tence]
crack n.爆裂声;裂缝;v.裂开;破解,破译 [crack]
craft n.行业;手艺 [craft]
dexterity n.纯熟,灵巧 [dex-ter-i-ty]
discretion n.谨慎,审慎 [dis-cre-tion]
faculty n.全体教员;官能 [fac-ul-ty]
finesse n.技巧;计谋;手段 [fi-nesse]
forte n.长处,擅长;a.(音乐)强音的 [for-te]
ingenuity n.巧思,聪敏 [in-ge-nu-i-ty]
knack n.特殊能力;窍门 [knack]
smart n.痛苦;a.时髦的;聪明的 [smart]
tact n.机智;圆滑 [tact]
address v.处理,对付,着手解决;致词 [ad-dress]

unskillfulness 699

awkward a.笨拙的;难用的;不便的 [awk-ward]
clumsy a.笨拙的;拙劣的 [clum-sy]
giddy a.轻浮的,不严肃的 [gid-dy]
green a.新鲜的,未成熟的,无经验的 [green]
incompetent a.无能力的,不能胜任的 [in-com-pe-tent]
infelicitous a.不幸的,不妥当的 [in-fe-lic-i-tous]
maladroit a.笨拙的 [mal-a-droit]
shiftless a.没有决断力的;偷懒的;无能的 [shift-less]
uninitiated a.外行的,缺乏经验的 [un-in-i-ti-at-ed]
unqualified a.无资格的;无限制的,绝对的 [un-qual-i-fied]
folly n.愚蠢;愚蠢的行为,思想或做法 [fol-ly]
infelicity n.不幸;不恰当 [in-fe-lic-i-ty]
sabotage n.阴谋破坏,颠覆活动 [sab-o-tage]
blunder v.犯大错;笨拙地做;n.愚蠢之举 [blun-der]
boggle v.畏缩不前;使退缩 [bog-gle]
bungle v.粗制滥造 [bun-gle]
flounder v.挣扎;艰苦地移动;n.比目鱼 [floun-der]
fumble v.摸索,笨拙搜寻;弄乱,搞糟 [fum-ble]

proficient 700

adept a.老练的,精通的 [a-dept]
proficient a.熟练的,精通的 [pro-fi-cient]
acrobat n.特技演员,杂技演员 [ac-ro-bat]
connoisseur n.鉴赏家,行家 [con-nois-seur]
protagonist n.提议者,支持者 [pro-tag-o-nist]
veteran n.老兵,老手;a.经验丰富的 [vet-er-an]

bungler 701

amateur n.业余爱好者 [am-a-teur]
novice n.生手,新手 [nov-ice]
quack n.冒充内行之人;庸医 [quack]
yokel n.乡巴佬 [yo-kel]

cunning 702

acute a.灵敏的;[病]急性的 [a-cute]
artificial a.人造的,假的 [ar-ti-fi-cial]
astute a.机敏的,精明的 [as-tute]
canny a.精明仔细的 [can-ny]
cunning a.善于骗人的;灵巧的;n.欺诈行为 [cun-ning]
diplomatic a.外交的;圆滑的 [dip-lo-mat-ic]
evasive a.迥避的,逃避的,托辞的 [e-va-sive]
insidious a.隐藏诡计的 [in-sid-i-ous]
leery a.机警的,怀疑的 [leer-y]
profound a.深的,深刻的;渊博的,深奥的 [pro-found]
shrewd a.判断敏捷的,精明的 [shrewd]
sly a.狡猾的,鬼鬼祟祟的 [sly]
subtle a.微妙的,精巧的 [sub-tle]
wily a.狡猾的 [wil-y]
arch n.拱门,拱形 [arch]
artifice n.巧办法;诡计 [ar-ti-fice]
chicanery n.诡计,狡诈 [chi-can-er-y]
craft n.行业;手艺 [craft]
duplicity n.欺骗,口是心非 [du-plic-i-ty]
evasion n.躲避,借口 [e-va-sion]
finesse n.技巧;计谋;手段 [fi-nesse]
guile n.欺诈,狡猾 [guile]
machination n.阴谋 [mach-i-na-tion]
plot n.情节;阴谋;策划 [plot]
ruse n.骗术,诡计 [ruse]
stratagem n.谋略,策略 [strat-a-gem]
subterfuge n.诡计,托辞 [sub-ter-fuge]
circumvent v.回避;用计谋战胜或规避 [cir-cum-vent]
contrive v.计划,设计 [con-trive]
dodge v.闪开,躲避 [dodge]
flatter v.恭维,奉承 [flat-ter]
gerrymander v.(为使某政党在选举中取得优势)不公正地将(某地区)划成选区 [ger-ry-man-der]
intrigue v.密谋;引起…极大兴趣 [in-trigue]
overreach v.做事过头 [o-ver-reach]
sidestep v.横跨一步以躲避;回避 [side-step]
temporize v.拖延;见风使舵 [tem-po-rize]
undermine v.破坏,损坏 [un-der-mine]

artlessness 703

aboveboard a./adv.光明正大的(地) [a-bove-board]
artless a.粗俗的;自然的 [art-less]
blunt a.钝的;直率的;v.变钝 [blunt]
candid a.率直的 [can-did]
guileless a.厚道的,老实的 [guile-less]
ingenuous a.纯朴的,单纯的 [in-gen-u-ous]
naive a.天真的,纯朴的 [na-ive]
outspoken a.直言不讳的 [out-spo-ken]
sincere a.诚实的,正直的;真挚的,纯净的 [sin-cere]
straightforward a.正直的;易懂的;直截了当的 [straight-for-ward]
unaffected a.自然的,不矫揉造作的 [un-af-fect-ed]
unreserved a.无限制的;未被预定的 [un-re-served]
untutored a.未经教育的 [un-tu-tored]
candor n.坦白,率直 [can-dor]
innocence n.无辜,清白 [in-no-cence]
abandon v./n.放弃;放纵 [a-ban-don]

Section IV. Antagonism

1. Conditional Antagonism

difficulty 704

awkward a.笨拙的;难用的;不便的 [awk-ward]
crabbed a.暴躁的 [crab-bed]
critical a.挑毛病的;关键的,危急的 [crit-i-cal]
delicate a.娇嫩的;精致的,优美的 [del-i-cate]
desperate a.不顾死活的,拼命的 [des-per-ate]
formidable a.可怕的;困难的 [for-mi-da-ble]
intractable a.倔强的;难管的 [in-trac-ta-ble]
intricate a.复杂难懂的 [in-tri-cate]
irksome a.令人苦恼的,讨厌的 [irk-some]
knotty a.有节疤的 [knot-ty]
onerous a.繁重的,麻烦的 [on-er-ous]
refractory a.倔强的;反应迟钝的 [re-frac-to-ry]
stranded a.搁浅的,进退两难的 [stranded]
stubborn a.固执的;难以改变的 [stub-born]
ticklish a.怕痒的;易怒的 [tick-lish]
unwieldy a.笨重的,笨拙的 [un-wield-y]
brunt n.主要冲击力或影响 [brunt]
crab n.蟹,螃蟹;v.抱怨,发脾气 [crab]
crux n.关键,症结所在 [crux]
curmudgeon n.脾气暴躁之人 [cur-mudg-eon]
deadlock n.相持不下,僵局 [dead-lock]
delicacy n.细嫩;精致,优雅 [del-i-ca-cy]
dilemma n.困境,左右为难 [di-lem-ma]
emergency n.紧急事件 [e-mer-gen-cy]
gravel n.碎石,砂砾 [grav-el]
imbroglio n.纠纷,纠葛 [im-bro-gli-o]
intricacy n.错综,复杂,纷乱 [in-tri-ca-cy]
maze n.迷宫 [maze]
paradox n.矛盾;似矛盾而正确的说法 [par-a-dox]
quandary n.困惑,进退两难 [quan-da-ry]
strait n.海峡;a.狭窄的 [strait]
boggle v.畏缩不前;使退缩 [bog-gle]
embarrass v.使忸怩,使难堪 [em-bar-rass]
encumber v.妨害,阻碍 [en-cum-ber]
enmesh v.通常被动)绊住,陷入网 [en-mesh]
entangle v.使纠缠,卷入 [en-tan-gle]
flounder v.挣扎;艰苦地移动;n.比目鱼 [floun-der]
nonplus v.使窘困迷惑;n.迷惑,窘境 [non-plus]
pinch v.捏,掐;n.一撮,一点 [pinch]
pose v.摆姿势;造作 [pose]
ravel v.纠缠,纠结;拆开,拆散 [rav-el]
slough v.(蛇等)蜕皮;n.(蛇等的)蜕皮 [slough]

facility 705

readily adv.不迟疑地;迅速地,轻易地 [read-i-ly]
accessible a.易达到的;易受影响的 [ac-ces-si-ble]
facile a.容易做的;肤浅的 [fac-ile]
feasible a.可行的,可能的 [fea-si-ble]
glib a.流利圆滑的,善辩的 [glib]
pliant a.易受影响的;易弯的 [pli-ant]
slippery a.滑的;狡猾的 [slip-per-y]
smooth a.光滑的;平稳的;v.弄平,使光滑;消除 [smooth]
tractable a.易于驾驭的,温顺的 [trac-ta-ble]
yielding a.弯曲自如的;柔顺的 [yield-ing]
disengage v.脱离,解开 [dis-en-gage]
disentangle v.解决,解脱,解开,澄清 [dis-en-tan-gle]
emancipate v.解放,解除 [e-man-ci-pate]
exonerate v.免除责任;确定无罪 [ex-on-er-ate]
extricate v.拯救,救出 [ex-tri-cate]
facilitate v.使容易,促进 [fa-cil-i-tate]
humor v.纵容,迁就 [hu-mor]
lubricate v.润滑 [lu-bri-cate]
unravel v.解开,拆散 [un-rav-el]

2. Active Antagonism

hindrance 706

cumbersome a.笨重的 [cum-ber-some]
deserted a.荒芜的,无人的 [de-sert-ed]
onerous a.繁重的,麻烦的 [on-er-ous]
balk n.大方木料;v.妨碍;(因困难等)不愿前进或从事某事 [balk]
barrier n.路障;障碍 [bar-ri-er]
boom n.繁荣昌盛时期;v.发出深沉有回响的声音 [boom]
clog n.障碍; v.阻塞 [clog]
cramp n.铁箍,夹子;v.把…箍紧 [cramp]
foil n.钝剑;箔,锡箔纸 [foil]
impediment n.妨碍,阻碍物 [im-ped-i-ment]
incubus n.恶梦;梦魇般的精神压力,负担 [in-cu-bus]
interference n.干涉,妨碍 [in-ter-fer-ence]
killjoy n.令人扫兴的人 [killjoy]
nightmare n.恶梦;可怕的事 [night-mare]
objection n.厌恶,反对 [ob-jec-tion]
obstacle n.障碍,干扰 [ob-sta-cle]
obstruction n.阻碍(物),妨碍 [ob-struc-tion]
opponent n.对手,敌手 [op-po-nent]
pack n.狼群;一群动物 [pack]
restraint n.克制 [re-straint]
shackle n.脚镣,枷锁 [shack-le]
spoke n.(车轮上)辐条 [spoke]
stricture n.严厉谴责;束缚 [stric-ture]
avert v.避免,防止 [a-vert]
bar v.禁止,阻挡;n.条,棒 [ba-r]
barricade v.设栅阻挡;n.栅栏 [bar-ri-cade]
blockade v./n.封锁 [block-ade]
bolt v.急逃(to dash out; dart);螺栓,门栓 [bolt]
check v.使突然停止,阻止 [check]
choke v.(使)窒息,阻塞 [choke]
circumvent v.回避;用计谋战胜或规避 [cir-cum-vent]
contravene v.违背(法规,习俗等) [con-tra-vene]
counteract v.消除,抵消 [coun-ter-act]
damp v.减弱,制止振动;a.潮湿的 [damp]
discompose v.使失态,慌张 [dis-com-pose]
disconcert v.使…尴尬 [dis-con-cert]
embarrass v.使忸怩,使难堪 [em-bar-rass]
encumber v.妨害,阻碍 [en-cum-ber]
faze v.使…狼狈,折磨 [faze]
frustrate v.挫折,使沮丧 [frus-trate]
hamper v.妨碍,阻挠;n.有盖提篮 [ham-per]
hinder v.阻碍,妨碍 [hin-der]
impede v.妨碍 [im-pede]
inhibit v.抑制 [in-hib-it]
intercept v.中途拦截,截取 [in-ter-cept]
interpose v.置于…之间;使介入 [in-ter-pose]
interrupt v.暂时中止;打断,打扰 [in-ter-rupt]
lumber v.蹒跚而行,笨拙地走;n.杂物;木材 [lum-ber]
mar v.破坏,损伤 [mar]
obstruct v.阻塞,截断 [ob-struct]
obviate v.排除(困难) [ob-vi-ate]
oppose v.反对 [op-pose]
override v.不理会;蹂躏,践踏 [o-ver-ride]
preclude v.避免,排除 [pre-clude]
retard v.妨碍;减速 [re-tard]
slacken v.(使)松弛,放松 [slack-en]
snub v.冷落,不理睬 [snub]
spoil v.损坏,破坏;溺爱 [spoil]
tether v.用绳或链拴住(牲畜);n.(拴牲畜的)绳或链;限度,范围 [teth-er]
thwart v.阻挠,使…受挫 [thwart]
traverse v.横穿过,横跨 [trav-erse]
undermine v.破坏,损坏 [un-der-mine]

aid 707

advocate >v.拥护,支持,鼓吹;n.支持者,拥护者 [ad-vo-cate]
accessory a.附属的,次要的 [ac-ces-so-ry]
amicable a.友好的 [am-i-ca-ble]
ancillary a.辅助的;n.助手 [an-cil-lar-y]
auxiliary a.辅助的,协助的 [aux-il-ia-ry]
favorable a.有利的;赞成的 [fa-vor-a-ble]
forward a.过激的,莽撞的 [for-ward]
obliging a.恳切的,热心助人的 [o-blig-ing]
propitious a.吉利的;顺利的 [pro-pi-tious]
subsidiary a.辅助的;次要的 [sub-sid-i-ar-y]
adjunct n.附加物,附件 [ad-junct]
advocacy n.拥护,支持 [ad-vo-ca-cy]
bolster n.枕垫;v.支持,鼓励 [bol-ster]
championship n.冠军地位;锦标赛 [cham-pi-on-ship]
manure n.粪肥;v.给…施肥 [ma-nure]
nutrition n.营养 [nu-tri-tion]
patronage n.赞助,惠顾 [pat-ron-age]
prop n.支撑物,靠山;v.支持 [prop]
recruit n.新兵;新成员;v.征募 [re-cruit]
rescue n./v.解救;把…从法律监管下强行夺回 [res-cue]
abet v.教唆,鼓励,帮助 [a-bet]
accommodate v.与…一致;提供食宿 [ac-com-mo-date]
countenance v.支持,赞成;容忍;n.表情 [coun-te-nance]
cultivate v.种植;向…讨好 [cul-ti-vate]
foment v.煽动,助长(坏事) [fo-ment]
foster v.培养,鼓励;领养 [fos-ter]
hasten v.催促,促进 [has-ten]
humor v.纵容,迁就 [hu-mor]
nourish v.滋养,怀有(希望等) [nour-ish]
nurture v.抚育,给…营养物,教养;n.养育,营养物;(总称)环境因素 [nur-ture]
oblige v.束缚;恩惠于… [o-blige]
patronize v.以高人一等的态度对待;光顾,惠顾 [pa-tron-ize]
promote v.提升;促进 [pro-mote]
reinforce v.加强力量,增援 [re-in-force]
succor v./n.救助,援助 [suc-cor]
sustain v.承受(困难),支撑(重量) [sus-tain]
tend v.照料,看顾 [tend]
uphold v.维护,支持 [up-hold]

opposition 708

adverse a.不利的,相反的;敌对 [ad-verse]
cross a.生气的 [cross]
even a.平的 [e-ven]
hostile a.敌对的,敌意的 [hos-tile]
inimical a.敌意的,不友善的 [in-im-i-cal]
antagonism n.反抗,敌意 [an-tag-o-nism]
collision n.碰撞,冲突 [col-li-sion]
control n.实验对照组 [con-trol]
restraint n.克制 [re-straint]
rival n.竞争者,对手;v.与…匹敌 [ri-val]
rivalry n.竞争,对抗 [ri-val-ry]
stem n.(植物的)茎,叶柄;v.阻止,遏制(水流等) [stem]
antagonize v.使对抗;与…对抗 [an-tag-o-nize]
belie v.掩饰;证明为假 [be-lie]
conflict v./n.斗争,战斗;冲突,抵触 [con-flict]
confront v.面临;对抗 [con-front]
contend v.与对手竞争;据理力争 [con-tend]
contradict v.反驳,驳斥 [con-tra-dict]
contravene v.违背(法规,习俗等) [con-tra-vene]
counteract v.消除,抵消 [coun-ter-act]
emulate v.努力赶上或超越 [em-u-late]
encounter v.遭遇 [en-coun-ter]
hinder v.阻碍,妨碍 [hin-der]
oppose v.反对 [op-pose]
thwart v.阻挠,使…受挫 [thwart]
undermine v.破坏,损坏 [un-der-mine]
withstand v.顶住;经受住 [with-stand]

cooperation 709

cooperative a.联营的,合作的;愿意协助的 [co-op-er-a-tive]
additive n.添加剂 [ad-di-tive]
coalition n.结合,联合 [co-a-li-tion]
concord n.和睦;公约 [con-cord]
fusion n.熔合;聚变 [fu-sion]
collude v.串通,共谋 [col-lude]
concur v.意见相同,一致 [con-cur]
conspire v.阴谋,共谋 [con-spire]
cooperate v.与他人合作 [co-op-er-ate]

opponent 710

malcontent a.不满的;n.不满分子,反抗者 [mal-con-tent]
demagogue n.蛊惑民心的政客 [dem-a-gogue]
opponent n.对手,敌手 [op-po-nent]
rival n.竞争者,对手;v.与…匹敌 [ri-val]
wrangler n.口角者,争论者;牧马者 [wran-gler]

auxiliary 711

advocate >v.拥护,支持,鼓吹;n.支持者,拥护者 [ad-vo-cate]
accessory a.附属的,次要的 [ac-ces-so-ry]
associate a.联合的;n.合伙人;v.将人或事物联系起来 [as-so-ci-ate]
auxiliary a.辅助的,协助的 [aux-il-ia-ry]
accomplice n.同谋者,帮凶 [ac-com-plice]
adherent n.拥护者,信徒 [ad-her-ent]
adjunct n.附加物,附件 [ad-junct]
champion n.冠军;斗士;拥护者;v.拥护 [cham-pi-on]
dupe n.易上当的人 [dupe]
mate n.伙伴;配偶;v.交配 [mate]
partisan n.党派支持者;党徒 [par-ti-san]
recruit n.新兵;新成员;v.征募 [re-cruit]
votary n.崇拜者,热心支持者 [vo-ta-ry]
marshal v.整理,安排,设置 [mar-shal]

party 712

associate a.联合的;n.合伙人;v.将人或事物联系起来 [as-so-ci-ate]
band n.带子;收音机波段 [band]
cabal n.政治阴谋小集团 [ca-bal]
clique n.朋党派系,小集团 [clique]
coalition n.结合,联合 [co-a-li-tion]
confederacy n.联盟或同盟 [con-fed-er-a-cy]
coterie n.(有共同兴趣的)小团体 [co-te-rie]
denomination n.命名;(长度,币值的)单位 [de-nom-i-na-tion]
faction n.派系;派系斗争 [fac-tion]
institution n.公共机构,协会;制度 [in-sti-tu-tion]
posse n.武装团队 [pos-se]
solidarity n.团结,一致 [sol-i-dar-i-ty]
group v.使…集合;n.群,集 [group]
institute v.制定,创立(社团,规章);n.学院,协会 [in-sti-tute]

discord 713

contentious a.好辩的,善争吵的 [con-ten-tious]
controversial a.引起或可能引起争论的 [con-tro-ver-sial]
jarring a.声音刺耳的 [jar-ring]
breach n.裂缝,缺口;v.打破,裂开;违背 [breach]
commotion n.骚动,动乱 [com-mo-tion]
discord n.不和,纷争 [dis-cord]
enmity n.敌意,仇恨 [en-mi-ty]
faction n.派系;派系斗争 [fac-tion]
feud n.宿怨,不和 [feud]
fracas n.喧嚷,吵闹 [fra-cas]
imbroglio n.纠纷,纠葛 [im-bro-gli-o]
litigant n.诉讼当事人 [lit-i-gant]
litigation n.诉讼 [lit-i-ga-tion]
odds n.机会,可能性 [odds]
polemic n.争论,论战 [po-lem-ic]
rupture n./v.破裂,断裂 [rup-ture]
schism n.组织分裂 [schism]
snarl n./v.纠缠,混乱 [snarl]
spat n.口角,小争论 [spat]
split n./v.分裂,裂开 [split]
squabble n.争吵 [squab-ble]
squall n.短暂、突然且猛烈的风暴;短暂的骚动 [squall]
strife n.纷争,冲突 [strife]
tiff n.吵嘴,呕气 [tiff]
variance n.矛盾;不同 [var-i-ance]
bicker v.为小事争吵 [bick-er]
brawl v./n.争吵,打架 [brawl]
clash v.冲突,撞击 [clash]
conflict v./n.斗争,战斗;冲突,抵触 [con-flict]
controvert v.反驳,驳斥 [con-tro-vert]
dispute v.争论 [dis-pute]
dissent v.不同意,持异议 [dis-sent]
entangle v.使纠缠,卷入 [en-tan-gle]
jar v.冲突,抵触;震惊;发刺耳声 [jar]
nag v.唠叨,烦扰 [nag]
riot v.参加暴动 [ri-ot]

concord 714

conciliatory a.抚慰的,调和的 [con-cil-i-a-to-ry]
congenial a.意气相投的;性情好的 [con-gen-ial]
amity n.(人或国之间的)友好关系 [am-i-ty]
concord n.和睦;公约 [con-cord]
empathy n.心意相通,(感情等)融为一体 [em-pa-thy]
harmony n.相符,一致;协调,匀称 [har-mo-ny]
intercessor n.仲裁者 [in-ter-ces-sor]
rapprochement n.和好,和睦 [rap-proche-ment]
response n.反应,响应,回答 [re-sponse]
symphony n.交响乐,交响曲 [sym-pho-ny]
accord v./n.同意;一致 [ac-cord]
assent v.同意,赞成 [as-sent]
reciprocate v.回报,答谢 [re-cip-ro-cate]

defiance 715

defiance n.挑战,违抗,反抗 [de-fi-ance]
threat n.威胁,恐吓;凶兆 [threat]
bluster v.(指风)猛刮 [blus-ter]
defy v.违抗,藐视 [de-fy]

attack 716

blast >n.一阵(大风);冲击波;v.爆破;枯萎 [blast]
aggressive a.好斗的;进取的 [ag-gres-sive]
offensive a.令人不快的,得罪人的 [of-fen-sive]
aggression n.侵略;敌对的情绪或行为 [ag-gres-sion]
aggressor n.侵略者,攻击者 [ag-gres-sor]
assault n.突然袭击;猛袭 [as-sault]
bait n.诱饵;v.逗弄;激怒 [bait]
fusillade n./v. (枪炮)齐射,连发 [fu-sil-lade]
inroad n.突袭;消耗 [in-road]
onset n.(坏情况)开始发作 [on-set]
raid n.突然袭击 [raid]
sap n.树液;活力;v.消弱,耗尽 [sap]
shell n.贝壳;炮弹;v.剥去…的壳 [shell]
siege n.包围,围攻 [siege]
volley n.齐发,群射;v.齐发,群射;(足球、网球)截击 [vol-ley]
assail v.抨击;猛攻 [as-sail]
beleaguer v.围攻;骚扰 [be-lea-guer]
besiege v.围攻,困扰 [be-siege]
butt v.用头抵撞,顶撞;n.粗大的一端;烟蒂 [butt]
harry v.掠夺,袭扰,折磨 [har-ry]
impugn v.指责,对…表示怀疑 [im-pugn]
invade v.侵犯,侵入 [in-vade]
malign v.诽谤,中伤;a.邪恶的 [ma-lign]
punch v.以拳猛击;打洞 [punch]
thrust v.猛力推;刺,戳 [thrust]

defense 717

ironclad a.装铁甲的;坚固的 [i-ron-clad]
aegis n.盾;保护,庇护 [ae-gis]
apron n.围裙 [a-pron]
asylum n.避难所,庇护所 [a-sy-lum]
barrier n.路障;障碍 [bar-ri-er]
bodyguard n.保镖,侍卫 [bod-y-guard]
boom n.繁荣昌盛时期;v.发出深沉有回响的声音 [boom]
buttress n.拱墙,拱壁;v.支持 [but-tress]
camouflage n./v.掩饰,伪装 [cam-ou-flage]
carapace n.(蟹或龟等的)甲壳 [car-a-pace]
champion n.冠军;斗士;拥护者;v.拥护 [cham-pi-on]
defense n.防御,防护 [de-fense]
fastness n.要塞,城堡 [fast-ness]
fender n.挡泥板;护舷的垫子等 [fend-er]
fosse n.护城河 [fosse]
helmet n.头盔,钢盔 [hel-met]
hold n.(船)货舱 [hold]
loophole n.枪眼,小窗,换气孔 [loop-hole]
mask n.假面具;v.隐藏(感情) [mask]
moat n.壕沟;护城河 [moat]
munition n.军火,弹药 [mu-ni-tion]
rampart n.壁垒;城墙 [ram-part]
safeguard n.防范措施 [safe-guard]
shield n.盾;v.掩护,遮挡 [shield]
shroud n.寿衣;遮蔽物;v.覆盖 [shroud]
stockade n.栅栏,围栏 [stock-ade]
barricade v.设栅阻挡;n.栅栏 [bar-ri-cade]
hinder v.阻碍,妨碍 [hin-der]
parry v.挡开,避开(武器,问题等) [par-ry]
repel v.击退,使…反感 [re-pel]

retaliation 718

reprisal n.(政治或军事的)报复 [re-pris-al]
retaliation n.报复 [re-tal-i-a-tion]
retribution n.报应,惩罚 [ret-ri-bu-tion]
revenge n.报复,报仇 [re-venge]
reciprocate v.回报,答谢 [re-cip-ro-cate]
retaliate v.报复,反击 [re-tal-i-ate]
retort v.反驳 [re-tort]

resistance 719

recalcitrant a.顽抗的 [re-cal-ci-trant]
refractory a.倔强的;反应迟钝的 [re-frac-to-ry]
stubborn a.固执的;难以改变的 [stub-born]
insurrection n.造反,叛乱 [in-sur-rec-tion]
confront v.面临;对抗 [con-front]
oppose v.反对 [op-pose]
rebuff v.断然拒绝 [re-buff]
repel v.击退,使…反感 [re-pel]
repulse v.驱逐,击退;厌恶;n.驱逐,击退,厌恶 [re-pulse]
revolt v.叛乱,造反;反感 [re-volt]
riot v.参加暴动 [ri-ot]
withstand v.顶住;经受住 [with-stand]

contention 720

bellicose a.好战的,好斗的 [bel-li-cose]
contentious a.好辩的,善争吵的 [con-ten-tious]
pugnacious a.好斗的 [pug-na-cious]
athletics n.运动,体育 [ath-let-ics]
bout n.一回合,一阵 [bout]
collision n.碰撞,冲突 [col-li-sion]
combat n./v.格斗,搏斗 [com-bat]
contention n.争论;论点 [con-ten-tion]
debate n.正式的辩论,讨论 [de-bate]
duel n.决斗 [du-el]
fracas n.喧嚷,吵闹 [fra-cas]
litigation n.诉讼 [lit-i-ga-tion]
mill n.磨坊;压榨机;制造厂 [mill]
pugilism n.拳击,搏击 [pu-gi-lism]
rival n.竞争者,对手;v.与…匹敌 [ri-val]
rivalry n.竞争,对抗 [ri-val-ry]
skirmish n.小战,小争吵 [skir-mish]
sparring n.拳击,争斗 [spar-ring]
strife n.纷争,冲突 [strife]
tournament n.比赛;(旧时)骑士比武大会 [tour-na-ment]
conflict v./n.斗争,战斗;冲突,抵触 [con-flict]
contend v.与对手竞争;据理力争 [con-tend]
contest v.竞争;对…表示怀疑 [con-test]
emulate v.努力赶上或超越 [em-u-late]
encounter v.遭遇 [en-coun-ter]
list v./n.倾斜 [list]
oppose v.反对 [op-pose]
square v.一致,符合;结清 [square]
strive v.奋斗,努力 [strive]
tilt v.(使)倾斜;n.倾斜,斜坡 [tilt]
tussle v./n.扭打,搏斗;争辩 [tus-sle]

peace 721

halcyon a.平静的;愉快的 [hal-cy-on]
amity n.(人或国之间的)友好关系 [am-i-ty]
harmony n.相符,一致;协调,匀称 [har-mo-ny]
tranquility n.宁静,安静 [tran-quil-i-ty]
truce n.停战,休战(协定) [truce]
accord v./n.同意;一致 [ac-cord]

warfare 722

bellicose a.好战的,好斗的 [bel-li-cose]
chivalrous a.武士精神的;对女人彬彬有礼的 [chiv-al-rous]
clarion a.声音高而清晰的;n.尖音小号声;尖音小号 [clar-i-on]
contentious a.好辩的,善争吵的 [con-ten-tious]
internecine a.内讧的,两败俱伤的 [in-ter-ne-cine]
martial a.战争的,军事的 [mar-tial]
campaign n.战役;竞选活动 [cam-paign]
combat n./v.格斗,搏斗 [com-bat]
crusade n.维护理想、原则而进行的运动或斗争 [cru-sade]
logistics n.后勤学;后勤 [lo-gis-tics]
trumpet n.喇叭,小号 [trum-pet]
contend v.与对手竞争;据理力争 [con-tend]
enlist v.(使)入伍从军,征募 [en-list]

pacification 723

conciliatory a.抚慰的,调和的 [con-cil-i-a-to-ry]
amnesty n.大赦,特赦 [am-nes-ty]
armistice n.休战,停战 [ar-mi-stice]
truce n.停战,休战(协定) [truce]
allay v.减轻,缓和 [al-lay]
compose v.写,创作;组成 [com-pose]
compromise v.妥协;危害 [com-pro-mise]
conciliate v.安抚,驯服 [con-cil-i-ate]
pacify v.使安静,抚慰 [pac-i-fy]
placate v.抚慰,平息(愤怒) [pla-cate]
propitiate v.讨好;抚慰 [pro-pi-ti-ate]
reconcile v.和解,调和 [rec-on-cile]

mediation 724

bargain n.交易; 物美价廉的东西;v.讨价还价 [bar-gain]
intercessor n.仲裁者 [in-ter-ces-sor]
interference n.干涉,妨碍 [in-ter-fer-ence]
umpire n.裁判;v.对…进行仲裁 [um-pire]
arbitrate v.仲裁,公断 [ar-bi-trate]
compromise v.妥协;危害 [com-pro-mise]
intercede v.说好话,代为求情 [in-ter-cede]
interpose v.置于…之间;使介入 [in-ter-pose]
intervene v.干涉,介入 [in-ter-vene]
mediate v.调停 [me-di-ate]
negotiate v.商议,谈判,交涉 [ne-go-ti-ate]

submission 725

craven a.懦弱的,畏缩的 [cra-ven]
humble a.卑微的;v.使谦卑 [hum-ble]
pliant a.易受影响的;易弯的 [pli-ant]
resigned a.逆来顺受的,顺从的 [re-signed]
yielding a.弯曲自如的;柔顺的 [yield-ing]
cession n.割让,转让 [ces-sion]
homage n.效忠,崇敬 [hom-age]
obeisance n.鞠躬,敬礼 [o-bei-sance]
resignation n.听从,顺从;辞职 [res-ig-na-tion]
retreat n./v.撤退;隐居处 [re-treat]
submission n.恭顺 [sub-mis-sion]
bend v.弯曲;屈服 [bend]
capitulate v.(有条件地)投降 [ca-pit-u-late]
cede v.割让(土地权利),放弃 [cede]
submit v.屈服;提交,呈递 [sub-mit]
succumb v.屈从;因…死亡 [suc-cumb]
surrender v.投降;放弃;归还 [sur-ren-der]

combatant 726

auxiliary a.辅助的,协助的 [aux-il-ia-ry]
ironclad a.装铁甲的;坚固的 [i-ron-clad]
marine a.海的;海中的 [ma-rine]
mercenary a.惟利是图的;n.雇佣兵 [mer-ce-nar-y]
armada n.舰队 [ar-ma-da]
battalion n.军营,军队 [bat-tal-i-on]
cadet n.军校或警官学校的学生 [ca-det]
cavalry n.骑兵部队,装甲部队 [cav-al-ry]
champion n.冠军;斗士;拥护者;v.拥护 [cham-pi-on]
companion n.同伴,同伙;受雇的陪伴人 [com-pan-ion]
ensign n.舰旗(船上表示所属国家的旗帜) [en-sign]
file n.锉刀;v.锉平 [file]
gladiator n.角斗士,与野兽搏斗者 [glad-i-a-tor]
infantry n.步兵 [in-fan-try]
legion n.兵团;一大群 [le-gion]
litigant n.诉讼当事人 [lit-i-gant]
militia n.民兵 [mi-li-tia]
partisan n.党派支持者;党徒 [par-ti-san]
polemic n.争论,论战 [po-lem-ic]
pugilist n.拳击手,拳师 [pu-gil-ist]
recruit n.新兵;新成员;v.征募 [re-cruit]
rival n.竞争者,对手;v.与…匹敌 [ri-val]
veteran n.老兵,老手;a.经验丰富的 [vet-er-an]
bully v.以强欺弱,威胁;n.欺负别人者 [bul-ly]
conscript v.强行征兵,征召 [con-script]
levy v./n.征税;征兵 [lev-y]
tender v.(希望对方接受的意见等) [ten-der]
transport v.运输;n.狂喜 [trans-port]

arms 727

armory n.军械库 [ar-mor-y]
blade n.刀锋,刀口 [blade]
brand n.商标;烙印;v.在某事物上打烙印 [brand]
cane n.拐杖 [cane]
dagger n.短剑,匕首 [dag-ger]
dart n.飞镖;v.急驰;投射 [dart]
explosive n.炸药;a.爆炸性的;使人冲动的 [ex-plo-sive]
foil n.钝剑;箔,锡箔纸 [foil]
grenade n.手榴弹 [gre-nade]
lance n.长矛;鱼叉 [lance]
missile n.发射物;导弹 [mis-sile]
mortar n.小臼,乳钵;迫击炮 [mor-tar]
musket n.旧式步枪 [mus-ket]
ordnance n.大炮;军械 [ord-nance]
partisan n.党派支持者;党徒 [par-ti-san]
pistol n.手枪 [pis-tol]
projectile n.抛射物,发射体 [pro-jec-tile]
reed n.芦苇;簧片 [reed]
rifle n.步枪;v.抢劫 [ri-fle]
shell n.贝壳;炮弹;v.剥去…的壳 [shell]
spear n.矛;嫩叶;v.刺戳 [spear]
sprig n.嫩枝,小枝 [sprig]
bolt v.急逃(to dash out; dart);螺栓,门栓 [bolt]

arena 728

arena n.(角斗的)竞技场 [a-re-na]
canvas n.画布;帆布 [can-vas]

Section V. Results of Voluntary Action

completion 729

conclusive a.最后的,结论的;确凿的,消除怀疑的 [con-clu-sive]
consummate a.完全的,完善的;v.完成 [con-sum-mate]
elaborate a.精致的,复杂的;v.详尽地说明,阐明 [e-lab-o-rate]
exhaustive a.彻底的,无遗漏的 [ex-haus-tive]
catastrophe n.突如其来的大灾难 [ca-tas-tro-phe]
compass n.指南针,罗盘;界限,范围 [com-pass]
culmination n.顶点;结果 [cul-mi-na-tion]
denouement n.(小说的)结尾,结局 [de-noue-ment]
elaboration n.详细的细节,详尽阐述 [e-lab-o-ra-tion]
exhaust n.(机器排出的)废气,蒸气;v.使非常疲倦 [ex-haust]
finale n.最后,最终;乐曲的最后部分 [fi-na-le]
terminus n.(火车,汽车)终点站 [ter-mi-nus]
accomplish v.完成,做成功 [ac-com-plish]
clinch v.钉牢;彻底解决 [clinch]
crown v.加冕,使成王,居…之顶 [crown]
discharge v.流出;释放;解雇;履行义务 [dis-charge]
dispatch v.派遣;一下子做完;吃完;n.迅速 [dis-patch]
enact v.制定(法律);扮演(角色) [en-act]
execute v.执行,履行;将某人处死 [ex-e-cute]
issue v.出来,流出;发给,分发;n.(书刊的)期 [is-sue]
ripen v.使成熟 [rip-en]
stamp v./n.跺脚;在…上盖印 [stamp]

noncompletion 730

sketchy a.概略的,粗略的 [sketch-y]
collapse v.坍塌,塌陷;虚脱,晕倒 [col-lapse]

success 731

felicitous a.(话语等)适当的,得体的 [fe-lic-i-tous]
prosperous a.繁荣富强的 [pros-per-ous]
ascendancy n.统治权,支配力量 [as-cend-an-cy]
conquest n.征服;战利品 [con-quest]
score n.乐谱 [score]
stalemate n.和棋局面,僵局 [stale-mate]
swamp n.沼泽;v.使陷入;淹没 [swamp]
accomplish v.完成,做成功 [ac-com-plish]
beat v.心跳;搅拌 [beat]
circumvent v.回避;用计谋战胜或规避 [cir-cum-vent]
confound v.使迷惑,搞混 [con-found]
conquer v.以武力征服 [con-quer]
discomfit v.使懊恼;使难堪 [dis-com-fit]
elude v.逃避;搞不清 [e-lude]
nonplus v.使窘困迷惑;n.迷惑,窘境 [non-plus]
outmaneuver v.以策略制胜 [out-ma-neu-ver]
outwit v.以机智胜过 [out-wit]
overreach v.做事过头 [o-ver-reach]
override v.不理会;蹂躏,践踏 [o-ver-ride]
overthrow v./n.推翻;终止 [o-ver-throw]
prevail v.战胜;盛行 [pre-vail]
quell v.制止,镇压 [quell]
settle v.安置于;决定;栖息 [set-tle]
stroke v.抚摸;n.击,打;一笔 [stroke]
subdue v.征服;压制;减轻 [sub-due]
subjugate v.征服,镇压 [sub-ju-gate]
surpass v.超过 [sur-pass]
triumph v./n.凯旋,胜利,欢欣 [tri-umph]
vanquish v.征服 [van-quish]
victimize v.使受害,迫害 [vic-tim-ize]

failure 732

bankrupt a.破产的 [bank-rupt]
bootless a.无益处的;无用的 [boot-less]
grounded a.有理由的;adv.地面上 [grounded]
inconsequential a.不重要的,微不足道的 [in-con-se-quen-tial]
ineffectual a.无效的,徒劳无益的 [in-ef-fec-tu-al]
insufficient a.不足的 [in-suf-fi-cient]
nugatory a.无价值的,琐碎的 [nu-ga-to-ry]
stranded a.搁浅的,进退两难的 [stranded]
discomfiture n.狼狈,难堪 [dis-com-fi-ture]
fault n.错误;(地质学)断层 [fault]
fiasco n.大失败,惨败 [fi-as-co]
lurch n.突然向前或旁边倒;v.蹒跚而行 [lurch]
split n./v.分裂,裂开 [split]
stalemate n.和棋局面,僵局 [stale-mate]
blunder v.犯大错;笨拙地做;n.愚蠢之举 [blun-der]
collapse v.坍塌,塌陷;虚脱,晕倒 [col-lapse]
falter v.摇晃,蹒跚;支吾地说 [fal-ter]
flounder v.挣扎;艰苦地移动;n.比目鱼 [floun-der]
founder v.(船)沉没;(计划)失败 [found-er]
limp v.跛行;a.软弱的,松软的 [limp]
overthrow v./n.推翻;终止 [o-ver-throw]
rebuff v.断然拒绝 [re-buff]
repulse v.驱逐,击退;厌恶;n.驱逐,击退,厌恶 [re-pulse]
succumb v.屈从;因…死亡 [suc-cumb]

trophy 733

insignia n.徽章,袖章 [in-sig-ni-a]
medal n.奖牌,勋章 [med-al]
trophy n.奖品,战利品 [tro-phy]
crown v.加冕,使成王,居…之顶 [crown]
triumph v./n.凯旋,胜利,欢欣 [tri-umph]

prosperity 734

agreeable a.令人喜悦的;欣然同意的 [a-gree-a-ble]
auspicious a.幸运的;吉兆的 [aus-pi-cious]
buoyant a.有浮力的;快乐的 [buoy-ant]
halcyon a.平静的;愉快的 [hal-cy-on]
palmy a.繁荣的;棕榈的 [palm-y]
propitious a.吉利的;顺利的 [pro-pi-tious]
prosperous a.繁荣富强的 [pros-per-ous]
providential a.幸运的;恰到好处的 [prov-i-den-tial]
affluence n.充裕,富足 [af-flu-ence]
mushroom n.蘑菇;v.雨后春笋般迅速发展 [mush-room]
prosperity n.繁荣;幸运;健康 [pros-per-i-ty]
fatten v.使长肥;使土壤肥沃;装满 [fat-ten]
flourish v.昌盛,兴旺;活跃而有影响 [flour-ish]
thrive v.茁壮成长 [thrive]

adversity 735

blast >n.一阵(大风);冲击波;v.爆破;枯萎 [blast]
adverse a.不利的,相反的;敌对 [ad-verse]
cross a.生气的 [cross]
devoted a.投入的,热爱的 [de-vot-ed]
dire a.可怕的 [dire]
untoward a.不幸的,(坏事)没料到的 [un-to-ward]
affliction n.悲痛,受难的起因 [af-flic-tion]
backset n.倒退 [back-set]
blight n.植物枯萎病;v.使…枯萎 [blight]
calamity n.大灾祸,不幸之事 [ca-lam-i-ty]
casualty n.伤亡事故;伤亡者 [cas-u-al-ty]
catastrophe n.突如其来的大灾难 [ca-tas-tro-phe]
disaster n.灾难,大不幸 [dis-as-ter]
reverse n.反面;相反;v.倒车;反转 [re-verse]
check v.使突然停止,阻止 [check]
decline v.拒绝;变弱,变小;n.消减 [de-cline]

mediocrity 736

mediocrity n.平庸,碌碌无为 [me-di-oc-ri-ty]

Division II. Intersocial Volition

Section I. General Intersocial Volition

authority 737

arbitrary a.专横的,不理智的 [ar-bi-trar-y]
dominant a.显性的,优势的 [dom-i-nant]
paramount a.最重要的,最高权力的 [par-a-mount]
predominant a.有势力的 [pre-dom-i-nant]
stringent a.(规定)严格的,苛刻的;缺钱的 [strin-gent]
supreme a.至高的;极度的 [su-preme]
commission n.委托;佣金 [com-mis-sion]
control n.实验对照组 [con-trol]
credit n.赊购;信任;(电影)片头字幕 [cred-it]
deputy n.代表;副警长 [dep-u-ty]
despotism n.专制,暴政 [des-pot-ism]
hold n.(船)货舱 [hold]
jurisdiction n.司法权,审判权,裁判权 [ju-ris-dic-tion]
patronage n.赞助,惠顾 [pat-ron-age]
prerogative n.特权 [pre-rog-a-tive]
prestige n.威信,威望,声望 [pres-tige]
warrant n.正当理由;许可证 [war-rant]
dictate v.口述;命令 [dic-tate]
dominate v.控制,支配 [dom-i-nate]
gripe v.抱怨 [gripe]
override v.不理会;蹂躏,践踏 [o-ver-ride]
overrule v.(高位的人)否决(低位的人或事) [o-ver-rule]
preponderate v.(重量上,重要性上)压倒,超过 [pre-pon-der-ate]

government 737.a

absolute a.绝对的,完全的; 无(条件)限制的 [ab-so-lute]
imperative a.急需的 [im-per-a-tive]
imperial a.帝王的,至尊的 [im-pe-ri-al]
imperious a.傲慢的,专横的 [im-pe-ri-ous]
peremptory a.不容反抗的;专横的 [per-emp-to-ry]
aristocracy n.贵族;贵族政府,贵族统治 [ar-is-toc-ra-cy]
autocracy n.独裁政府 [au-toc-ra-cy]
autonomy n.自治,独立 [au-ton-o-my]
bureaucracy n.官僚政治 [bu-reau-cra-cy]
cabinet n.橱柜;内阁 [cab-i-net]
commonwealth n.共和国,联邦 [com-mon-wealth]
commune n.公社;v.与某人亲密地交谈 [com-mune]
control n.实验对照组 [con-trol]
defense n.防御,防护 [de-fense]
domain n.领土;领域 [do-main]
domination n.控制,支配,管辖 [dom-i-na-tion]
lathe n.车床 [lathe]
legislature n.立法机关,立法团体 [leg-is-la-ture]
monarchy n.君主制 [mon-ar-chy]
oligarchy n.寡头政治 [ol-i-gar-chy]
realm n.王国;领域,范围 [realm]
regime n.政权,政治制度 [re-gime]
reign n.统治时期;王朝;领域 [reign]
royalty n.版税 [roy-al-ty]
sovereign n.最高统治者,元首 [sov-er-eign]
sovereignty n.主权,统治权 [sov-er-eign-ty]
supremacy n.至高无上,霸权 [su-prem-a-cy]
theocracy n.神权政治 [the-oc-ra-cy]
tract n.传单;大片土地 [tract]
sway v.摇动,摇摆;影响使改变;n.摇动 [sway]

politics 737.b

aspirant n.有抱负者 [as-pir-ant]
ballot n./v.投票 [bal-lot]
campaign n.战役;竞选活动 [cam-paign]
candidacy n.候选人的资格 [can-di-da-cy]
candidate n.候选人;参加考试的人 [can-di-date]
ideology n.思想体系,思想意识,意识形态 [i-de-ol-o-gy]
incumbent n.在职者,现任者;a.义不容辞的 [in-cum-bent]
initiative n.主动;首创精神 [in-i-ti-a-tive]
partisan n.党派支持者;党徒 [par-ti-san]
poll n.民意测验;选举投票 [poll]
slate n.石板;候选人名单;v.提名 [slate]
suffrage n.选举权,投票权 [suf-frage]
theocracy n.神权政治 [the-oc-ra-cy]
issue v.出来,流出;发给,分发;n.(书刊的)期 [is-sue]
recall v.回想,回忆起;收回;n.唤回 [re-call]

laxity 738

remiss a.疏忽的,不留心的 [re-miss]
slack a.懒散的,懈怠的;(绳)松弛的;v.松懈,怠惰 [slack]
anarchy n.无政府;政治上的混乱 [an-ar-chy]
deposition n.免职;沉积;作证 [dep-o-si-tion]
interregnum n.无王时期 [in-ter-reg-num]
license n.放肆,自由;许可证,执照 [li-cense]
relaxation n.松弛,消遣 [re-lax-a-tion]
abdicate v.退位,辞职,放弃 [ab-di-cate]
depose v.免职;作证 [de-pose]

severity 739

absolute a.绝对的,完全的; 无(条件)限制的 [ab-so-lute]
arbitrary a.专横的,不理智的 [ar-bi-trar-y]
arrogant a.傲慢的,自大的 [ar-ro-gant]
austere a.朴素的 [aus-tere]
dour a.严厉的,脸色阴沉的 [dour]
exacting a.苛求的;要求严格的 [ex-act-ing]
exigent a.需要立即采取行动的 [ex-i-gent]
harsh a.严厉的;粗糙的;刺耳的 [harsh]
haughty a.傲慢的,自大的 [haugh-ty]
imperative a.急需的 [im-per-a-tive]
inclement a.(天气)严酷的;严厉的 [in-clem-ent]
inexorable a.不为所动的;坚决不变的 [in-ex-o-ra-ble]
obdurate a.固执的,顽固的 [ob-du-rate]
peremptory a.不容反抗的;专横的 [per-emp-to-ry]
relentless a.无情的,残酷的 [re-lent-less]
rigid a.硬性的,刚硬的 [rig-id]
severe a.严格的;凶猛的 [se-vere]
stiff a.僵直的,呆板的,严厉的 [stiff]
stringent a.(规定)严格的,苛刻的;缺钱的 [strin-gent]
arrogance n.傲慢,自大 [ar-ro-gance]
assumption n.设想;夺取 [as-sump-tion]
austerity n.朴素,艰苦 [aus-ter-i-ty]
autocracy n.独裁政府 [au-toc-ra-cy]
coercion n.强制,高压统治 [co-er-cion]
despot n.暴君 [des-pot]
despotism n.专制,暴政 [des-pot-ism]
rigor n.严酷;严格,苛刻;严密,精确 [ri-gor]
stern n.船尾 [stern]
stickler n.坚持细节之人 [stick-ler]
tyranny n.暴政,专制统治;暴行 [tyr-an-ny]
tyrant n.暴君 [ty-rant]
vulture n.秃鹫 [vul-ture]
arrogate v.冒称具有…权利 [ar-ro-gate]
assume v.假定 [as-sume]
bully v.以强欺弱,威胁;n.欺负别人者 [bul-ly]
coerce v.强迫;压制 [co-erce]
inflict v.遭受 [in-flict]
oppress v.压迫,压制 [op-press]
override v.不理会;蹂躏,践踏 [o-ver-ride]
usurp v.篡夺,霸占 [u-surp]

lenity 740

clement a.仁慈的;温和的 [clem-ent]
gentle a.温和的,慈祥的 [gen-tle]
lenient a.宽大的;仁慈的 [le-ni-ent]
clemency n.温和;仁慈,宽厚 [clem-en-cy]
compassion n.同情,怜悯 [com-pas-sion]
forbearance n.自制,忍耐 [for-bear-ance]
leniency n.温和,宽容 [le-ni-en-cy]
tolerance n.容许量,公差;容忍,忍受 [tol-er-ance]
indulge v.放纵;满足 [in-dulge]
spoil v.损坏,破坏;溺爱 [spoil]

command 741

exact a.精确的;v.强求,强索付款 [ex-act]
caveat n.警告,告诫 [ca-ve-at]
fiat n.命令 [fi-at]
injunction n.命令,强制令 [in-junc-tion]
mandate n.命令,指令 [man-date]
ordinance n.法令,条例 [or-di-nance]
precept n.箴言,格言 [pre-cept]
prescription n.处方(上的药) [pre-scrip-tion]
request n.要求,请求;v.要求,请求 [re-quest]
subpoena n.(法律)传票;v.传讯 [sub-poe-na]
warrant n.正当理由;许可证 [war-rant]
writ n.命令状,书面命令 [writ]
appoint v.任命,指定;约会 [ap-point]
bid v.命令;出价,投标 [bid]
cite v.引用,引述 [cite]
claim v.要求或索; 要n.声称拥有的权力 [claim]
demand v.要求,苛求 [de-mand]
dictate v.口述;命令 [dic-tate]
dispatch v.派遣;一下子做完;吃完;n.迅速 [dis-patch]
enact v.制定(法律);扮演(角色) [en-act]
enjoin v.命令,吩咐 [en-join]
impose v.征税;强加 [im-pose]
ordain v.任命(神职);颁发命令 [or-dain]
prescribe v.开处方;规定 [pre-scribe]
reclaim v.纠正;开垦(土地) [re-claim]
summon v.召见;召集 [sum-mon]

disobedience 742

contumacious a.违抗的,不服从的 [con-tu-ma-cious]
incorrigible a.积习难改的,不可救药的 [in-cor-ri-gi-ble]
insubordinate a.不服从的,反抗的 [in-sub-or-di-nate]
insurgent a.叛乱的,起事的;n.叛乱分子 [in-sur-gent]
recalcitrant a.顽抗的 [re-cal-ci-trant]
refractory a.倔强的;反应迟钝的 [re-frac-to-ry]
restive a.不安静的,不安宁的 [res-tive]
riotous a.暴乱的;蛮横的 [ri-ot-ous]
anarchist n.无政府主义者 [an-ar-chist]
defiance n.挑战,违抗,反抗 [de-fi-ance]
demagogue n.蛊惑民心的政客 [dem-a-gogue]
infraction n.违法 [in-frac-tion]
insurrection n.造反,叛乱 [in-sur-rec-tion]
mutineer n.反叛者,背叛者 [mu-ti-neer]
quisling n.卖国贼,内奸 [quis-ling]
renegade n.叛教者,叛徒 [ren-e-gade]
traitor n.卖国贼,叛徒 [trai-tor]
treason n.叛国罪 [trea-son]
tumult n.乱哄哄 [tu-mult]
infringe v.违反,侵害 [in-fringe]
revolt v.叛乱,造反;反感 [re-volt]
riot v.参加暴动 [ri-ot]
secede v.正式脱离或退出(组织) [se-cede]
shirk v.逃避,规避 [shirk]
violate v.违反,触犯 [vi-o-late]

obedience 743

compliant a.服从的,顺从的 [com-pli-ant]
devoted a.投入的,热爱的 [de-vot-ed]
loyal a.忠诚的,忠贞的,忠心的 [loy-al]
obedient a.服从的,顺从的 [o-be-di-ent]
passive a.被动的,缺乏活力的 [pas-sive]
pliant a.易受影响的;易弯的 [pli-ant]
resigned a.逆来顺受的,顺从的 [re-signed]
allegiance n.忠诚,拥护 [al-le-giance]
compliance n.顺从,遵从 [com-pli-ance]
deference n.敬意,尊重 [def-er-ence]
homage n.效忠,崇敬 [hom-age]
resignation n.听从,顺从;辞职 [res-ig-na-tion]
submission n.恭顺 [sub-mis-sion]
comply v.遵循,顺从 [com-ply]
submit v.屈服;提交,呈递 [sub-mit]

compulsion 744

compelling a.引起兴趣的 [com-pel-ling]
inexorable a.不为所动的;坚决不变的 [in-ex-o-ra-ble]
obligatory a.强制性的,义务的 [ob-lig-a-to-ry]
peremptory a.不容反抗的;专横的 [per-emp-to-ry]
stringent a.(规定)严格的,苛刻的;缺钱的 [strin-gent]
coercion n.强制,高压统治 [co-er-cion]
compulsion n.强迫;难以抗拒的冲动 [com-pul-sion]
constraint n.强制,强迫;对感情的压抑 [con-straint]
duress n.胁迫 [du-ress]
restraint n.克制 [re-straint]
coerce v.强迫;压制 [co-erce]
compel v.强迫 [com-pel]
constrain v.束缚,强迫;限制 [con-strain]
extort v.强索,敲诈 [ex-tort]
oblige v.束缚;恩惠于… [o-blige]
press v.挤压 [press]
restrain v.克制,抑制 [re-strain]
squeeze v.压,挤;n.压榨,紧握 [squeeze]

master 745

autocrat n.独裁者 [au-to-crat]
cadet n.军校或警官学校的学生 [ca-det]
centurion n.古罗马的百人队长 [cen-tu-ri-on]
chancellor n.大臣,总理,首席法官,大学校长 [chan-cel-lor]
despot n.暴君 [des-pot]
ensign n.舰旗(船上表示所属国家的旗帜) [en-sign]
mate n.伙伴;配偶;v.交配 [mate]
mogul n.显要人物,权势之人 [mo-gul]
monarch n.君主,帝王 [mon-arch]
potentate n.统治者,当权者 [po-ten-tate]
sovereign n.最高统治者,元首 [sov-er-eign]
tyrant n.暴君 [ty-rant]
marshal v.整理,安排,设置 [mar-shal]

servant 746

mercenary a.惟利是图的;n.雇佣兵 [mer-ce-nar-y]
subsidiary a.辅助的;次要的 [sub-sid-i-ar-y]
court n.法庭,法院;宫廷,朝廷;v.献殷勤;追求 [court]
groom n.马夫;新郎 [groom]
jockey n.骑师;v.用计谋获取 [jock-ey]
parasite n.食客;寄生物 [par-a-site]
retainer n.侍从 [re-tain-er]
retinue n.侍从,随员团 [ret-i-nue]
subject n.受支配的人,隶属 [sub-ject]
underling n.下属,手下 [un-der-ling]
tend v.照料,看顾 [tend]

scepter 747

baton n.指挥棒(指挥家用);警棍 [ba-ton]
mantle n.披风,斗篷;v.覆盖 [man-tle]
portfolio n.文件夹;股份单 [port-fo-li-o]
talisman n.避邪物,护身符 [tal-is-man]
throne n.宝座;王位 [throne]
crown v.加冕,使成王,居…之顶 [crown]
flag v.减弱,衰退;枯萎 [flag]
pall v.令人发腻,失去吸引力 [pall]

freedom 748

absolute a.绝对的,完全的; 无(条件)限制的 [ab-so-lute]
autonomous a.自治的 [au-ton-o-mous]
discretionary a.自由决定的 [dis-cre-tion-ar-y]
exempt a.被免除的;v.使免除 [ex-empt]
irrepressible a.无法约束或阻止的 [ir-re-press-i-ble]
rampant a.蔓生的,猖獗的 [ram-pant]
spontaneous a.自发的;自然的 [spon-ta-ne-ous]
unmitigated a.未缓和的,未减轻的,全然的 [un-mit-i-gat-ed]
autonomy n.自治,独立 [au-ton-o-my]
denizen n.居民;外籍居民 [den-i-zen]
immunity n.免疫;豁免 [im-mu-ni-ty]
latitude n.言行自由;纬度 [lat-i-tude]
liberty n.随意,冒失 [lib-er-ty]
license n.放肆,自由;许可证,执照 [li-cense]
margin n.页边空白,边缘;差额;余地;利润 [mar-gin]
scope n.眼界;范围 [scope]
swing v.摇摆;旋转;n.秋千 [swing]

subjection 749

constrained a.束缚的,节制的 [con-strained]
tame a.驯服的;沉闷的 [tame]
bondage n.奴役,束缚 [bond-age]
conquest n.征服;战利品 [con-quest]
constraint n.强制,强迫;对感情的压抑 [con-straint]
liability n.责任;债务 [li-a-bil-i-ty]
servitude n.奴役,劳役 [ser-vi-tude]
subject n.受支配的人,隶属 [sub-ject]
submission n.恭顺 [sub-mis-sion]
yoke n.牛轭;v.控制,束缚 [yoke]
subjugate v.征服,镇压 [sub-ju-gate]
submit v.屈服;提交,呈递 [sub-mit]

liberation 750

acquittal n.宣告无罪,开释 [ac-quit-tal]
absolve v.赦免,免除 [ab-solve]
discharge v.流出;释放;解雇;履行义务 [dis-charge]
disengage v.脱离,解开 [dis-en-gage]
disentangle v.解决,解脱,解开,澄清 [dis-en-tan-gle]
emancipate v.解放,解除 [e-man-ci-pate]
extricate v.拯救,救出 [ex-tri-cate]
liberate v.释放,解放 [lib-er-ate]
loosen v.变松,松开 [loos-en]
manumit v.解放(奴隶) [man-u-mit]
release v.释放,放出;n.释放 [re-lease]
unleash v.发泄,释放 [un-leash]

restraint 751

constrained a.束缚的,节制的 [con-strained]
hidebound a.顽固的,心胸狭窄的 [hide-bound]
secure a.安全的;稳固的;v.固定;使安全 [se-cure]
stiff a.僵直的,呆板的,严厉的 [stiff]
bridle n.马笼头;v.抑制,控制 [bri-dle]
cloister n.修道院 [clois-ter]
coercion n.强制,高压统治 [co-er-cion]
constraint n.强制,强迫;对感情的压抑 [con-straint]
control n.实验对照组 [con-trol]
coop n.(鸡)笼,栏 [co-op]
curb n.路缘,(街道的)镶边石;马勒;v.控制 [curb]
custody n.监管,保管 [cus-to-dy]
duress n.胁迫 [du-ress]
fetter n./v.(带)脚镣;束缚 [fet-ter]
hold n.(船)货舱 [hold]
monopoly n.专利权,垄断 [mo-nop-o-ly]
pen n.围栏;监禁;母天鹅 [pen]
restraint n.克制 [re-straint]
shackle n.脚镣,枷锁 [shack-le]
arrest v.依法逮捕;阻止,抑制 [ar-rest]
blockade v./n.封锁 [block-ade]
captivate v.迷惑,吸引 [cap-ti-vate]
check v.使突然停止,阻止 [check]
coerce v.强迫;压制 [co-erce]
commit v.托付;承诺;犯罪 [com-mit]
confine v.限制,禁闭 [con-fine]
constrain v.束缚,强迫;限制 [con-strain]
discipline v.训练,训导;n.纪律;惩罚,处分 [dis-ci-pline]
fasten v.使…固定(to fix sth. firmly) [fas-ten]
immure v.监禁 [im-mure]
incarcerate v.下狱,监禁 [in-car-cer-ate]
inhibit v.抑制 [in-hib-it]
restrain v.克制,抑制 [re-strain]
smother v.覆盖;(使)闷死 [smoth-er]
subjugate v.征服,镇压 [sub-ju-gate]
tether v.用绳或链拴住(牲畜);n.(拴牲畜的)绳或链;限度,范围 [teth-er]
withhold v.扣留,保留 [with-hold]

prison 752

band n.带子;收音机波段 [band]
bandage n.绷带;v.用绷带包扎 [band-age]
barrier n.路障;障碍 [bar-ri-er]
bit n.钻头 [bit]
brake n.刹车;v.减速,阻止 [brake]
bridle n.马笼头;v.抑制,控制 [bri-dle]
collar n.衣领;戴在动物颈部的项圈 [col-lar]
coop n.(鸡)笼,栏 [co-op]
cord n.考得(木材堆的体积单位,等于128立方英尺,3.6246立方米);绳索 [cord]
curb n.路缘,(街道的)镶边石;马勒;v.控制 [curb]
den n.兽穴,窝 [den]
fetter n./v.(带)脚镣;束缚 [fet-ter]
fold n.羊栏,畜栏;v.折叠 [fold]
guy n.(铁塔等的)支索,牵索 [guy]
harness n.马具;v.束以马具;利用 [har-ness]
hold n.(船)货舱 [hold]
pen n.围栏;监禁;母天鹅 [pen]
rail n.栏杆;铁轨;v.咒骂,猛烈指责 [rail]
rein n.缰绳;v.控制 [rein]
shackle n.脚镣,枷锁 [shack-le]
yoke n.牛轭;v.控制,束缚 [yoke]
bar v.禁止,阻挡;n.条,棒 [ba-r]
barricade v.设栅阻挡;n.栅栏 [bar-ri-cade]
bolt v.急逃(to dash out; dart);螺栓,门栓 [bolt]
tether v.用绳或链拴住(牲畜);n.(拴牲畜的)绳或链;限度,范围 [teth-er]

keeper 753

bodyguard n.保镖,侍卫 [bod-y-guard]
custodian n.管理员,监护人 [cus-to-di-an]
ranger n.森林管理员;巡逻骑警 [rang-er]
sentinel n.哨兵,卫兵 [sen-ti-nel]

commission 755

charter n.(公司)执照;宪章;v.包租车船 [char-ter]
commission n.委托;佣金 [com-mis-sion]
coronation n.加冕 [cor-o-na-tion]
delegate n.代表;v.委派…为代表,授权 [del-e-gate]
deputy n.代表;副警长 [dep-u-ty]
designation n.指定;名称,称呼 [des-ig-na-tion]
errand n.差使;差事 [er-rand]
appoint v.任命,指定;约会 [ap-point]
commit v.托付;承诺;犯罪 [com-mit]
consign v.托运;托人看管 [con-sign]
crown v.加冕,使成王,居…之顶 [crown]
empower v.授权给某人采取行动 [em-pow-er]
enlist v.(使)入伍从军,征募 [en-list]
entrust v.委托;托付 [en-trust]
inaugurate v.举行就职典礼;开创 [in-au-gu-rate]
induct v.使就职;使入伍 [in-duct]
install v.安装,装置;使就职 [in-stall]
nominate v.提名;任命,指定 [nom-i-nate]
ordain v.任命(神职);颁发命令 [or-dain]

abrogation 756

abolition n.废除,革除 [ab-o-li-tion]
deposition n.免职;沉积;作证 [dep-o-si-tion]
recantation n.改变宗教信仰 [recantation]
rescission n.废除 [re-scis-sion]
reverse n.反面;相反;v.倒车;反转 [re-verse]
abolish v.废止,废除(法律、制度、习俗等) [a-bol-ish]
abrogate v.废止,废除 [ab-ro-gate]
annul v.宣告无效;取消 [an-nul]
countermand v.撤回(命令),取消(订货) [coun-ter-mand]
depose v.免职;作证 [de-pose]
disbar v.取消律师资格 [dis-bar]
discard v.扔掉,抛弃 [dis-card]
discharge v.流出;释放;解雇;履行义务 [dis-charge]
disclaim v.放弃权利;拒绝承认 [dis-claim]
dissolve v.使固体溶解 [dis-solve]
nullify v.使无效,取消 [nul-li-fy]
oust v.驱逐;把…赶走 [oust]
override v.不理会;蹂躏,践踏 [o-ver-ride]
overrule v.(高位的人)否决(低位的人或事) [o-ver-rule]
quash v.镇压;取消 [quash]
recall v.回想,回忆起;收回;n.唤回 [re-call]
recant v.改变,放弃(以前的信仰) [re-cant]
repeal v.废除(法律) [re-peal]
repudiate v.拒绝,抛弃 [re-pu-di-ate]
rescind v.废除,取消 [re-scind]
retract v.缩回,收回 [re-tract]

resignation 757

resignation n.听从,顺从;辞职 [res-ig-na-tion]
abdicate v.退位,辞职,放弃 [ab-di-cate]
abjure v.发誓放弃 [ab-jure]
abrogate v.废止,废除 [ab-ro-gate]
desert v.放弃,离弃 [de-sert]
disclaim v.放弃权利;拒绝承认 [dis-claim]
renounce v.(正式)放弃 [re-nounce]
retract v.缩回,收回 [re-tract]

consignee 758

advocate >v.拥护,支持,鼓吹;n.支持者,拥护者 [ad-vo-cate]
attorney n.律师 [at-tor-ney]
broker n.经纪人 [bro-ker]
consul n.领事 [con-sul]
curator n.(博物馆等)馆长 [cu-ra-tor]
delegate n.代表;v.委派…为代表,授权 [del-e-gate]
emissary n.密使;特使 [em-is-sar-y]
factotum n.杂役,听差 [fac-to-tum]
functionary n.小官,低级公务员 [func-tion-ar-y]
proctor n.代理人,学监 [proc-tor]
referee n.裁判员;仲裁者 [ref-er-ee]
resident n.居民;a.定居的,常驻的 [res-i-dent]

deputy 759

champion n.冠军;斗士;拥护者;v.拥护 [cham-pi-on]
chancellor n.大臣,总理,首席法官,大学校长 [chan-cel-lor]
consul n.领事 [con-sul]
delegate n.代表;v.委派…为代表,授权 [del-e-gate]
deputy n.代表;副警长 [dep-u-ty]
substitute n.代替品;v.代替 [sub-sti-tute]
surrogate n.代替品;代理人 [sur-ro-gate]
vicar n.教区牧师 [vic-ar]

Section II. Special Intersocial Volition

permission 760

legitimate a.合法的;正当的 [le-git-i-mate]
patent a.显而易见的;n.专利权(证书) [pa-tent]
permissive a.过分纵容的 [per-mis-sive]
admission n.许可;入会费;承认 [ad-mis-sion]
allowance n.津贴,补助;承认,允许 [al-low-ance]
authorization n.授权,认可 [au-thor-i-za-tion]
charter n.(公司)执照;宪章;v.包租车船 [char-ter]
concession n.让步 [con-ces-sion]
grace n.优美 [grace]
liberty n.随意,冒失 [lib-er-ty]
license n.放肆,自由;许可证,执照 [li-cense]
precept n.箴言,格言 [pre-cept]
privilege n.特权,特别利益 [priv-i-lege]
sanction n./v.批准,认可 [sanc-tion]
tolerance n.容许量,公差;容忍,忍受 [tol-er-ance]
warrant n.正当理由;许可证 [war-rant]
warranty n.保证;辩解;有正当理由;批准 [war-ran-ty]
absolve v.赦免,免除 [ab-solve]
accord v./n.同意;一致 [ac-cord]
concede v.承认(为正确);让步 [con-cede]
empower v.授权给某人采取行动 [em-pow-er]
exonerate v.免除责任;确定无罪 [ex-on-er-ate]
grant v.同意给予 [grant]
gratify v.使高兴,使满足 [grat-i-fy]
humor v.纵容,迁就 [hu-mor]
indulge v.放纵;满足 [in-dulge]
release v.释放,放出;n.释放 [re-lease]

prohibition 761

exclusive a.(人)孤僻的;(物)专用的 [ex-clu-sive]
forbidding a.(表情)冷峻的;形势险恶的 [for-bid-ding]
illegal a.违法的 [il-le-gal]
prohibitive a.抑制的;价格贵得买不起的 [pro-hib-i-tive]
taboo a.讳忌的;n.禁忌 [ta-boo]
ban n.禁令 [ban]
contraband n.违禁品,走私货 [con-tra-band]
embargo n.禁运令,封港令 [em-bar-go]
injunction n.命令,强制令 [in-junc-tion]
veto n.否决,禁止 [ve-to]
bar v.禁止,阻挡;n.条,棒 [ba-r]
circumscribe v.限制 [cir-cum-scribe]
enjoin v.命令,吩咐 [en-join]
exclude v.排斥;排除 [ex-clude]
forbid v.不许,禁止;妨碍,阻止 [for-bid]
inhibit v.抑制 [in-hib-it]
interdict v.禁止;切断(补给线) [in-ter-dict]
proscribe v.禁止 [pro-scribe]
restrain v.克制,抑制 [re-strain]
withhold v.扣留,保留 [with-hold]

consent 762

compliance n.顺从,遵从 [com-pli-ance]
concession n.让步 [con-ces-sion]
ratification n.正式批准 [ratification]
accede v.同意 [ac-cede]
acknowledge v.承认;致谢 [ac-knowl-edge]
acquiesce v.勉强同意,默许 [ac-qui-esce]
assent v.同意,赞成 [as-sent]
concede v.承认(为正确);让步 [con-cede]
consent v.同意,允许 [con-sent]
deign v.屈尊,惠允(做某事) [deign]
grant v.同意给予 [grant]
settle v.安置于;决定;栖息 [set-tle]

offer 763

overture n.前奏曲,序曲 [o-ver-ture]
presentation n.表演,介绍,描述 [pres-en-ta-tion]
proffer n./v.献出,赠送;提议,建议 [prof-fer]
proposal n.提案,建议 [pro-po-sal]
proposition n.看法;提议 [prop-o-si-tion]
bid v.命令;出价,投标 [bid]
bribe v.贿赂 [bribe]
press v.挤压 [press]
tender v.(希望对方接受的意见等) [ten-der]

refusal 764

cross a.生气的 [cross]
restive a.不安静的,不安宁的 [res-tive]
begrudge v.吝啬,勉强给 [be-grudge]
decline v.拒绝;变弱,变小;n.消减 [de-cline]
discard v.扔掉,抛弃 [dis-card]
disclaim v.放弃权利;拒绝承认 [dis-claim]
dissent v.不同意,持异议 [dis-sent]
protest v./n.抗议,反对 [pro-test]
rebuff v.断然拒绝 [re-buff]
repel v.击退,使…反感 [re-pel]
repulse v.驱逐,击退;厌恶;n.驱逐,击退,厌恶 [re-pulse]
rescind v.废除,取消 [re-scind]

request 765

suppliant a.恳求的,哀求的;n.恳求者 [sup-pli-ant]
urgent a.迫切的,紧急的 [ur-gent]
apostrophe n.书写中撇号(’)(表示省略或所有格) [a-pos-tro-phe]
application n.请求,申请;应用,应用程序 [ap-pli-ca-tion]
court n.法庭,法院;宫廷,朝廷;v.献殷勤;追求 [court]
entreaty n.恳求,哀求 [en-treat-y]
incantation n.咒语 [in-can-ta-tion]
overture n.前奏曲,序曲 [o-ver-ture]
petition n.请愿;请愿书 [pe-ti-tion]
proposal n.提案,建议 [pro-po-sal]
proposition n.看法;提议 [prop-o-si-tion]
request n.要求,请求;v.要求,请求 [re-quest]
supplicant n.乞求者,恳求者 [sup-pli-cant]
address v.处理,对付,着手解决;致词 [ad-dress]
appeal v.恳求;吸引;上诉 [ap-peal]
beset v.镶嵌;困扰 [be-set]
besiege v.围攻,困扰 [be-siege]
cadge v.乞讨;占便宜 [cadge]
canvass v.细查;拉选票 [can-vass]
claim v.要求或索; 要n.声称拥有的权力 [claim]
conjure v.恳求,祈求;变魔术,变戏法 [con-jure]
entreat v.恳求 [en-treat]
evoke v.引起;唤起 [e-voke]
implore v.哀求,恳求 [im-plore]
importune v.强求,不断请求 [im-por-tune]
invoke v.祈求;恳求;(法律的)实施生效 [in-voke]
plead v.恳求,提出…为理由 [plead]
press v.挤压 [press]
solicit v.恳求;教唆 [so-lic-it]
supplicate v.恳求,乞求 [sup-pli-cate]
tout v.招徕顾客;极力赞扬 [tout]

deprecation 766

deprecate v.反对,轻视 [dep-re-cate]
expostulate v.(对人或行为进行)抗议,告诫 [ex-pos-tu-late]
protest v./n.抗议,反对 [pro-test]

petitioner 767

mendicant a.行乞的;n.乞丐 [men-di-cant]
suppliant a.恳求的,哀求的;n.恳求者 [sup-pli-ant]
applicant n.申请人 [ap-pli-cant]
aspirant n.有抱负者 [as-pir-ant]
candidate n.候选人;参加考试的人 [can-di-date]
pauper n.贫民,乞丐 [pau-per]
petitioner n.请愿人 [pe-ti-tion-er]
supplicant n.乞求者,恳求者 [sup-pli-cant]
tout v.招徕顾客;极力赞扬 [tout]

Section III. Conditional Intersocial Volition

promise 768

attest (to)v.证明 [at-test]
committed a.(对事业,本职工作等)尽忠的 [com-mit-ted]
secure a.安全的;稳固的;v.固定;使安全 [se-cure]
contract n.合同;v.订合同;收缩 [con-tract]
covenant n.契约;v.立书保证 [cov-e-nant]
oath n.誓言;咒骂 [oath]
obligation n.责任;债务,欠的人情 [ob-li-ga-tion]
pledge n.誓言,保证;v.发誓 [pledge]
plight n.困境,苦境 [plight]
stipulation n.规定,约定 [stip-u-la-tion]
warrant n.正当理由;许可证 [war-rant]
warranty n.保证;辩解;有正当理由;批准 [war-ran-ty]
assure v.向某人保证,确信 [as-sure]
betroth v.许配,和…订婚 [be-troth]
guarantee v.保证,担保 [guar-an-tee]
underwrite v.同意负担…的费用;为…保险 [un-der-write]

release from engagement 768.a

absolute a.绝对的,完全的; 无(条件)限制的 [ab-so-lute]
release v.释放,放出;n.释放 [re-lease]

compact 769

compact a.结实的;简洁的;n.合同,协议 [com-pact]
conventional a.因循守旧的,传统的 [con-ven-tion-al]
bargain n.交易; 物美价廉的东西;v.讨价还价 [bar-gain]
charter n.(公司)执照;宪章;v.包租车船 [char-ter]
contract n.合同;v.订合同;收缩 [con-tract]
covenant n.契约;v.立书保证 [cov-e-nant]
indenture n.契约,合同 [in-den-ture]
pact n.协定,条约 [pact]
protocol n.外交礼节;协议,草案 [pro-to-col]
ratification n.正式批准 [ratification]
stipulation n.规定,约定 [stip-u-la-tion]
treaty n.条约;协议 [trea-ty]
compromise v.妥协;危害 [com-pro-mise]
confirm v.证实,证明 [con-firm]
endorse v.背书;赞同 [en-dorse]
indent v.切割成锯齿状 [in-dent]
negotiate v.商议,谈判,交涉 [ne-go-ti-ate]
settle v.安置于;决定;栖息 [set-tle]
stipulate v.要求以…为条件;约定 [stip-u-late]
underwrite v.同意负担…的费用;为…保险 [un-der-write]

conditions 770

provisional a.暂时的,临时的 [pro-vi-sion-al]
covenant n.契约;v.立书保证 [cov-e-nant]
obligation n.责任;债务,欠的人情 [ob-li-ga-tion]
stipulation n.规定,约定 [stip-u-la-tion]
stipulate v.要求以…为条件;约定 [stip-u-late]

security 771

collateral a.平行的;旁系的;n.担保品 [col-lat-er-al]
earnest a.认真的 [ear-nest]
bail n.保释金 [bail]
charter n.(公司)执照;宪章;v.包租车船 [char-ter]
covenant n.契约;v.立书保证 [cov-e-nant]
deed n.行为;(土地或建筑物的)转让契约、证书 [deed]
indenture n.契约,合同 [in-den-ture]
lien n.扣押权;留置权 [li-en]
mortgage n.抵押贷款;抵押证书;v.用…作抵押 [mort-gage]
pledge n.誓言,保证;v.发誓 [pledge]
plight n.困境,苦境 [plight]
receipt n.收到,接到;发票,收据 [re-ceipt]
stake n.柱桩;赌注 [stake]
testament n.遗嘱;证明 [tes-ta-ment]
warrant n.正当理由;许可证 [war-rant]
warranty n.保证;辩解;有正当理由;批准 [war-ran-ty]
assure v.向某人保证,确信 [as-sure]
discharge v.流出;释放;解雇;履行义务 [dis-charge]
execute v.执行,履行;将某人处死 [ex-e-cute]
guarantee v.保证,担保 [guar-an-tee]
release v.释放,放出;n.释放 [re-lease]
stamp v./n.跺脚;在…上盖印 [stamp]
underwrite v.同意负担…的费用;为…保险 [un-der-write]

observance 772

exact a.精确的;v.强求,强索付款 [ex-act]
literal a.字面上的;忠实原义的;精确的 [lit-er-al]
loyal a.忠诚的,忠贞的,忠心的 [loy-al]
meet a.合适的 [meet]
punctilious a.谨小慎微的 [punc-til-i-ous]
acquittal n.宣告无罪,开释 [ac-quit-tal]
compliance n.顺从,遵从 [com-pli-ance]
acknowledge v.承认;致谢 [ac-knowl-edge]
discharge v.流出;释放;解雇;履行义务 [dis-charge]
execute v.执行,履行;将某人处死 [ex-e-cute]

nonobservance 773

elusive a.难懂的 [e-lu-sive]
evasive a.迥避的,逃避的,托辞的 [e-va-sive]
evasion n.躲避,借口 [e-va-sion]
infraction n.违法 [in-frac-tion]
pirate n.海盗,剽窃者;v.盗印;掠夺 [pi-rate]
transgression n.违法,罪过 [trans-gres-sion]
discard v.扔掉,抛弃 [dis-card]
elude v.逃避;搞不清 [e-lude]
evade v.逃避;规避 [e-vade]
forfeit v.丧失,被罚没收;n.丧失物 [for-feit]
infringe v.违反,侵害 [in-fringe]
nullify v.使无效,取消 [nul-li-fy]
omit v.省略,遗漏;疏忽 [o-mit]
palter v.含糊其词 [pal-ter]
protest v./n.抗议,反对 [pro-test]
repudiate v.拒绝,抛弃 [re-pu-di-ate]
retract v.缩回,收回 [re-tract]
transgress v.冒犯,违背 [trans-gress]
violate v.违反,触犯 [vi-o-late]

compromise 774

compound n.复合物;v.搀和 [com-pound]
adjust v.整顿,整理;适应 [ad-just]
commute v.交换;坐公交车上下班 [com-mute]
compromise v.妥协;危害 [com-pro-mise]

Section IV. Possessive Relations

1. Property In General

acquisition 775

acquired a.后天习得的 [ac-quired]
lucrative a.赚钱的,有利可图的 [lu-cra-tive]
remunerative a.报酬高的,有利润的 [re-mu-ner-a-tive]
secure a.安全的;稳固的;v.固定;使安全 [se-cure]
descent n.降落;侵袭;血统 [de-scent]
pelf n.钱财;不义之财 [pelf]
proceeds n.收入 [pro-ceeds]
procurement n.获得,接收 [pro-cure-ment]
produce n.产品;农产品 [pro-duce]
purchase n.支点(阻止东西下滑) [pur-chase]
restitution n.归偿;赔偿 [res-ti-tu-tion]
salvage n./v.(从灾难中)抢救,海上救助 [sal-vage]
accrue v.(利息等)增大;增多 [ac-crue]
glean v.拾落穗;收集(材料等) [glean]
inherit v.继承 [in-her-it]
procure v.取得,获得 [pro-cure]
redeem v.赎罪 [re-deem]
retrieve v./n.寻回,取回;挽回(错误) [re-trieve]

loss 776

bereft a.被剥夺的;缺少的 [be-reft]
deprivation n.剥夺;缺乏 [dep-ri-va-tion]
lapse n.失误;(时间等)流逝 [lapse]
privation n.丧失,贫困 [pri-va-tion]
forfeit v.丧失,被罚没收;n.丧失物 [for-feit]
waste v.使身体消瘦,损耗 [waste]

possession 777

possessed a.着迷的;疯狂的 [pos-sessed]
hold n.(船)货舱 [hold]
monopoly n.专利权,垄断 [mo-nop-o-ly]
tenure n.任期;终身职位 [ten-ure]
warrant n.正当理由;许可证 [war-rant]
engross v.全神贯注于 [en-gross]
forestall v.先发制人,预先阻止 [fore-stall]
inherit v.继承 [in-her-it]

exemption 777.a

immunity n.免疫;豁免 [im-mu-ni-ty]
privilege n.特权,特别利益 [priv-i-lege]
release v.释放,放出;n.释放 [re-lease]

possessor 779

proprietary a.私有的 [pro-pri-e-tar-y]
tenant n.房客 [ten-ant]

property 780

patent a.显而易见的;n.专利权(证书) [pa-tent]
stock a.普通的,惯用的;n.存货 [stock]
cargo n.(船、飞机等装载的)货物 [car-go]
credit n.赊购;信任;(电影)片头字幕 [cred-it]
domain n.领土;领域 [do-main]
feud n.宿怨,不和 [feud]
heirloom n.传家宝 [heir-loom]
lease n.租约;租期;v.出租 [lease]
legacy n.遗产;遗留之物 [leg-a-cy]
patrimony n.祖传的财产 [pat-ri-mo-ny]
pelf n.钱财;不义之财 [pelf]
realm n.王国;领域,范围 [realm]
remainder n.剩余物 [re-main-der]
stake n.柱桩;赌注 [stake]
tenure n.任期;终身职位 [ten-ure]
claim v.要求或索; 要n.声称拥有的权力 [claim]
demand v.要求,苛求 [de-mand]
inherit v.继承 [in-her-it]

retention 781

inalienable a.不可剥夺的 [in-al-ien-a-ble]
secure a.安全的;稳固的;v.固定;使安全 [se-cure]
tenacious a.坚韧不拔的 [te-na-cious]
custody n.监管,保管 [cus-to-dy]
reserve n.储备(物),储藏量;缄默,谨慎;v.保留,储备,预订 [re-serve]
tenacity n.坚持,固执 [tenacity]
tongs n.夹子,钳子 [tongs]
wrist n.腕,腕关节 [wrist]
clinch v.钉牢;彻底解决 [clinch]
detain v.拘留;使延迟 [de-tain]
entail v.需要,需求,必须 [en-tail]
gripe v.抱怨 [gripe]
husband v.妥善而又节约地管理;做…的丈夫 [hus-band]
retain v.保留,保持;留住 [re-tain]
settle v.安置于;决定;栖息 [set-tle]
withhold v.扣留,保留 [with-hold]

relinquishment 782

derelict a.荒废的;玩忽职守的;n.被遗弃的人 [der-e-lict]
cession n.割让,转让 [ces-sion]
dereliction n.遗弃,弃置 [der-e-lic-tion]
maroon n./a.栗色(的) [ma-roon]
resignation n.听从,顺从;辞职 [res-ig-na-tion]
abandon v./n.放弃;放纵 [a-ban-don]
cede v.割让(土地权利),放弃 [cede]
discard v.扔掉,抛弃 [dis-card]
jettison v.(船)向外抛弃东西;n.抛弃的货物 [jet-ti-son]
relinquish v.放弃,废除 [re-lin-quish]
renounce v.(正式)放弃 [re-nounce]
supersede v.淘汰,取代 [su-per-sede]
surrender v.投降;放弃;归还 [sur-ren-der]

2. Transfer of Property

transfer 783

negotiable a.可商量的 [ne-go-ti-a-ble]
demise n.死亡;财产转让 [de-mise]
substitute n.代替品;v.代替 [sub-sti-tute]
alienate v.疏远,离间某人 [al-ien-ate]
barter v.易货贸易 [bar-ter]
consign v.托运;托人看管 [con-sign]
convey v.运载,运送;表达 [con-vey]
grant v.同意给予 [grant]
negotiate v.商议,谈判,交涉 [ne-go-ti-ate]
transfer v.转移,传递;调任,转让 [trans-fer]
transmit v.传送,传播 [trans-mit]

giving 784

bequeath . 遗赠 [be-queath]
charitable a.仁慈的;宽厚的 [char-i-ta-ble]
lavish a.浪费的;丰富的 [lav-ish]
allowance n.津贴,补助;承认,允许 [al-low-ance]
bait n.诱饵;v.逗弄;激怒 [bait]
bequest n.遗产,遗赠物 [be-quest]
boon n.恩惠,天赐福利 [boon]
cast n.演员阵容;剧团;v.扔;铸造 [cast]
charity n.仁慈;施舍 [char-i-ty]
concession n.让步 [con-ces-sion]
donor n.捐赠者,赠送者;献血者 [do-nor]
generosity n.慷慨,大方 [gen-er-os-i-ty]
grace n.优美 [grace]
gratuity n.赏钱,小费 [gra-tu-i-ty]
grease n.(炼出的)动物油脂;滑脂 [grease]
honorarium n.酬劳金,谢礼 [hon-o-rar-i-um]
largess n.赠送,赏赐;赠品;贺礼 [lar-gess]
legacy n.遗产;遗留之物 [leg-a-cy]
liberality n.慷慨;心胸开阔 [lib-er-al-i-ty]
presentation n.表演,介绍,描述 [pres-en-ta-tion]
sacrifice n.牺牲;v.宰牲祭神 [sac-ri-fice]
subsidy n.补助金 [sub-si-dy]
tribute n.赞辞;贡物 [trib-ute]
accord v./n.同意;一致 [ac-cord]
bestow v.给予,赐赠 [be-stow]
bribe v.贿赂 [bribe]
cede v.割让(土地权利),放弃 [cede]
communicate v.传送信息,沟通 [com-mu-ni-cate]
concede v.承认(为正确);让步 [con-cede]
confer v.讨论,商谈;赠予 [con-fer]
consign v.托运;托人看管 [con-sign]
devise v.发明,设计;图谋;遗赠给 [de-vise]
dispense v.分配,分发 [dis-pense]
endow v.资助,捐助 [en-dow]
graft v./n.嫁接;贪污 [graft]
grant v.同意给予 [grant]
immolate v.牺牲,焚祭 [im-mo-late]
impart v.传授,告知 [im-part]
render v.呈递,表现;提供 [ren-der]
shed v.流出(眼泪等);脱落(叶子) [shed]

receiving 785

admission n.许可;入会费;承认 [ad-mis-sion]
recipient n.接受者,收受者 [re-cip-i-ent]
accrue v.(利息等)增大;增多 [ac-crue]

apportionment 786

contingent a.意外的;视情况或条件而定的 [con-tin-gent]
allowance n.津贴,补助;承认,允许 [al-low-ance]
cast n.演员阵容;剧团;v.扔;铸造 [cast]
dose n.剂量,一剂 [dose]
lot n.签;命运;v.抽签,划分 [lot]
modicum n.少量 [mod-i-cum]
partition n.隔开;隔墙 [par-ti-tion]
pittance n.微薄的薪俸,少量的收入 [pit-tance]
quantum n.量子;定量 [quan-tum]
quota n.定额,配额 [quo-ta]
ration n.定量配给;v.配给 [ra-tion]
allocate v.配给,分配 [al-lo-cate]
appoint v.任命,指定;约会 [ap-point]
appropriate v.拨款;盗用;a.恰当的 [ap-pro-pri-ate]
carve v.雕刻 [carve]
dispense v.分配,分发 [dis-pense]
distribute v.分发,分配某事物 [dis-trib-ute]
mete v.给予,分配;测量;n.边界 [mete]
separate v.使分开;a.不同的;独自的 [sep-a-rate]

lending 787

demise n.死亡;财产转让 [de-mise]
lease n.租约;租期;v.出租 [lease]
mortgage n.抵押贷款;抵押证书;v.用…作抵押 [mort-gage]

borrowing 788

plagiarism n.剽窃,抄袭 [pla-gia-rism]
rent n.裂缝;(意见)分歧 [rent]
adopt v.收养;采纳 [a-dopt]
appropriate v.拨款;盗用;a.恰当的 [ap-pro-pri-ate]

taking 789

bereft a.被剥夺的;缺少的 [be-reft]
rapacious a.强夺的,贪婪的 [ra-pa-cious]
ravenous a.饿极了的,贪婪的 [rav-en-ous]
taking a.楚楚动人的 [tak-ing]
abstract n.摘要;a.抽象的 [ab-stract]
caption n.标题 [cap-tion]
clasp n.钩子,扣子;紧握 [clasp]
collar n.衣领;戴在动物颈部的项圈 [col-lar]
deprivation n.剥夺;缺乏 [dep-ri-va-tion]
distress n.痛苦,悲痛 [dis-tress]
eviction n.(对房客或佃户的)驱逐 [e-vic-tion]
exhaust n.(机器排出的)废气,蒸气;v.使非常疲倦 [ex-haust]
pluck n.在困难面前足智多谋的勇气,胆量;精力;v.拔毛;弹拉 [pluck]
reprisal n.(政治或军事的)报复 [re-pris-al]
reprise n.(音乐剧中)乐曲的重复;重复 [re-prise]
snatch n./v.强夺,攫取 [snatch]
absorb v.吸收;同化;吸引…的注意 [ab-sorb]
appropriate v.拨款;盗用;a.恰当的 [ap-pro-pri-ate]
assume v.假定 [as-sume]
capture v.俘获;夺取或赢得;n.战利品 [cap-ture]
clinch v.钉牢;彻底解决 [clinch]
confiscate v.没收;充公 [con-fis-cate]
deduct v.减去,扣除;演绎 [de-duct]
divest v.卸下盛装;剥夺 [di-vest]
drain v.排出沟外;喝光 [drain]
embrace v.拥抱;包含 [em-brace]
extort v.强索,敲诈 [ex-tort]
gripe v.抱怨 [gripe]
impoverish v.使成赤贫 [im-pov-er-ish]
intercept v.中途拦截,截取 [in-ter-cept]
kidnap v.诱拐,绑架,勒赎 [kid-nap]
levy v./n.征税;征兵 [lev-y]
oust v.驱逐;把…赶走 [oust]
reap v.收割,收获 [reap]
resume v.重新开始,继续 [re-su-me]
retrench v.节省,紧缩费用 [re-trench]
sequester v.(使)隐退;使隔离 [se-ques-ter]
shear v.剪(羊毛),剪发 [shear]
strip v.剥去;n.狭长的一片 [strip]
usurp v.篡夺,霸占 [u-surp]
wrench v.扭,拧;n.板钳,扳手 [wrench]

restitution 790

reparation n.赔偿,补偿 [rep-a-ra-tion]
restitution n.归偿;赔偿 [res-ti-tu-tion]
compensate v.补偿,赔偿 [com-pen-sate]
disgorge v.呕出;(水)流走 [dis-gorge]
indemnify v.赔偿,偿付 [in-dem-ni-fy]
redeem v.赎罪 [re-deem]
rehabilitate v.修复,恢复(职业等) [re-ha-bil-i-tate]
reimburse v.偿还 [re-im-burse]
reinstate v.恢复(原职) [re-in-state]
release v.释放,放出;n.释放 [re-lease]
render v.呈递,表现;提供 [ren-der]
restore v.使回复,恢复;修复,修补 [re-store]
revert v.恢复,回复到;重新考虑 [re-vert]

stealing 791

furtive a. 偷偷的,秘密的 [fur-tive]
abstract n.摘要;a.抽象的 [ab-stract]
badger n.獾;v.一再烦扰,一再要求 [badg-er]
embezzlement n.贪污,盗用 [em-bez-zle-ment]
forage n.(牛马的)饲料,粮草;v.搜寻,翻寻 [for-age]
fraud n.欺诈,欺骗;骗子 [fraud]
pirate n.海盗,剽窃者;v.盗印;掠夺 [pi-rate]
plagiarism n.剽窃,抄袭 [pla-gia-rism]
pluck n.在困难面前足智多谋的勇气,胆量;精力;v.拔毛;弹拉 [pluck]
raid n.突然袭击 [raid]
rifle n.步枪;v.抢劫 [ri-fle]
appropriate v.拨款;盗用;a.恰当的 [ap-pro-pri-ate]
bilk v.躲债;骗取 [bilk]
defraud v.欺骗某人 [de-fraud]
filibuster v./n.妨碍议事,阻挠 [fil-i-bus-ter]
kidnap v.诱拐,绑架,勒赎 [kid-nap]
plagiarize v.剽窃,抄袭 [pla-gia-rize]
plunder v.抢劫,掠夺 [plun-der]
purloin v.偷窃 [pur-loin]
smuggle v.走私,私运 [smug-gle]
spoil v.损坏,破坏;溺爱 [spoil]
strip v.剥去;n.狭长的一片 [strip]
swindle v.诈骗 [swin-dle]

thief 792

badger n.獾;v.一再烦扰,一再要求 [badg-er]
falcon n.猎鹰;隼 [fal-con]
forger n.伪造者;打铁匠 [forg-er]
hawk n.隼,鹰 [hawk]
pirate n.海盗,剽窃者;v.盗印;掠夺 [pi-rate]
ranger n.森林管理员;巡逻骑警 [rang-er]
crook v.使弯曲;n.钩状物 [crook]
filibuster v./n.妨碍议事,阻挠 [fil-i-bus-ter]

booty 793

prey n.被捕食的动物 [prey]
plunder v.抢劫,掠夺 [plun-der]
spoil v.损坏,破坏;溺爱 [spoil]

3. Interchange of Property

barter 794

interchangeable a.可互换的 [in-ter-change-a-ble]
mercantile a.贸易的,商业的 [mer-can-tile]
bargain n.交易; 物美价廉的东西;v.讨价还价 [bar-gain]
dealing n.生意行为;作风 [deal-ing]
huckster n.叫卖小贩,零售商 [huck-ster]
staple n.主要产品 [sta-ple]
transaction n.办理,交易 [trans-ac-tion]
barter v.易货贸易 [bar-ter]
negotiate v.商议,谈判,交涉 [ne-go-ti-ate]
retail v.零售;n.零售 [re-tail]
speculate v.沉思,思索;投机 [spec-u-late]

purchase 795

clientele n.(医生、律师的)顾客,(商店的)常客 [cli-en-tele]
purchase n.支点(阻止东西下滑) [pur-chase]
rent n.裂缝;(意见)分歧 [rent]
bribe v.贿赂 [bribe]
procure v.取得,获得 [pro-cure]
suborn v.收买,贿赂 [sub-orn]

sale 796

auction n.拍卖 [auc-tion]
disposal n.清除,处理 [dis-pos-al]
hawk n.隼,鹰 [hawk]
mortgage n.抵押贷款;抵押证书;v.用…作抵押 [mort-gage]
vendor n.小贩 [ven-dor]
dispense v.分配,分发 [dis-pense]
retail v.零售;n.零售 [re-tail]
vent v.发泄(情绪);开孔;n.孔,口 [vent]

merchant 797

broker n.经纪人 [bro-ker]
huckster n.叫卖小贩,零售商 [huck-ster]
vintner n.酒商 [vint-ner]

merchandise 798

stock a.普通的,惯用的;n.存货 [stock]
cargo n.(船、飞机等装载的)货物 [car-go]
commodity n.商品 [com-mod-i-ty]
produce n.产品;农产品 [pro-duce]

mart 799

auction n.拍卖 [auc-tion]
bazaar n.集市,商店集中区 [ba-zaar]
staple n.主要产品 [sta-ple]
warehouse n.仓库,货栈 [ware-house]
stall v.使停止,使延迟 [stall]

stock market 799.a

broker n.经纪人 [bro-ker]
speculate v.沉思,思索;投机 [spec-u-late]

securities 799.b

securities n.证券 [securities]

4. Monetary Relations

money 800

fiscal a.国库的,财政的 [fis-cal]
monetary a.货币的 [mon-e-tar-y]
stock a.普通的,惯用的;n.存货 [stock]
utter a.完全的;v.发出声音 [ut-ter]
circulation n.循环,流通;发行额 [cir-cu-la-tion]
credit n.赊购;信任;(电影)片头字幕 [cred-it]
discount n.折扣 [dis-count]
draft n.草稿,草案;汇票 [draft]
liability n.责任;债务 [li-a-bil-i-ty]
mint n.大量;巨额 [mint]
mite n.极小量;小虫 [mite]
numismatist n.钱币学家,钱币收藏家 [nu-mis-ma-tist]
proceeds n.收入 [pro-ceeds]
warrant n.正当理由;许可证 [war-rant]
check v.使突然停止,阻止 [check]
circulate v.循环;流通;发行 [cir-cu-late]
counterfeit v.伪造,仿造 [coun-ter-feit]
crown v.加冕,使成王,居…之顶 [crown]
debase v.贬低,贬损 [de-base]
inflate v.使充气,使膨胀 [in-flate]
issue v.出来,流出;发给,分发;n.(书刊的)期 [is-sue]

wealth 803

affluent a.富裕的,丰富的 [af-flu-ent]
opulent a.富裕的;充足的 [op-u-lent]
solvent a.有偿债能力的;n.溶剂 [sol-vent]
affluence n.充裕,富足 [af-flu-ence]
competence n.胜任,能力 [com-pe-tence]
flush n./v.脸红;奔流;冲洗 [flush]
maintenance n.维持,维护 [main-te-nance]
pelf n.钱财;不义之财 [pelf]
provision n.(粮食)供应;(法律等)条款 [pro-vi-sion]
substance n.大意,根据,实质;物质 [sub-stance]

poverty 804

bereft a.被剥夺的;缺少的 [be-reft]
impecunious a.不名一文的,贫困的 [im-pe-cu-ni-ous]
indigent a.贫穷的,贫困的 [in-di-gent]
mendicant a.行乞的;n.乞丐 [men-di-cant]
needy a.贫穷的 [need-y]
destitution n.匮乏,穷困 [des-ti-tu-tion]
distress n.痛苦,悲痛 [dis-tress]
indigence n.贫穷 [in-di-gence]
insolvency n.无力偿还;破产 [in-sol-ven-cy]
pauper n.贫民,乞丐 [pau-per]
penury n.贫穷;吝啬 [pen-u-ry]
privation n.丧失,贫困 [pri-va-tion]
want n.缺乏,贫困,需要 [want]
impoverish v.使成赤贫 [im-pov-er-ish]

credit 805

credit n.赊购;信任;(电影)片头字幕 [cred-it]
draft n.草稿,草案;汇票 [draft]
lien n.扣押权;留置权 [li-en]
mortgage n.抵押贷款;抵押证书;v.用…作抵押 [mort-gage]
score n.乐谱 [score]
securities n.证券 [securities]
tally v.(使)一致,符合 [tal-ly]

debt 806

indebted a.感激的,感恩的 [in-debt-ed]
unrequited a.无报答的 [un-re-quit-ed]
deficit n.不足,赤字 [def-i-cit]
insolvency n.无力偿还;破产 [in-sol-ven-cy]
liability n.责任;债务 [li-a-bil-i-ty]
obligation n.责任;债务,欠的人情 [ob-li-ga-tion]
premium n.保险费;奖金 [pre-mi-um]
score n.乐谱 [score]
usury n.放高利贷 [u-su-ry]
check v.使突然停止,阻止 [check]
default v./n.拖债;未履行的责任 [de-fault]

payment 807

receipt n.收到,接到;发票,收据 [re-ceipt]
retribution n.报应,惩罚 [ret-ri-bu-tion]
stake n.柱桩;赌注 [stake]
acknowledge v.承认;致谢 [ac-knowl-edge]
discharge v.流出;释放;解雇;履行义务 [dis-charge]
disgorge v.呕出;(水)流走 [dis-gorge]
expend v.花费;用光 [ex-pend]
liquidate v.清算;清偿 [liq-ui-date]
redeem v.赎罪 [re-deem]
reimburse v.偿还 [re-im-burse]
release v.释放,放出;n.释放 [re-lease]
settle v.安置于;决定;栖息 [set-tle]

nonpayment 808

bankrupt a.破产的 [bank-rupt]
insolvency n.无力偿还;破产 [in-sol-ven-cy]
default v./n.拖债;未履行的责任 [de-fault]
nullify v.使无效,取消 [nul-li-fy]
protest v./n.抗议,反对 [pro-test]
repudiate v.拒绝,抛弃 [re-pu-di-ate]
swindle v.诈骗 [swin-dle]

expenditure 809

contingent a.意外的;视情况或条件而定的 [con-tin-gent]
earnest a.认真的 [ear-nest]
circulation n.循环,流通;发行额 [cir-cu-la-tion]
expenditure n.消耗,支出 [ex-pend-i-ture]
purchase n.支点(阻止东西下滑) [pur-chase]
quota n.定额,配额 [quo-ta]
subsidy n.补助金 [sub-si-dy]
tribute n.赞辞;贡物 [trib-ute]
bribe v.贿赂 [bribe]
disburse v.支付,支出 [dis-burse]
expend v.花费;用光 [ex-pend]
garnish v.装饰 [gar-nish]

receipt 810

pittance n.微薄的薪俸,少量的收入 [pit-tance]
premium n.保险费;奖金 [pre-mi-um]
proceeds n.收入 [pro-ceeds]
receipt n.收到,接到;发票,收据 [re-ceipt]
rent n.裂缝;(意见)分歧 [rent]
revenue n.总收入;国家的税收收入 [rev-e-nue]
accrue v.(利息等)增大;增多 [ac-crue]

accounts 811

monetary a.货币的 [mon-e-tar-y]
budget n.预算 [budg-et]
credit n.赊购;信任;(电影)片头字幕 [cred-it]
expenditure n.消耗,支出 [ex-pend-i-ture]
ledger n.账簿 [ledg-er]
score n.乐谱 [score]
acquit v.宣告无罪;脱卸义务和责任;还清(债务) [ac-quit]
audit v.审计,核对;旁听 [au-dit]

price 812

exact a.精确的;v.强求,强索付款 [ex-act]
mercenary a.惟利是图的;n.雇佣兵 [mer-ce-nar-y]
venal a.惟利是图的,贪赃枉法的 [ve-nal]
assessment n.估计,评价 [as-sess-ment]
gavel n.(法官所用的)槌,小木槌 [gav-el]
ransom n.赎金;赎身;v.赎回 [ran-som]
salvage n./v.(从灾难中)抢救,海上救助 [sal-vage]
tariff n.关税 [tar-iff]
toll n.过路(桥)费;伤亡人数,损失;v.(缓慢而有规律地)敲 [toll]
appraise v.评价,鉴定 [ap-praise]
assess v.确定,评定;估计…的质量 [as-sess]
demand v.要求,苛求 [de-mand]
excise v.切除,删去 [ex-cise]
levy v./n.征税;征兵 [lev-y]
liquidate v.清算;清偿 [liq-ui-date]

value 812.a

estimable a.值得尊敬的;可估计的 [es-ti-ma-ble]
assessment n.估计,评价 [as-sess-ment]
appraise v.评价,鉴定 [ap-praise]
appreciate v.欣赏;感激 [ap-pre-ci-ate]
assess v.确定,评定;估计…的质量 [as-sess]

worthlessness 812.b

shoddy n.劣质的,冒充好货的 [shod-dy]

discount 813

allowance n.津贴,补助;承认,允许 [al-low-ance]
bargain n.交易; 物美价廉的东西;v.讨价还价 [bar-gain]
concession n.让步 [con-ces-sion]
discount n.折扣 [dis-count]
rebate n.折扣,回扣 [re-bate]
salvage n./v.(从灾难中)抢救,海上救助 [sal-vage]
abate v.减轻,减少 [a-bate]

dearness 814

exorbitant a.过分的,过度的 [ex-or-bi-tant]
extravagance n.奢侈,挥霍 [ex-trav-a-gance]
extort v.强索,敲诈 [ex-tort]

cheapness 815

gratuitous a.无缘无故的;免费的 [gra-tu-i-tous]
bargain n.交易; 物美价廉的东西;v.讨价还价 [bar-gain]
gratuity n.赏钱,小费 [gra-tu-i-ty]
low v.牛叫 [low]

liberality 816

charitable a.仁慈的;宽厚的 [char-i-ta-ble]
hospitable a.豁达的 [hos-pi-ta-ble]
ungrudging a.慷慨的 [un-grudg-ing]
charity n.仁慈;施舍 [char-i-ty]
generosity n.慷慨,大方 [gen-er-os-i-ty]
liberality n.慷慨;心胸开阔 [lib-er-al-i-ty]
munificence n.慷慨,宽宏大量 [mu-nif-i-cence]

economy 817

chary a.小心的,审慎的 [char-y]
economical a.经济的,节约的 [e-co-nom-i-cal]
frugal a.节约的,节俭的 [fru-gal]
sparing a.节俭的 [spar-ing]
husbandry n.耕种,务农;节敛管理 [hus-band-ry]
parsimony n.过分节俭,吝啬 [par-si-mo-ny]
husband v.妥善而又节约地管理;做…的丈夫 [hus-band]
retrench v.节省,紧缩费用 [re-trench]

greed 817.a

acquisitive a.渴望得到的,贪婪的 [ac-quis-i-tive]
avaricious a.贪婪的,贪心的 [av-a-ri-cious]
exact a.精确的;v.强求,强索付款 [ex-act]
exacting a.苛求的;要求严格的 [ex-act-ing]
grasping a.贪心的,贪婪的 [grasp-ing]
insatiable a.不能满足的,贪心的 [in-sa-tia-ble]
rapacious a.强夺的,贪婪的 [ra-pa-cious]
ravenous a.饿极了的,贪婪的 [rav-en-ous]
voracious a.狼吞虎咽的,贪婪的 [vo-ra-cious]
avarice n.贪财,贪婪 [av-a-rice]
craving n.强烈的愿望 [crav-ing]
cupidity n.贪婪 [cu-pid-i-ty]
covet v.贪求,妄想 [cov-et]
extort v.强索,敲诈 [ex-tort]

prodigality 818

spendthrift adj./n.挥金如土的(人) [spend-thrift]
improvident a.无远见的,不节俭的 [im-prov-i-dent]
lavish a.浪费的;丰富的 [lav-ish]
prodigal a.挥霍的;n.挥霍者 [prod-i-gal]
profuse a.很多的;浪费的 [pro-fuse]
exhaust n.(机器排出的)废气,蒸气;v.使非常疲倦 [ex-haust]
extravagance n.奢侈,挥霍 [ex-trav-a-gance]
dissipate v.(使)驱散;浪费 [dis-si-pate]
drain v.排出沟外;喝光 [drain]
squander v.浪费,挥霍 [squan-der]
waste v.使身体消瘦,损耗 [waste]

parsimony 819

avaricious a.贪婪的,贪心的 [av-a-ri-cious]
chary a.小心的,审慎的 [char-y]
hidebound a.顽固的,心胸狭窄的 [hide-bound]
mean a.卑贱的,吝啬的 [mean]
mercenary a.惟利是图的;n.雇佣兵 [mer-ce-nar-y]
miserly a.吝啬的,贪婪的 [mi-ser-ly]
rapacious a.强夺的,贪婪的 [ra-pa-cious]
sordid a.卑鄙的;肮脏的 [sor-did]
sparing a.节俭的 [spar-ing]
stingy a.吝啬的,小气的 [stin-gy]
venal a.惟利是图的,贪赃枉法的 [ve-nal]
avarice n.贪财,贪婪 [av-a-rice]
churl n.粗鄙之人 [churl]
curmudgeon n.脾气暴躁之人 [cur-mudg-eon]
miser n.守财奴,吝啬鬼 [mi-ser]
parsimony n.过分节俭,吝啬 [par-si-mo-ny]
screw n.螺丝钉,螺旋;吝啬鬼 [screw]
skinflint n.吝啬鬼 [skin-flint]
stinginess n.小气 [stin-gi-ness]
tenacity n.坚持,固执 [tenacity]
begrudge v.吝啬,勉强给 [be-grudge]
famish v.使饥饿 [fam-ish]
gripe v.抱怨 [gripe]
pinch v.捏,掐;n.一撮,一点 [pinch]
stint v.吝惜,节省 [stint]
withhold v.扣留,保留 [with-hold]

Class VI. Words Relating to the Sentient and Moral Powers

Section I. Affections in General

affections 820

affected a.不自然的;假装的 [af-fect-ed]
inborn a.天生的,天赋的 [in-born]
ingrained a.根深蒂固的 [in-grained]
inveterate a.积习已深的 [in-vet-er-ate]
prone a.俯卧的;倾向于…的 [prone]
bent n.特长,爱好;a.弯曲的 [bent]
cast n.演员阵容;剧团;v.扔;铸造 [cast]
disposition n.处理;天性,气质 [dis-po-si-tion]
fervor n.热诚,热心 [fer-vor]
grain n.谷物;小的硬粒 [grain]
mettle n.勇气,斗志 [met-tle]
predilection n.偏袒,爱好 [pre-di-lec-tion]
predisposition n.倾向,癖性 [pre-dis-po-si-tion]
propensity n.嗜好,习性 [pro-pen-si-ty]
humor v.纵容,迁就 [hu-mor]
temper v.锤炼;缓和;n.脾气 [tem-per]

feeling 821

acute a.灵敏的;[病]急性的 [a-cute]
ardent a.热心的,热烈的 [ar-dent]
caustic a.腐蚀性的;刻薄的;n.腐蚀剂 [caus-tic]
earnest a.认真的 [ear-nest]
ecstatic a.狂喜的,心花怒放的 [ec-stat-ic]
fervid a.炽热的,热情的 [fer-vid]
glowing a.热情赞扬的 [glow-ing]
hectic a.兴奋的;繁忙的 [hec-tic]
impetuous a.冲动的,鲁莽的 [im-pet-u-ous]
incisive a.一针见血的 [in-ci-sive]
indelible a.擦拭不掉的,不可磨灭的 [in-del-i-ble]
passionate a.充满激情的 [pas-sion-ate]
piercing a.(寒风)刺骨的;敏锐的 [pierc-ing]
piquant a.辛辣的,开胃的;兴奋的 [pi-quant]
poignant a.伤心的;尖锐的 [poign-ant]
profound a.深的,深刻的;渊博的,深奥的 [pro-found]
pungent a.味道刺激的;苛刻的 [pun-gent]
rabid a.患狂犬病的;失去理性的 [rab-id]
racy a.活泼的,生动的 [rac-y]
rapt a.专心致志的,全神贯注的 [rapt]
sentient a.有知觉的;知悉的 [sen-ti-ent]
sincere a.诚实的,正直的;真挚的,纯净的 [sin-cere]
trenchant a.一针见血的 [trench-ant]
wistful a.惆怅的,渴望的 [wist-ful]
affection n.爱 [af-fec-tion]
ecstasy n.狂喜;激情状态 [ec-sta-sy]
fervor n.热诚,热心 [fer-vor]
flush n./v.脸红;奔流;冲洗 [flush]
impression n.印象,感想;盖印,压痕 [im-pres-sion]
inspiration n.启示,灵感 [in-spi-ra-tion]
mantle n.披风,斗篷;v.覆盖 [man-tle]
quiver n.箭筒,箭囊 [quiv-er]
response n.反应,响应,回答 [re-sponse]
sensation n.知觉;轰动(的事) [sen-sa-tion]
smart n.痛苦;a.时髦的;聪明的 [smart]
tolerance n.容许量,公差;容忍,忍受 [tol-er-ance]
tremor n.震动,地震 [trem-or]
trepidation n.恐惧,惶恐 [trep-i-da-tion]
verve n.(艺术作品的)神韵;(人)生机 [verve]
abide v.容忍,忍受 [a-bide]
blush v.因某事物脸红;n.因羞愧等脸上泛出的红晕 [blush]
endure v.忍受,忍耐 [en-dure]
ferment v./n.(使)发酵;骚动 [fer-ment]
flutter v.拍翅 [flut-ter]
glow v./n.光亮,发热;(脸)红 [glow]
gush v.涌出;滔滔不绝地说 [gush]
palpitate v.(心脏)急速而不规则地跳动 [pal-pi-tate]
ruffle v.弄皱;激怒;n.皱边(装饰衣服) [ruf-fle]
sustain v.承受(困难),支撑(重量) [sus-tain]
swell v.肿胀,增强 [swell]
wince v.避开,畏缩 [wince]

sensibility 822

fastidious a.难取悦的,挑剔的 [fas-tid-i-ous]
impressionable a.易受影响的 [im-pres-sion-a-ble]
mettlesome a.精神抖擞的 [met-tle-some]
mobile a.易于移动的 [mo-bile]
sensible a.明智的;可感觉到的 [sen-si-ble]
sensitive a.敏感的 [sen-si-tive]
susceptible a.易受影响的,脆弱的 [sus-cep-ti-ble]
vivacious a.活泼的,快活的 [vi-va-cious]
excitability n.易兴奋性,易激动性 [ex-cit-a-bil-i-ty]
mobility n.可动性,流动性 [mo-bil-i-ty]
susceptibility n.易感性 [sus-cep-ti-bil-i-ty]
shrink v.收缩,皱缩 [shrink]

insensibility 823

blunt a.钝的;直率的;v.变钝 [blunt]
callous a.结硬块的 [cal-lous]
comatose a.昏迷的 [co-ma-tose]
dull a.不鲜明的;迟钝的;v.变迟钝 [dull]
frigid a.寒冷的;死板的 [frig-id]
impassive a.无动于衷的,冷漠的 [im-pas-sive]
imperturbable a.冷静的,沉着的 [im-per-turb-a-ble]
impervious a.不能渗透的;不为所动的 [im-per-vi-ous]
indifferent a.不感兴趣的,漠不关心的 [in-dif-fer-ent]
inert a.惰性的;行动迟钝的 [in-ert]
insouciant a.漫不经心的 [in-sou-ci-ant]
inured a.习惯的 [in-ured]
languid a.没精打采的,倦怠的 [lan-guid]
lukewarm a.微温的,不热心的 [luke-warm]
maudlin a.感情脆弱的,爱哭的 [maud-lin]
nonchalant a.冷漠的 [non-cha-lant]
numb a.麻木的 [numb]
obtuse a.愚笨的;不锐利的 [ob-tuse]
phlegmatic a.冷静的,冷淡的 [phleg-mat-ic]
supine a.仰卧的;懒散的 [su-pine]
tame a.驯服的;沉闷的 [tame]
torpid a.懒散的,死气沉沉的 [tor-pid]
unaffected a.自然的,不矫揉造作的 [un-af-fect-ed]
unconscious a.不省人事的;未意识到的 [un-con-scious]
unmoved a.无动于衷的,冷漠的;镇定的 [un-moved]
coma n.昏迷状态 [co-ma]
frigidity n.寒冷;冷淡 [fri-gid-i-ty]
inertia n.惰性;懒惰 [in-er-tia]
lethargy n.昏睡;倦怠;呆滞懒散 [leth-ar-gy]
marble n.大理石 [mar-ble]
nonchalance n.冷漠,缺少关怀;沉着 [non-cha-lance]
stupor n.昏迷,不醒人事 [stu-por]
torpor n.死气沉沉 [tor-por]
trance n.恍惚,昏睡状态 [trance]
deaden v.减低某物的力量或强度 [dead-en]
disregard v./n.疏忽,漠视 [dis-re-gard]
sear v.(以烈火)烧灼 [sear]

excitation 824

animate a.活的,有生命的;v.赋予生命 [an-i-mate]
appetizing a.美味可口的,促进食欲的 [ap-pe-tiz-ing]
distracted a.心烦意乱的,精神不集中的 [dis-tract-ed]
fervid a.炽热的,热情的 [fer-vid]
frantic a.疯狂的,狂乱的 [fran-tic]
glowing a.热情赞扬的 [glow-ing]
imposing a.壮丽的,雄伟的 [im-pos-ing]
overpowering a.压倒性的,不可抗拒的 [o-ver-pow-er-ing]
overwrought a.紧张过度的 [o-ver-wrought]
piquant a.辛辣的,开胃的;兴奋的 [pi-quant]
riveting a.非常精彩的 [riv-et-ing]
telling a.有效的,显著的 [tell-ing]
animation n.活泼,有生气;卡通制作 [an-i-ma-tion]
infection n.传染,感染 [in-fec-tion]
inspiration n.启示,灵感 [in-spi-ra-tion]
irritation n.愤怒,急躁,刺激 [ir-ri-ta-tion]
mantle n.披风,斗篷;v.覆盖 [man-tle]
pique n./v.(因自尊心受伤害而导致的)不悦,愤怒;v.冒犯 [pique]
provocation n.挑衅,激怒 [prov-o-ca-tion]
rage n.盛怒;v.激怒 [rage]
rave n.热切赞扬;v.狂语 [rave]
tension n.紧张,焦虑;张力 [ten-sion]
absorb v.吸收;同化;吸引…的注意 [ab-sorb]
agitate v.搅动,煽动;使不安,使焦虑 [ag-i-tate]
arouse v.唤醒;激发 [a-rouse]
astound v.使震惊 [a-stound]
distract v.分心,转移;使发狂,困扰 [dis-tract]
enrapture v.使狂喜,使高兴 [en-rap-ture]
evoke v.引起;唤起 [e-voke]
foment v.煽动,助长(坏事) [fo-ment]
foster v.培养,鼓励;领养 [fos-ter]
fume v./n.愤怒;冒烟 [fume]
galvanize v.电镀;通电;激励 [gal-va-nize]
inflame v.使燃烧;激怒(某人) [in-flame]
infuriate v.使(人)极为愤怒 [in-fu-ri-ate]
intoxicate v.(使)沉醉,(使)欣喜若狂;(使)喝醉 [in-tox-i-cate]
irritate v.激怒;刺激 [ir-ri-tate]
kindle v.着火,点燃 [kin-dle]
overwhelm v.泛滥;压倒 [o-ver-whelm]
penetrate v.刺穿;渗入;了解 [pen-e-trate]
petrify v.石化;吓呆 [pet-ri-fy]
pierce v.刺透;穿过 [pierce]
revive v.使苏醒;再流 [re-vive]
ruffle v.弄皱;激怒;n.皱边(装饰衣服) [ruf-fle]
seethe v.沸腾,汹涌 [seethe]
startle v.使吃惊 [star-tle]
sting v.刺痛;叮螫;n.螫刺 [sting]
stir v.刺激 [stir]
whet v.磨快;刺激 [whet]

excitability 825

boisterous a.喧闹的;猛烈的 [bois-ter-ous]
delirious a.精神错乱的 [de-lir-i-ous]
demonstrative a.证明性的;喜怒形于色的 [de-mon-stra-tive]
fussy a.爱挑剔的 [fuss-y]
hasty a.急急忙忙的 [has-ty]
impassioned a.慷慨激昂的 [im-pas-sioned]
impetuous a.冲动的,鲁莽的 [im-pet-u-ous]
impulsive a.易冲动的 [im-pul-sive]
irrepressible a.无法约束或阻止的 [ir-re-press-i-ble]
irritable a.易怒的;易受刺激的 [ir-ri-ta-ble]
mercurial a.善变的;活泼的 [mer-cu-ri-al]
mettlesome a.精神抖擞的 [met-tle-some]
passionate a.充满激情的 [pas-sion-ate]
rabid a.患狂犬病的;失去理性的 [rab-id]
rampant a.蔓生的,猖獗的 [ram-pant]
restless a.不停的;不安静的 [rest-less]
tempestuous a.狂暴的 [tem-pes-tu-ous]
turbulent a.导致动乱的;骚乱的 [tur-bu-lent]
uproarious a.骚动的,喧嚣的;令人捧腹的 [up-roar-i-ous]
volatile a.反复无常的;挥发性的 [vol-a-tile]
agony n.极大痛苦 [ag-o-ny]
delirium n.精神错乱 [de-lir-i-um]
excitability n.易兴奋性,易激动性 [ex-cit-a-bil-i-ty]
flush n./v.脸红;奔流;冲洗 [flush]
frenzy n.极度激动的状态,狂暴 [fren-zy]
furor n.轰动;盛怒 [fu-ror]
fuss n.大惊小怪 [fuss]
gust n.阵风;一阵(情绪) [gust]
infatuation n.迷恋 [in-fat-u-a-tion]
paroxysm n.(感情等)突发 [par-ox-ysm]
rage n.盛怒;v.激怒 [rage]
rave n.热切赞扬;v.狂语 [rave]
tempest n.暴风雨;骚动 [tem-pest]
trepidation n.恐惧,惶恐 [trep-i-da-tion]
tumult n.乱哄哄 [tu-mult]
chafe v.摩擦生热;擦痛;激怒 [chafe]
ferment v./n.(使)发酵;骚动 [fer-ment]
fidget v.坐立不安;n.烦躁之人 [fidg-et]
flutter v.拍翅 [flut-ter]
fume v./n.愤怒;冒烟 [fume]
rant v.咆哮;口出狂言 [rant]
ruffle v.弄皱;激怒;n.皱边(装饰衣服) [ruf-fle]
tear v.撕裂 [tear]
transport v.运输;n.狂喜 [trans-port]
whiff v./n.轻吹,轻风 [whiff]
wince v.避开,畏缩 [wince]

inexcitability 826

clement a.仁慈的;温和的 [clem-ent]
cold-blooded a.[生]冷血的;残酷的 [cold-blood-ed]
collected a.泰然自若的 [col-lect-ed]
composed a.镇定的,沉着的 [com-posed]
content a.知足的,满意的;n.内容;满意 [con-tent]
dispassionate a.平心静气的 [dis-pas-sion-ate]
enduring a.持续的 [en-dur-ing]
gentle a.温和的,慈祥的 [gen-tle]
grave a.严峻的;n.墓穴 [gra-ve]
imperturbable a.冷静的,沉着的 [im-per-turb-a-ble]
irritable a.易怒的;易受刺激的 [ir-ri-ta-ble]
meek a.温顺的,顺服的 [meek]
placid a.安静的,平和的 [plac-id]
resigned a.逆来顺受的,顺从的 [re-signed]
sedate a.镇静的 [se-date]
serene a.清澈的,晴朗的,安静的 [se-rene]
sober a.清醒的;庄重的 [so-ber]
staid a.稳重的,沉着的 [staid]
subdued a.(光和声)柔和的,缓和的;(人)温和的 [sub-dued]
tame a.驯服的;沉闷的 [tame]
unimpassioned a.没有激情的 [un-im-pas-sioned]
brook n.小河 [brook]
composure n.镇静,沉着;自若 [com-po-sure]
equanimity n.镇定,沉着 [e-qua-nim-i-ty]
forbearance n.自制,忍耐 [for-bear-ance]
fortitude n.坚毅,坚韧不拔 [for-ti-tude]
gravity n.严肃,正经 [grav-i-ty]
resignation n.听从,顺从;辞职 [res-ig-na-tion]
restraint n.克制 [re-straint]
sobriety n.节制,庄重 [so-bri-e-ty]
submission n.恭顺 [sub-mis-sion]
tolerance n.容许量,公差;容忍,忍受 [tol-er-ance]
tranquility n.宁静,安静 [tran-quil-i-ty]
abide v.容忍,忍受 [a-bide]
acquiesce v.勉强同意,默许 [ac-qui-esce]
appease v.使平静,安抚 [ap-pease]
check v.使突然停止,阻止 [check]
compose v.写,创作;组成 [com-pose]
disregard v./n.疏忽,漠视 [dis-re-gard]
endure v.忍受,忍耐 [en-dure]
propitiate v.讨好;抚慰 [pro-pi-ti-ate]
stomach v.吃得下;容忍 [stom-ach]
submit v.屈服;提交,呈递 [sub-mit]
swallow v.吞下,咽下;忍受 [swal-low]
thaw v.解冻,溶化 [thaw]

Section II. Personal Affections

1. Passive Affections

pleasure 827

blissful a.极幸福的 [bliss-ful]
content a.知足的,满意的;n.内容;满意 [con-tent]
ecstatic a.狂喜的,心花怒放的 [ec-stat-ic]
bliss n.狂喜;福佑,天赐的福 [bliss]
complacency n.满足,安心 [com-pla-cen-cy]
cushion n.坐垫;v.缓冲 [cush-ion]
ecstasy n.狂喜;激情状态 [ec-sta-sy]
fruition n.实现,完成 [fru-i-tion]
gratification n.满足,喜悦 [grat-i-fi-ca-tion]
luxury n.奢侈(品) [lux-u-ry]
relish n.味道;喜好;v.喜好,享受 [rel-ish]
zest n.刺激性;热心,兴趣 [zest]
transport v.运输;n.狂喜 [trans-port]

pain 828

careworn a.受忧虑折磨的,饱经风霜的 [care-worn]
devoted a.投入的,热爱的 [de-vot-ed]
infelicitous a.不幸的,不妥当的 [in-fe-lic-i-tous]
stranded a.搁浅的,进退两难的 [stranded]
taking a.楚楚动人的 [tak-ing]
weary a.疲劳的,令人厌倦的;v.厌烦 [wea-ry]
wretched a.可怜的 [wretch-ed]
affliction n.悲痛,受难的起因 [af-flic-tion]
agony n.极大痛苦 [ag-o-ny]
anguish n.极大痛苦 [an-guish]
distress n.痛苦,悲痛 [dis-tress]
fret n./v.(使)烦躁,焦虑 [fret]
grief n.忧伤,悲伤 [grief]
incubus n.恶梦;梦魇般的精神压力,负担 [in-cu-bus]
infelicity n.不幸;不恰当 [in-fe-lic-i-ty]
irritation n.愤怒,急躁,刺激 [ir-ri-ta-tion]
malaise n.不适,不舒服 [ma-laise]
martyr n.烈士,殉道者 [mar-tyr]
mortification n.耻辱,屈辱 [mor-ti-fi-ca-tion]
nightmare n.恶梦;可怕的事 [night-mare]
ordeal n.严峻考验,痛苦经验 [or-deal]
pang n.一阵剧痛 [pang]
pine n.松树;v.(因疾病等)憔悴;渴望 [pine]
plague n.瘟疫;讨厌的人或物;v.烦扰 [plague]
prey n.被捕食的动物 [prey]
purgatory n.炼狱;受苦受难的地方 [pur-ga-to-ry]
smart n.痛苦;a.时髦的;聪明的 [smart]
solicitude n.关怀,牵挂 [so-lic-i-tude]
torment n.折磨,痛苦 [tor-ment]
vexation n.困扰,苦恼 [vex-a-tion]
woe n.悲痛,苦难 [woe]
ail v.生病 [ail]
bore v.钻孔;使厌烦;n.孔;令人厌烦的人 [bore]
chafe v.摩擦生热;擦痛;激怒 [chafe]
chagrin v./n.失望,懊恼 [cha-grin]
droop v.低垂;沮丧,萎靡 [droop]
grieve v.使某人极为悲伤 [grieve]
languish v.变得消瘦;衰弱 [lan-guish]
mourn v.哀悼,哀伤 [mourn]
repine v.不满,心中抱怨 [re-pine]
wince v.避开,畏缩 [wince]
yearn v.盼望,渴望 [yearn]

pleasurableness 829

agreeable a.令人喜悦的;欣然同意的 [a-gree-a-ble]
alluring a.吸引人的,迷人的 [al-lur-ing]
appetizing a.美味可口的,促进食欲的 [ap-pe-tiz-ing]
delectable a.赏心悦目的 [de-lec-ta-ble]
delicate a.娇嫩的;精致的,优美的 [del-i-cate]
ecstatic a.狂喜的,心花怒放的 [ec-stat-ic]
engaging a.迷人的,美丽动人的 [en-gag-ing]
entrancing a.使人入神的 [en-tranc-ing]
exquisite a.精致的;近乎完美的 [ex-qui-site]
felicitous a.(话语等)适当的,得体的 [fe-lic-i-tous]
genial a.愉快的,脾气好的 [ge-ni-al]
grateful a.感激的 [grate-ful]
halcyon a.平静的;愉快的 [hal-cy-on]
luxurious a.奢侈的,豪华的 [lux-u-ri-ous]
nice a.精密的 [nice]
palmy a.繁荣的;棕榈的 [palm-y]
ravishing a.令人陶醉的 [rav-ish-ing]
seraphic a.如天使般的,美丽的 [se-raph-ic]
taking a.楚楚动人的 [tak-ing]
voluptuous a.撩人的;沉溺于酒色的 [vo-lup-tu-ous]
winsome a.媚人的,漂亮的 [win-some]
amenity n.礼仪;使人感到舒适的事物 [a-men-i-ty]
charm n.魅力;咒语,咒符 [charm]
dainty n.精美食品;a.娇美的;挑剔的 [dain-ty]
amuse v.使愉快,逗某人笑 [a-muse]
captivate v.迷惑,吸引 [cap-ti-vate]
enchant v.使迷醉;施魔法于 [en-chant]
enliven v.使…更活跃 [en-liv-en]
enrapture v.使狂喜,使高兴 [en-rap-ture]
entrance v.使出神,使入迷 [en-trance]
flatter v.恭维,奉承 [flat-ter]
gratify v.使高兴,使满足 [grat-i-fy]
humor v.纵容,迁就 [hu-mor]
indulge v.放纵;满足 [in-dulge]
quench v.熄灭(火);抑制(欲望) [quench]
refresh v.消除…的疲劳,使精神振作 [re-fresh]
regale v.款待;使…享受 [re-gale]
slake v.解渴,消渴 [slake]
transport v.运输;n.狂喜 [trans-port]

painfulness 830

abhorrent a.可恨的,讨厌的 [ab-hor-rent]
acute a.灵敏的;[病]急性的 [a-cute]
awkward a.笨拙的;难用的;不便的 [awk-ward]
caustic a.腐蚀性的;刻薄的;n.腐蚀剂 [caus-tic]
cross a.生气的 [cross]
cumbersome a.笨重的 [cum-ber-some]
dire a.可怕的 [dire]
disagreeable a.讨厌的;乖戾的 [dis-a-gree-a-ble]
dismal a.使人悲伤的,阴沉的 [dis-mal]
dolorous a.悲哀的,忧愁的 [dol-or-ous]
dreary a.沉闷的,乏味的 [drear-y]
execrable a.极坏的 [ex-e-cra-ble]
fulsome a.虚情假意的;充足的 [ful-some]
grating a.(声音)刺耳的;恼人的 [grat-ing]
grave a.严峻的;n.墓穴 [gra-ve]
grievous a.严重伤害的 [griev-ous]
grim a.冷酷的,可怕的 [grim]
harrowing a.悲痛的,难受的 [harrowing]
harsh a.严厉的;粗糙的;刺耳的 [harsh]
hideous a.讨厌的,丑恶的 [hid-e-ous]
horrific a.可怕的 [hor-rif-ic]
invidious a.惹人反感的,导致伤害和仇恨的,招人嫉妒的 [in-vid-i-ous]
irksome a.令人苦恼的,讨厌的 [irk-some]
melancholy a.忧郁的;令人悲伤的 [mel-an-chol-y]
mournful a.悲伤的 [mourn-ful]
obnoxious a.令人不愉快的;可憎的 [ob-nox-ious]
odious a.可憎的,讨厌的 [o-di-ous]
offensive a.令人不快的,得罪人的 [of-fen-sive]
onerous a.繁重的,麻烦的 [on-er-ous]
repellent a.令人厌恶的 [re-pel-lent]
severe a.严格的;凶猛的 [se-vere]
tremendous a.惊人的;巨大的 [tre-men-dous]
undesirable a.令人不悦的,讨厌的 [un-de-sir-a-ble]
unpalatable a.令人讨厌的 [un-pal-at-a-ble]
untoward a.不幸的,(坏事)没料到的 [un-to-ward]
vile a.恶劣的,卑鄙的 [vile]
wearisome a.使人感到疲倦或厌倦的 [wea-ri-some]
affliction n.悲痛,受难的起因 [af-flic-tion]
badger n.獾;v.一再烦扰,一再要求 [badg-er]
bait n.诱饵;v.逗弄;激怒 [bait]
dagger n.短剑,匕首 [dag-ger]
disgust n.反感,厌恶 [dis-gust]
distress n.痛苦,悲痛 [dis-tress]
fret n./v.(使)烦躁,焦虑 [fret]
gall n.胆汁;怨恨 [gall]
grievance n.委屈,抱怨 [griev-ance]
harrow n.耙;v.使痛苦 [har-row]
mortification n.耻辱,屈辱 [mor-ti-fi-ca-tion]
nettle n.荨麻;v.烦忧,激恼 [net-tle]
pest n.害虫;讨厌的人或物 [pest]
pique n./v.(因自尊心受伤害而导致的)不悦,愤怒;v.冒犯 [pique]
plague n.瘟疫;讨厌的人或物;v.烦扰 [plague]
provocation n.挑衅,激怒 [prov-o-ca-tion]
scorpion n.蝎子 [scor-pi-on]
scourge n.鞭笞;磨难;v.鞭笞,磨难 [scourge]
thorn n.刺;荆棘 [thorn]
tire n.轮胎(tyre);v.疲劳 [tire]
torment n.折磨,痛苦 [tor-ment]
ulcer n.溃疡;腐烂物 [ul-cer]
vexation n.困扰,苦恼 [vex-a-tion]
afflict v.使痛苦,折磨 [af-flict]
affront v.侮辱,冒犯 [af-front]
aggrieve v.使受委屈;使痛苦 [ag-grieve]
annoy v.惹恼;打搅,骚扰 [an-noy]
appall v.使惊骇,使恐怖 [ap-pall]
assail v.抨击;猛攻 [as-sail]
beset v.镶嵌;困扰 [be-set]
bore v.钻孔;使厌烦;n.孔;令人厌烦的人 [bore]
chafe v.摩擦生热;擦痛;激怒 [chafe]
convulse v.使震动,震惊 [con-vulse]
corrode v.腐蚀,侵蚀 [cor-rode]
discompose v.使失态,慌张 [dis-com-pose]
disenchant v.对…不再抱幻想,使清醒 [dis-en-chant]
enrage v.激怒,触怒 [en-rage]
faze v.使…狼狈,折磨 [faze]
gnaw v.啃,咬 [gnaw]
grieve v.使某人极为悲伤 [grieve]
gripe v.抱怨 [gripe]
harass v.侵扰,烦忧 [har-ass]
harry v.掠夺,袭扰,折磨 [har-ry]
heckle v.诘问,困扰 [heck-le]
importune v.强求,不断请求 [im-por-tune]
infest v.骚扰,扰乱 [in-fest]
irk v.使苦恼的,厌烦 [irk]
irritate v.激怒;刺激 [ir-ri-tate]
mortify v.使屈辱,使痛心 [mor-ti-fy]
nauseate v.使作呕,使厌恶 [nau-se-ate]
offend v.得罪,冒犯 [of-fend]
persecute v.迫害 [per-se-cute]
pester v.纠缠,强求 [pes-ter]
pierce v.刺透;穿过 [pierce]
pinch v.捏,掐;n.一撮,一点 [pinch]
rankle v.怨恨;激怒 [ran-kle]
repel v.击退,使…反感 [re-pel]
revolt v.叛乱,造反;反感 [re-volt]
rile v.使…恼火,激怒 [rile]
ruffle v.弄皱;激怒;n.皱边(装饰衣服) [ruf-fle]
sadden v.使伤心,使悲哀 [sad-den]
sting v.刺痛;叮螫;n.螫刺 [sting]
stroke v.抚摸;n.击,打;一笔 [stroke]
tease v.逗乐,戏弄;强求;n.揶揄,戏弄,取笑 [tease]
vex v./n.恼火 [vex]

content 831

conciliatory a.抚慰的,调和的 [con-cil-i-a-to-ry]
content a.知足的,满意的;n.内容;满意 [con-tent]
contented a.心满意足的 [con-tent-ed]
resigned a.逆来顺受的,顺从的 [re-signed]
serene a.清澈的,晴朗的,安静的 [se-rene]
snug a.温暖的,舒适的 [snug]
complacency n.满足,安心 [com-pla-cen-cy]
resignation n.听从,顺从;辞职 [res-ig-na-tion]
acquiesce v.勉强同意,默许 [ac-qui-esce]
assent v.同意,赞成 [as-sent]
conciliate v.安抚,驯服 [con-cil-i-ate]
consent v.同意,允许 [con-sent]
disarm v.使…解除武器;使…缓和 [dis-arm]
gratify v.使高兴,使满足 [grat-i-fy]
propitiate v.讨好;抚慰 [pro-pi-ti-ate]
reconcile v.和解,调和 [rec-on-cile]

discontent 832

exacting a.苛求的;要求严格的 [ex-act-ing]
exigent a.需要立即采取行动的 [ex-i-gent]
malcontent a.不满的;n.不满分子,反抗者 [mal-con-tent]
sulky a.生气的 [sulk-y]
croak n.蛙鸣声;v.发牢骚,抱怨 [croak]
dissident n.唱反调者 [dis-si-dent]
fret n./v.(使)烦躁,焦虑 [fret]
mortification n.耻辱,屈辱 [mor-ti-fi-ca-tion]
chafe v.摩擦生热;擦痛;激怒 [chafe]
disconcert v.使…尴尬 [dis-con-cert]
dissent v.不同意,持异议 [dis-sent]
grumble v.喃喃诉苦,发怨言 [grum-ble]
lament v./n.悲伤;哀悼 [la-ment]
mortify v.使屈辱,使痛心 [mor-ti-fy]
repine v.不满,心中抱怨 [re-pine]

regret 833

nostalgia n.怀旧之情 [nos-tal-gia]
rue n.后悔,遗憾 [rue]
deplore v.悲悼,哀叹 [de-plore]
repine v.不满,心中抱怨 [re-pine]

relief 834

balmy a.(气候)温和的;芳香的 [balm-y]
cushion n.坐垫;v.缓冲 [cush-ion]
lullaby n.摇篮曲 [lull-a-by]
palliative n.缓释剂;a.减轻的,缓和的 [pal-li-a-tive]
salve n.药膏;v.减轻,缓和 [sal-ve]
solace n.安慰,慰藉 [sol-ace]
allay v.减轻,缓和 [al-lay]
alleviate v.缓和,减轻 [al-le-vi-ate]
assuage v.缓和,减轻 [as-suage]
console v.安慰,抚慰 [con-sole]
enliven v.使…更活跃 [en-liv-en]
foment v.煽动,助长(坏事) [fo-ment]
invigorate v.鼓舞,激励 [in-vig-or-ate]
mitigate v.减轻,缓和 [mit-i-gate]
palliate v.减轻(痛苦);掩饰(罪行) [pal-li-ate]
refresh v.消除…的疲劳,使精神振作 [re-fresh]
soothe v.抚慰;减轻 [soothe]

aggravation 835

exaggeration n.夸张 [ex-ag-ger-a-tion]
aggravate v.加重,恶化 [ag-gra-vate]
enrage v.激怒,触怒 [en-rage]
exacerbate v.加重,恶化 [ex-ac-er-bate]
exasperate v.激怒,使恼怒 [ex-as-per-ate]
tease v.逗乐,戏弄;强求;n.揶揄,戏弄,取笑 [tease]

cheerfulness 836

animate a.活的,有生命的;v.赋予生命 [an-i-mate]
animated a.活泼的,生动的 [an-i-mat-ed]
blithe a.快乐的,无忧无虑的 [blithe]
buoyant a.有浮力的;快乐的 [buoy-ant]
elated a.得意洋洋的,振奋的 [e-lat-ed]
frisky a.活泼的,快活的 [frisk-y]
hilarious a.充满欢乐的;引起大笑的 [hi-lar-i-ous]
jaunty a.愉快的,满足的 [jaun-ty]
jocular a.滑稽的,诙谐的;嬉戏的 [joc-u-lar]
jocund a.快乐的,高兴的 [joc-und]
jovial a.愉快的 [jo-vi-al]
palmy a.繁荣的;棕榈的 [palm-y]
sprightly a.愉快的,活泼的 [spright-ly]
vivacious a.活泼的,快活的 [vi-va-cious]
waggish a.诙谐的,滑稽的 [wag-gish]
winsome a.媚人的,漂亮的 [win-some]
alacrity n.乐意,欣然;敏捷,活泼 [a-lac-ri-ty]
animation n.活泼,有生气;卡通制作 [an-i-ma-tion]
carol n.赞美诗,颂歌;v.欢唱 [car-ol]
exhilaration n.高兴,活跃 [ex-hil-a-ra-tion]
levity n.轻率;轻浮 [lev-i-ty]
mirth n.欢乐,欢笑 [mirth]
optimism n.乐观主义 [op-ti-mism]
bully v.以强欺弱,威胁;n.欺负别人者 [bul-ly]
enliven v.使…更活跃 [en-liv-en]
exhilarate v.使高兴 [ex-hil-a-rate]
rejoice v.喜欢,高兴 [re-joice]

dejection 837

careworn a.受忧虑折磨的,饱经风霜的 [care-worn]
dismal a.使人悲伤的,阴沉的 [dis-mal]
doleful a.忧愁的,消沉的 [dole-ful]
dreary a.沉闷的,乏味的 [drear-y]
dull a.不鲜明的;迟钝的;v.变迟钝 [dull]
gloomy a.阴暗的;没有希望的;阴郁的 [gloom-y]
grim a.冷酷的,可怕的 [grim]
jaundiced a.有偏见的 [jaun-diced]
lachrymose a.好流泪的;引人落泪的 [lach-ry-mose]
lackadaisical a.无精打采的;无兴趣的 [lack-a-dai-si-cal]
melancholy a.忧郁的;令人悲伤的 [mel-an-chol-y]
mournful a.悲伤的 [mourn-ful]
murky a.黑暗的;朦胧的 [murk-y]
prostrate a.俯卧的;沮丧的;v.使下跪鞠躬 [pros-trate]
saturnine a.忧郁的,阴沉的 [sat-ur-nine]
sedate a.镇静的 [se-date]
sober a.清醒的;庄重的 [so-ber]
solemn a.严肃的,庄严的;黑色的 [sol-emn]
somber a.忧郁的;阴暗的 [som-ber]
staid a.稳重的,沉着的 [staid]
sulky a.生气的 [sulk-y]
sullen a.忧郁的 [sul-len]
wan a.虚弱的;病态的 [wan]
weary a.疲劳的,令人厌倦的;v.厌烦 [wea-ry]
affliction n.悲痛,受难的起因 [af-flic-tion]
depression n.忧愁,消沉;数量减少 [de-pres-sion]
doldrums n.赤道无风带;情绪低落 [dol-drums]
fret n./v.(使)烦躁,焦虑 [fret]
gloom n.黑暗;忧郁 [gloom]
gravity n.严肃,正经 [grav-i-ty]
pessimism n.悲观;悲观主义 [pes-si-mism]
pine n.松树;v.(因疾病等)憔悴;渴望 [pine]
solemnity n.庄严,肃穆 [so-lem-ni-ty]
spleen n.怨怒 [spleen]
damp v.减弱,制止振动;a.潮湿的 [damp]
droop v.低垂;沮丧,萎靡 [droop]
grieve v.使某人极为悲伤 [grieve]
mourn v.哀悼,哀伤 [mourn]
pout v.噘嘴,板脸 [pout]
repine v.不满,心中抱怨 [re-pine]
sadden v.使伤心,使悲哀 [sad-den]
yearn v.盼望,渴望 [yearn]

rejoicing 838

elated a.得意洋洋的,振奋的 [e-lat-ed]
carol n.赞美诗,颂歌;v.欢唱 [car-ol]
flush n./v.脸红;奔流;冲洗 [flush]
jubilation n.欢快,欢庆 [ju-bi-la-tion]
paean n.赞美歌,颂歌 [pae-an]
exult v.欢腾,喜悦 [ex-ult]
grin v.露齿而笑 [grin]
rejoice v.喜欢,高兴 [re-joice]
simper v.痴笑,傻笑 [sim-per]
smirk v.假笑,得意地笑 [smirk]
triumph v./n.凯旋,胜利,欢欣 [tri-umph]

lamentation 839

lachrymose a.好流泪的;引人落泪的 [lach-ry-mose]
mournful a.悲伤的 [mourn-ful]
plaintive a.可怜的,伤心的 [plain-tive]
querulous a.抱怨的,多牢骚的 [quer-u-lous]
croak n.蛙鸣声;v.发牢骚,抱怨 [croak]
cypress n.柏树 [cy-press]
dirge n.哀歌 [dirge]
elegy n.哀歌,挽歌 [el-e-gy]
fret n./v.(使)烦躁,焦虑 [fret]
scowl n.怒容;v.生气地皱眉,怒视 [scowl]
willow n.柳树 [wil-low]
clamor v./n.吵闹,喧哗 [clam-or]
deplore v.悲悼,哀叹 [de-plore]
deprecate v.反对,轻视 [dep-re-cate]
grieve v.使某人极为悲伤 [grieve]
groan v./n.呻吟,叹息 [groan]
grumble v.喃喃诉苦,发怨言 [grum-ble]
lament v./n.悲伤;哀悼 [la-ment]
moan v./n.(痛苦地/的)呻吟;(不满地/的)抱怨 [moan]
mourn v.哀悼,哀伤 [mourn]
murmur v.柔声地说,喃喃而言 [mur-mur]
mutter v.咕哝,嘀咕 [mut-ter]
tear v.撕裂 [tear]
whine v.哀号,号哭 [whine]

amusement 840

antic a.古怪的 [an-tic]
festive a.欢乐的 [fes-tive]
hilarious a.充满欢乐的;引起大笑的 [hi-lar-i-ous]
jocund a.快乐的,高兴的 [joc-und]
jovial a.愉快的 [jo-vi-al]
uproarious a.骚动的,喧嚣的;令人捧腹的 [up-roar-i-ous]
banquet n.宴会,盛宴 [ban-quet]
bout n.一回合,一阵 [bout]
bust n.半身(雕)像 [bust]
carouse n.狂饮寻乐 [ca-rouse]
dummy n.人体模型,假人 [dum-my]
flush n./v.脸红;奔流;冲洗 [flush]
gambol n./v.雀跃;嬉戏 [gam-bol]
guffaw n./v.哄笑,大笑 [guf-faw]
knave n.流氓,恶棍 [knave]
lark n./v.玩乐,嬉耍 [lark]
lottery n.彩票,抽彩给奖法 [lot-ter-y]
masquerade n.化装舞会;v.伪装 [mas-quer-ade]
minuet n.小步舞 [min-u-et]
monopoly n.专利权,垄断 [mo-nop-o-ly]
prank n.恶作剧,玩笑 [prank]
pugilism n.拳击,搏击 [pu-gi-lism]
quirk n.奇事;怪癖 [quirk]
reel n.卷轴,旋转;v.卷…于轴上 [reel]
relaxation n.松弛,消遣 [re-lax-a-tion]
revelry n.狂欢 [rev-el-ry]
reverse n.反面;相反;v.倒车;反转 [re-verse]
solace n.安慰,慰藉 [sol-ace]
split n./v.分裂,裂开 [split]
tag n.鞋带;附属物,标签 [tag]
tango n.探戈舞 [tan-go]
tournament n.比赛;(旧时)骑士比武大会 [tour-na-ment]
vagary n.奇想,异想天开 [va-gar-y]
wit n.智力,机智 [wit]
amuse v.使愉快,逗某人笑 [a-muse]
boggle v.畏缩不前;使退缩 [bog-gle]
brag v.吹嘘 [brag]
brawl v./n.争吵,打架 [brawl]
chuckle v.轻声地笑 [chuck-le]
commit v.托付;承诺;犯罪 [com-mit]
dally v.闲荡,嬉戏 [dal-ly]
divert v.使某事物转向;使娱乐 [di-vert]
enliven v.使…更活跃 [en-liv-en]
giggle v.咯咯笑 [gig-gle]
grin v.露齿而笑 [grin]
mock v.嘲笑;模仿地嘲弄 [mock]
regale v.款待;使…享受 [re-gale]
rejoice v.喜欢,高兴 [re-joice]
rig v.欺骗,舞弊,伪造 [rig]
simper v.痴笑,傻笑 [sim-per]
smirk v.假笑,得意地笑 [smirk]
sport v.炫耀,卖弄 [sport]
stroll v.漫步,闲逛 [stroll]
swing v.摇摆;旋转;n.秋千 [swing]
tear v.撕裂 [tear]
toy v.不认真考虑,玩弄 [toy]

weariness 841

arid a.干旱的;枯燥的 [ar-id]
dull a.不鲜明的;迟钝的;v.变迟钝 [dull]
flagging a.下垂的;衰弱的 [flag-ging]
humdrum a.单调的,乏味的 [hum-drum]
irksome a.令人苦恼的,讨厌的 [irk-some]
monotonous a.单调的,无聊的 [mo-not-o-nous]
soporific a.催眠的;n.安眠药 [sop-o-rif-ic]
stiff a.僵直的,呆板的,严厉的 [stiff]
tedious a.冗长的,沉闷的 [te-di-ous]
wearisome a.使人感到疲倦或厌倦的 [wea-ri-some]
weary a.疲劳的,令人厌倦的;v.厌烦 [wea-ry]
boredom n.厌烦;令人厌烦的事物 [bore-dom]
disgust n.反感,厌恶 [dis-gust]
ennui n.倦怠,无聊;v.使无聊 [en-nui]
lassitude n.无力;没精打采 [las-si-tude]
monotony n.单调,千篇一律 [mo-not-o-ny]
nausea n.作呕,恶心 [nau-se-a]
tedium n.单调乏味 [te-di-um]
tire n.轮胎(tyre);v.疲劳 [tire]
bore v.钻孔;使厌烦;n.孔;令人厌烦的人 [bore]
nauseate v.使作呕,使厌恶 [nau-se-ate]
pall v.令人发腻,失去吸引力 [pall]
yawn v.打呵欠 [yawn]

wit 842

comic a.可笑的;喜剧的;n.喜剧演员 [com-ic]
facetious a.轻浮的,好开玩笑的 [fa-ce-tious]
jocular a.滑稽的,诙谐的;嬉戏的 [joc-u-lar]
puckish a.淘气的 [puckish]
sprightly a.愉快的,活泼的 [spright-ly]
waggish a.诙谐的,滑稽的 [wag-gish]
whimsical a.古怪的,异想天开的 [whim-si-cal]
anagram n.变形词 [an-a-gram]
badinage n.开玩笑,打趣 [bad-i-nage]
banter n.打趣,玩笑 [ban-ter]
conceit n.自负,自大 [con-ceit]
conundrum n.(答案有双关意义的)谜语;难题 [co-nun-drum]
epigram n.讽刺短句,警句 [ep-i-gram]
farce n.闹剧;荒谬胡闹 [farce]
levity n.轻率;轻浮 [lev-i-ty]
pun n.双关语 [pun]
quibble n.遁词;吹毛求疵的反对意见 [quib-ble]
quirk n.奇事;怪癖 [quirk]
repartee n.机灵的回答 [rep-ar-tee]
ridicule n.奚落;v.嘲笑 [rid-i-cule]
smart n.痛苦;a.时髦的;聪明的 [smart]
whim n.多变,怪念头 [whim]
wit n.智力,机智 [wit]
witticism n.妙语,俏皮话 [wit-ti-cism]
humor v.纵容,迁就 [hu-mor]
jest v./n.说笑,玩笑 [jest]
jibe v.与…一致,符合 [jibe]
retort v.反驳 [re-tort]

dullness 843

boring a.无趣的,乏味的 [bor-ing]
commonplace a.平常的 [com-mon-place]
dull a.不鲜明的;迟钝的;v.变迟钝 [dull]
humdrum a.单调的,乏味的 [hum-drum]
insipid a.乏味的,枯燥的 [in-sip-id]
monotonous a.单调的,无聊的 [mo-not-o-nous]
pedestrian a.徒步的;缺乏想像的;n.行人 [pe-des-tri-an]
prosaic a.单调的,无趣的 [pro-sa-ic]
stolid a.无动于衷的 [stol-id]
tedious a.冗长的,沉闷的 [te-di-ous]
vapid a.索然无味的 [vap-id]
platitude n.陈词滥调 [plat-i-tude]
prose n.散文 [prose]
damp v.减弱,制止振动;a.潮湿的 [damp]

humorist 844

acrobat n.特技演员,杂技演员 [ac-ro-bat]
buffoon n.演出时的丑角;粗俗而愚蠢的人 [buf-foon]
charlatan n.江湖郎中,骗子 [char-la-tan]
clown n.小丑;v.扮小丑 [clown]
mime n.哑剧表演;哑剧(演员) [mime]
spark n.火花,火星 [spark]
wit n.智力,机智 [wit]
punch v.以拳猛击;打洞 [punch]
wag v.(狗尾巴等)摆动;n.诙谐幽默者 [wag]

2. Discriminative Affections

beauty 845

aesthetic a.美学的,有审美感的 [aes-thet-ic]
blooming a.有花的;精力旺盛的 [bloom-ing]
comely a.动人的,美丽的 [come-ly]
dapper a.整洁漂亮的;动作敏捷的 [dap-per]
delicate a.娇嫩的;精致的,优美的 [del-i-cate]
glossy a.光泽的,光滑的 [gloss-y]
glowing a.热情赞扬的 [glow-ing]
jaunty a.愉快的,满足的 [jaun-ty]
magnificent a.壮丽的,宏伟的;高尚的 [mag-nif-i-cent]
natty a.整洁的;潇洒的 [nat-ty]
personable a.英俊的,风度好的 [per-son-a-ble]
pictorial a.绘画的;有图片的,用图片表示的 [pic-to-ri-al]
quaint a.离奇有趣的 [quaint]
resplendent a.华丽的,辉煌的 [re-splend-ent]
seemly a.得体的,适宜的 [seem-ly]
specious a.似是而非的;华而不实的 [spe-cious]
sublime a.崇高的 [sub-lime]
superb a.上乘的,出色的 [su-perb]
tidy a.整齐的,整洁的 [tidy]
unspotted a.清白的,无污点的 [un-spot-ted]
beam n.(房屋等)大梁;光线 [beam]
charm n.魅力;咒语,咒符 [charm]
dainty n.精美食品;a.娇美的;挑剔的 [dain-ty]
delicacy n.细嫩;精致,优雅 [del-i-ca-cy]
gloss n.光泽;注解 [gloss]
grace n.优美 [grace]
pulchritude n.美丽 [pul-chri-tude]
smart n.痛苦;a.时髦的;聪明的 [smart]
splendor n.壮丽;辉煌 [splen-dor]
spruce n.云杉;a.整洁的 [spruce]
symmetry n.对称;均衡 [sym-me-try]
burnish v.擦亮,磨光 [bur-nish]
gild v.镀金;虚饰 [gild]
polish v.把…擦光亮,抛光;n.上光剂;(态度等)优雅 [pol-ish]
trim v.修剪;a.井井有条的 [trim]

ugliness 846

awkward a.笨拙的;难用的;不便的 [awk-ward]
bizarre a.奇异的,古怪的 [bi-zarre]
clumsy a.笨拙的;拙劣的 [clum-sy]
dingy a.肮脏的;褪色的 [din-gy]
forbidding a.(表情)冷峻的;形势险恶的 [for-bid-ding]
foul a.恶臭的;邪恶的;v.弄脏;n.(体育等)犯规 [foul]
gaudy a.俗丽的 [gaud-y]
grim a.冷酷的,可怕的 [grim]
grisly a.恐怖的,可怕的 [gris-ly]
gross a.总的;粗野的;n.整个,全部 [gross]
hideous a.讨厌的,丑恶的 [hid-e-ous]
misshapen a.畸形的,奇形怪状的 [mis-shap-en]
odious a.可憎的,讨厌的 [o-di-ous]
plain a.简单的;清楚的;n.平原 [plain]
repugnant a.令人厌恶的 [re-pug-nant]
rickety a.不牢靠的,摇摇欲坠的 [rick-et-y]
squalid a.污秽的,肮脏的 [squal-id]
stiff a.僵直的,呆板的,严厉的 [stiff]
ugly a.难看的,可怕的 [ug-ly]
uncanny a.神秘的,不可思议的 [un-can-ny]
uncouth a.粗野笨拙的 [un-couth]
ungainly a.笨拙的 [un-gain-ly]
unprepossessing a.不吸引人的 [un-pre-pos-sess-ing]
unseemly a.不适当的,不宜的 [un-seem-ly]
unwieldy a.笨重的,笨拙的 [un-wield-y]
soil n./v.弄脏,污损 [soil]
specter n.鬼魂,幽灵;恐惧 [spec-ter]
squalor n.不洁,污秽 [squal-or]
blemish v.损害;玷污;n.瑕疵,缺点 [blem-ish]
deface v.损坏 [de-face]
disfigure v.毁容 [dis-fig-ure]
distort v.扭曲,弄歪 [dis-tort]

ornament 847

garish a.俗丽的,过于艳丽的 [gar-ish]
gaudy a.俗丽的 [gaud-y]
ornate a.华美的;充满装饰的 [or-nate]
well-groomed a.非常整洁的 [well-groomed]
arabesque n.蔓藤图饰 [ar-a-besque]
bouquet n.花束;芳香 [bou-quet]
enamel n.珐琅,瓷釉 [e-nam-el]
epaulet n.肩章,肩饰 [ep-au-let]
fret n./v.(使)烦躁,焦虑 [fret]
fringe n.(窗帘等)须边;边缘 [fringe]
grain n.谷物;小的硬粒 [grain]
lace n.鞋带,系带;网眼花边,透孔织品 [lace]
molding n.装饰线条;铸造物 [mold-ing]
panache n.羽饰;炫耀 [pa-nache]
plume n.羽毛;v.整理羽毛;搔首弄姿 [plume]
prank n.恶作剧,玩笑 [prank]
smart n.痛苦;a.时髦的;聪明的 [smart]
tapestry n.挂毯 [tap-es-try]
texture n.质地;结构 [tex-ture]
varnish n.清漆;v.涂上清漆 [var-nish]
veneer n.(镶于劣质东西上的)镶面板;外表 [ve-neer]
zigzag n./a.之字形(的);v.弯弯曲曲地行进 [zig-zag]
adorn v.装饰 [a-dorn]
array v.部署;n.陈列;大批 [ar-ray]
bedeck v.装饰,修饰 [be-deck]
blush v.因某事物脸红;n.因羞愧等脸上泛出的红晕 [blush]
chase v.雕镂;追捕 [chase]
decorate v.装饰某事物 [dec-o-rate]
embellish v.装饰,润饰 [em-bel-lish]
emboss v.加浮雕花纹于,使凸出 [em-boss]
embroider v.刺绣,修饰 [em-broi-der]
flourish v.昌盛,兴旺;活跃而有影响 [flour-ish]
garnish v.装饰 [gar-nish]
gild v.镀金;虚饰 [gild]
illuminate v.阐明,解释;照亮 [il-lu-mi-nate]
illustrate v.为…作插图或图表;说明,阐明 [il-lus-trate]
polish v.把…擦光亮,抛光;n.上光剂;(态度等)优雅 [pol-ish]
trim v.修剪;a.井井有条的 [trim]

jewelry 847.a

bracelet n.手镯,臂镯 [brace-let]
earring n.耳环,耳饰 [ear-ring]
gem n.宝石,珠宝;精华 [gem]
sapphire n.青石,蓝宝石;a.天蓝色的 [sap-phire]
torque n.转矩;项圈 [torque]
trinket n.小装饰品;不值钱的珠宝 [trin-ket]
turquoise n.绿松石;a.碧绿的 [tur-quoise]
broach v.开瓶;提出(讨论) [broach]

blemish 848

blotch n.(皮肤上的)红斑点;(墨水等)大斑点 [blotch]
blur n.模糊不清的事物;v.使…模糊 [blur]
defect n.缺点,瑕疵;v.变节,脱党 [de-fect]
flaw n.瑕疵;v.生裂缝;有瑕疵 [flaw]
freckle n.雀斑,斑点 [freck-le]
patch n.补丁;一小片(土地) [patch]
smudge n.渍痕;v.弄脏 [smudge]
speck n.斑点;少量 [speck]
tarnish n./v.失去光泽,晦暗 [tar-nish]
blemish v.损害;玷污;n.瑕疵,缺点 [blem-ish]
disfigure v.毁容 [dis-fig-ure]
stain v.玷污;染色 [stain]

simplicity 849

chaste a.贞洁的;朴实的 [chaste]
dull a.不鲜明的;迟钝的;v.变迟钝 [dull]
ingenuous a.纯朴的,单纯的 [in-gen-u-ous]
plain a.简单的;清楚的;n.平原 [plain]
severe a.严格的;凶猛的 [se-vere]
sincere a.诚实的,正直的;真挚的,纯净的 [sin-cere]
unaffected a.自然的,不矫揉造作的 [un-af-fect-ed]
bare v.暴露;a.赤裸的 [bare]

taste 850

aesthetic a.美学的,有审美感的 [aes-thet-ic]
chaste a.贞洁的;朴实的 [chaste]
cultivated a.耕种的,栽植的;有修养的 [cul-ti-vat-ed]
tasty a.味道好的 [tast-y]
unaffected a.自然的,不矫揉造作的 [un-af-fect-ed]
amateur n.业余爱好者 [am-a-teur]
connoisseur n.鉴赏家,行家 [con-nois-seur]
critic n.批评者 [crit-ic]
dainty n.精美食品;a.娇美的;挑剔的 [dain-ty]
delicacy n.细嫩;精致,优雅 [del-i-ca-cy]
dilettante n.半瓶醋,业余爱好者 [dil-et-tan-te]
finesse n.技巧;计谋;手段 [fi-nesse]
grace n.优美 [grace]
gust n.阵风;一阵(情绪) [gust]
nicety n.准确,精确 [ni-ce-ty]
tact n.机智;圆滑 [tact]
virtuoso n.演艺精湛的人 [vir-tu-o-so]
appreciate v.欣赏;感激 [ap-pre-ci-ate]
discriminate v.区分 [dis-crim-i-nate]
polish v.把…擦光亮,抛光;n.上光剂;(态度等)优雅 [pol-ish]

vulgarity 851

affected a.不自然的;假装的 [af-fect-ed]
awkward a.笨拙的;难用的;不便的 [awk-ward]
barbarous a.野蛮的;残暴的 [bar-ba-rous]
coarse a.粗糙的;低劣的;粗俗的 [coarse]
gaudy a.俗丽的 [gaud-y]
gross a.总的;粗野的;n.整个,全部 [gross]
meretricious a.华而不实的,俗艳的 [mer-e-tri-cious]
obsolete a.废弃的;过时的 [ob-so-lete]
outlandish a.古怪的 [out-land-ish]
provincial a.偏狭的,粗俗的 [pro-vin-cial]
ribald a.下流的,粗鄙的 [rib-ald]
rustic a.乡村的,乡土气的 [rus-tic]
savage a.凶猛的,野蛮的 [sav-age]
snobbish a.势利眼的;假充绅士的 [snob-bish]
tawdry a.华而不实的,俗丽的 [taw-dry]
uncouth a.粗野笨拙的 [un-couth]
unkempt a.(衣服、头发)不整洁的 [un-kempt]
unseemly a.不适当的,不宜的 [un-seem-ly]
untutored a.未经教育的 [un-tu-tored]
baroque n./a.(艺术、建筑等)过分雕琢(的) [ba-roque]
clown n.小丑;v.扮小丑 [clown]
cub n.幼兽;年轻无经验的人 [cub]
doggerel n.歪诗,打油诗 [dog-ger-el]
gaucherie n.笨拙 [gau-che-rie]
particular n.事实,细节 [par-tic-u-lar]
low v.牛叫 [low]

fashion 852

civil a.国内的;公民的;文明的 [civ-il]
conventional a.因循守旧的,传统的 [con-ven-tion-al]
faddish a.流行一时的,时尚的 [fad-dish]
genteel a.上流社会的;装作彬彬有礼的 [gen-teel]
jaunty a.愉快的,满足的 [jaun-ty]
modish a.时髦的 [mod-ish]
court n.法庭,法院;宫廷,朝廷;v.献殷勤;追求 [court]
decorum n.礼节,礼貌 [de-co-rum]
elite n.精华,中坚 [e-lite]
etiquette n.礼仪;礼节 [et-i-quette]
fad n.(流行一时的)狂热,时尚 [fad]
fast n.绝食,斋戒;adv.很快地,紧紧地 [fast]
formality n.遵循的规范;拘泥形式;正式 [for-mal-i-ty]
mode n.样式,时尚;模式 [mode]
propriety n.礼节;适当 [pro-pri-e-ty]
rage n.盛怒;v.激怒 [rage]
vogue n.时髦,时尚;a.流行的 [vogue]
trend v./n.趋势,倾向 [trend]

ridiculousness 853

awkward a.笨拙的;难用的;不便的 [awk-ward]
bizarre a.奇异的,古怪的 [bi-zarre]
bombastic a.夸夸其谈的 [bom-bas-tic]
contemptible a.令人轻视的 [con-tempt-i-ble]
droll a.古怪的,好笑的 [droll]
eccentric a.古怪的,反常的;n.古怪的人 [ec-cen-tric]
ludicrous a.荒唐可笑的 [lu-di-crous]
outlandish a.古怪的 [out-land-ish]
preposterous a.荒谬的 [pre-pos-ter-ous]
quaint a.离奇有趣的 [quaint]
stilted a.(文章,谈话)不自然的;夸张的 [stilt-ed]
whimsical a.古怪的,异想天开的 [whim-si-cal]
anticlimax n.令人扫兴的结局 [an-ti-cli-max]
baroque n./a.(艺术、建筑等)过分雕琢(的) [ba-roque]
bombast n.高调,夸大之辞 [bom-bast]
burlesque n.讽刺或滑稽的戏剧 [bur-lesque]
doggerel n.歪诗,打油诗 [dog-ger-el]
extravagance n.奢侈,挥霍 [ex-trav-a-gance]
farce n.闹剧;荒谬胡闹 [farce]

fop 854

exquisite a.精致的;近乎完美的 [ex-qui-site]
blade n.刀锋,刀口 [blade]
dandy n.花花公子,好打扮的人 [dan-dy]
buck v.反对;n.雄鹿;雄兔 [buck]
flirt v.挑逗,调戏 [flirt]
swell v.肿胀,增强 [swell]

affectation 855

affected a.不自然的;假装的 [af-fect-ed]
artificial a.人造的,假的 [ar-ti-fi-cial]
foppish a.浮华的,俗丽的 [fop-pish]
overwrought a.紧张过度的 [o-ver-wrought]
pretentious a.自抬身价的 [pre-ten-tious]
prim a.端庄的,整洁的 [prim]
prudish a.过分守礼的,假道学的 [prud-ish]
smug a.自满的,自命不凡的 [smug]
stiff a.僵直的,呆板的,严厉的 [stiff]
stilted a.(文章,谈话)不自然的;夸张的 [stilt-ed]
affectation n.做作,虚假 [af-fec-ta-tion]
charlatan n.江湖郎中,骗子 [char-la-tan]
conceit n.自负,自大 [con-ceit]
doctrinaire n.空论家;a.教条的,迂腐的 [doc-tri-naire]
formality n.遵循的规范;拘泥形式;正式 [for-mal-i-ty]
pedagogue n.教师,教育者 [ped-a-gogue]
pedant n.迂腐之人,书呆子 [ped-ant]
pretension n.自命不凡,夸耀 [pre-ten-sion]
prude n.过分守礼的人 [prude]
boast v./n.自夸 [boast]
grimace v./n.做鬼脸,面部歪扭 [gri-mace]
mince v.切碎;小步走路 [mince]
pose v.摆姿势;造作 [pose]
simper v.痴笑,傻笑 [sim-per]

ridicule 856

contempt 轻视,鄙视 [con-tempt]
ironic a.挖苦的;出乎意料的 [i-ron-ic]
sarcastic a.讽刺的 [sar-cas-tic]
scurrilous a.下流的 [scur-ril-ous]
badinage n.开玩笑,打趣 [bad-i-nage]
banter n.打趣,玩笑 [ban-ter]
burlesque n.讽刺或滑稽的戏剧 [bur-lesque]
caricature n.讽刺画;滑稽模仿 [car-i-ca-ture]
chaff n.谷物的皮壳,米糠 [chaff]
farce n.闹剧;荒谬胡闹 [farce]
irony n.反话 [i-ro-ny]
parody n.模仿性嘲弄文章或表演;拙劣的模仿 [par-o-dy]
persiflage n.挖苦,嘲弄 [per-si-flage]
ridicule n.奚落;v.嘲笑 [rid-i-cule]
satire n.讽刺(作品) [sat-ire]
scorn n.轻蔑;v.轻蔑,瞧不起 [scorn]
skit n.幽默讽刺短剧 [skit]
deride v.嘲弄,愚弄 [de-ride]
grin v.露齿而笑 [grin]
mock v.嘲笑;模仿地嘲弄 [mock]
rally v.召集,集会;n.召集;集会 [ral-ly]
satirize v.讽刺 [sat-i-rize]
scoff v.嘲笑;狼吞虎咽;n.嘲笑,笑柄 [scoff]
tease v.逗乐,戏弄;强求;n.揶揄,戏弄,取笑 [tease]
travesty v./n.歪曲模仿,曲解 [trav-es-ty]

laughingstock 857

original a.最初的,原始的;有创意的 [o-rig-i-nal]
buffoon n.演出时的丑角;粗俗而愚蠢的人 [buf-foon]
butt v.用头抵撞,顶撞;n.粗大的一端;烟蒂 [butt]
jest v./n.说笑,玩笑 [jest]

3. Prospective Affections

hope 858

auspicious a.幸运的;吉兆的 [aus-pi-cious]
buoyant a.有浮力的;快乐的 [buoy-ant]
elated a.得意洋洋的,振奋的 [e-lat-ed]
propitious a.吉利的;顺利的 [pro-pi-tious]
sanguine a.乐观的 [san-guine]
secure a.安全的;稳固的;v.固定;使安全 [se-cure]
utopian a.乌托邦式的,梦想的 [utopian]
aspiration n.抱负,热望 [as-pi-ra-tion]
assumption n.设想;夺取 [as-sump-tion]
confidence n.信任,自信,信心 [con-fi-dence]
mirage n.幻影,海市蜃楼 [mi-rage]
optimism n.乐观主义 [op-ti-mism]
optimist n.乐观主义者 [op-ti-mist]
presumption n.冒昧,专横;假定 [pre-sump-tion]
reliance n.信赖,信任 [re-li-ance]
anchor v.稳固;固定n.锚 [an-chor]
anticipate v.预期,期待 [an-tic-i-pate]
assure v.向某人保证,确信 [as-sure]
confide v.信赖,倾诉 [con-fide]
embolden v.鼓励 [em-bold-en]
flatter v.恭维,奉承 [flat-ter]
presume v.假定,认定 [pre-sume]

hopelessness 859

desperate a.不顾死活的,拼命的 [des-per-ate]
incorrigible a.积习难改的,不可救药的 [in-cor-ri-gi-ble]
irredeemable a.无法挽回的 [ir-re-deem-a-ble]
irremediable a.无法治愈的,无法纠正的 [ir-re-me-di-a-ble]
irrevocable a.无法取消的 [ir-rev-o-ca-ble]
depression n.忧愁,消沉;数量减少 [de-pres-sion]
pessimism n.悲观;悲观主义 [pes-si-mism]
resignation n.听从,顺从;辞职 [res-ig-na-tion]
submission n.恭顺 [sub-mis-sion]
abandon v./n.放弃;放纵 [a-ban-don]
disconcert v.使…尴尬 [dis-con-cert]
falter v.摇晃,蹒跚;支吾地说 [fal-ter]
submit v.屈服;提交,呈递 [sub-mit]
surrender v.投降;放弃;归还 [sur-ren-der]

fear 860

apprehensive a.害怕的;有眼力的 [ap-pre-hen-sive]
awe-inspiring a.令人敬畏的 [awe-in-spir-ing]
coy a.腼腆的,忸怩的 [coy]
diffident a.缺乏自信的 [dif-fi-dent]
dire a.可怕的 [dire]
formidable a.可怕的;困难的 [for-mi-da-ble]
horrific a.可怕的 [hor-rif-ic]
panic a.恐慌的;n.恐慌,惊惶 [pan-ic]
perilous a.危险的,冒险的 [per-i-lous]
portentous a.凶兆的,有危险的 [por-ten-tous]
redoubtable a.可敬畏的 [re-doubt-a-ble]
restless a.不停的;不安静的 [rest-less]
timid a.胆怯的 [tim-id]
timorous a.胆小的,胆怯的 [tim-or-ous]
tremendous a.惊人的;巨大的 [tre-men-dous]
awe n./v.敬畏 [awe]
consternation n.大为吃惊,惊骇 [con-ster-na-tion]
dismay n.沮丧,气馁;v.使气馁 [dis-may]
fell n.兽皮;v.砍伐;a.凶猛的,可怕的 [fell]
misgiving n.担心,疑虑 [mis-giv-ing]
nightmare n.恶梦;可怕的事 [night-mare]
quiver n.箭筒,箭囊 [quiv-er]
solicitude n.关怀,牵挂 [so-lic-i-tude]
suspicion n.怀疑,觉察,嫌疑 [sus-pi-cion]
timidity n.胆怯 [ti-mid-i-ty]
tremor n.震动,地震 [trem-or]
trepidation n.恐惧,惶恐 [trep-i-da-tion]
abash v.使害羞,使尴尬 [a-bash]
appall v.使惊骇,使恐怖 [ap-pall]
apprehend v.逮捕;恐惧 [ap-pre-hend]
astound v.使震惊 [a-stound]
browbeat v.欺侮;吓唬 [brow-beat]
bully v.以强欺弱,威胁;n.欺负别人者 [bul-ly]
cow v.威胁 [cow]
cower v.畏缩,蜷缩 [cow-er]
crouch v.蹲伏,弯腰 [crouch]
daunt v.使胆怯,使畏缩 [daunt]
deter v.威慑,吓住;阻止 [de-ter]
falter v.摇晃,蹒跚;支吾地说 [fal-ter]
faze v.使…狼狈,折磨 [faze]
flinch v.畏缩,退缩 [flinch]
flutter v.拍翅 [flut-ter]
haunt v.常去;鬼魂出没;(事情)萦绕心头;n.常去的地方 [haunt]
intimidate v.恐吓;胁迫 [in-tim-i-date]
petrify v.石化;吓呆 [pet-ri-fy]
quail v.畏惧,颤抖 [quail]
quaver v.发颤音,颤抖;n.颤音 [qua-ver]
shrink v.收缩,皱缩 [shrink]
shudder v./n.战栗,发抖 [shud-der]
startle v.使吃惊 [star-tle]
wince v.避开,畏缩 [wince]

courage 861

audacious a.大胆的;愚勇的 [au-da-cious]
chivalrous a.武士精神的;对女人彬彬有礼的 [chiv-al-rous]
dogged a.顽强的 [dog-ged]
gallant a.勇敢的;(向女人)献殷勤的 [gal-lant]
hardy a.耐寒的;强壮的 [har-dy]
intrepid a.无畏的,刚毅的 [in-trep-id]
meet a.合适的 [meet]
mettlesome a.精神抖擞的 [met-tle-some]
pugnacious a.好斗的 [pug-na-cious]
savage a.凶猛的,野蛮的 [sav-age]
stout a.肥胖的;强壮的 [stout]
valiant a.勇敢的,英勇的 [val-iant]
valorous a.勇敢的 [val-or-ous]
confidence n.信任,自信,信心 [con-fi-dence]
defiance n.挑战,违抗,反抗 [de-fi-ance]
feat n.功绩,壮举 [feat]
fortitude n.坚毅,坚韧不拔 [for-ti-tude]
mettle n.勇气,斗志 [met-tle]
nerve n.勇气;v.给予力量或勇气 [nerve]
panther n.黑豹 [pan-ther]
pluck n.在困难面前足智多谋的勇气,胆量;精力;v.拔毛;弹拉 [pluck]
prowess n.勇敢;不凡的能力 [prow-ess]
bully v.以强欺弱,威胁;n.欺负别人者 [bul-ly]
defy v.违抗,藐视 [de-fy]
embolden v.鼓励 [em-bold-en]
exploit v.剥削;开发利用;n.英勇行为 [ex-ploit]
rally v.召集,集会;n.召集;集会 [ral-ly]

cowardice 862

base a.卑鄙的 [base]
craven a.懦弱的,畏缩的 [cra-ven]
sneaking a.秘密的,不公开的 [sneak-ing]
timid a.胆怯的 [tim-id]
timorous a.胆小的,胆怯的 [tim-or-ous]
coward n.胆小鬼 [cow-ard]
timidity n.胆怯 [ti-mid-i-ty]
cower v.畏缩,蜷缩 [cow-er]
flinch v.畏缩,退缩 [flinch]
quail v.畏惧,颤抖 [quail]

rashness 863

cavalier >n.骑士,武士 [cav-a-lier]
headlong adj./adv.轻率的(地),迅猛的(地) [head-long]
daredevil a./n.胆大的(人),冒失的(人) [dare-dev-il]
desperate a.不顾死活的,拼命的 [des-per-ate]
giddy a.轻浮的,不严肃的 [gid-dy]
headstrong a.刚愎自用的 [head-strong]
improvident a.无远见的,不节俭的 [im-prov-i-dent]
imprudent a.轻率的;不智的 [im-pru-dent]
impulsive a.易冲动的 [im-pul-sive]
jaunty a.愉快的,满足的 [jaun-ty]
levity n.轻率;轻浮 [lev-i-ty]
precipitation n.降水(量) [pre-cip-i-ta-tion]
presumption n.冒昧,专横;假定 [pre-sump-tion]
temerity n.鲁莽,大胆 [te-mer-i-ty]
bully v.以强欺弱,威胁;n.欺负别人者 [bul-ly]
precipitate v.加速,促成;a.鲁莽的 [pre-cip-i-tate]

caution 864

chary a.小心的,审慎的 [char-y]
discreet a.言行谨慎的 [dis-creet]
prudent a.审慎的,三思而后行的,精明的 [pru-dent]
vigilant a.机警的,警惕的 [vig-i-lant]
wary a.谨慎的,小心翼翼的 [war-y]
discretion n.谨慎,审慎 [dis-cre-tion]
foresight n.远见,深谋远虑 [fore-sight]
prudence n.谨慎,小心 [pru-dence]
heed v.注意,留心;n.关心 [heed]

desire 865

agog a.兴奋的,有强烈兴趣的 [a-gog]
appetizing a.美味可口的,促进食欲的 [ap-pe-tiz-ing]
ardent a.热心的,热烈的 [ar-dent]
avid a.渴望的 [av-id]
desirable a.值得要的 [de-sir-a-ble]
rabid a.患狂犬病的;失去理性的 [rab-id]
sedulous a.聚精会神的,勤勉的 [sed-u-lous]
solicitous a.热切的;挂念的 [so-lic-i-tous]
wistful a.惆怅的,渴望的 [wist-ful]
amateur n.业余爱好者 [am-a-teur]
animus n.敌意,憎恨 [an-i-mus]
appetite n.欲望,食欲,爱好 [ap-pe-tite]
applicant n.申请人 [ap-pli-cant]
aspirant n.有抱负者 [as-pir-ant]
aspiration n.抱负,热望 [as-pi-ra-tion]
bent n.特长,爱好;a.弯曲的 [bent]
candidate n.候选人;参加考试的人 [can-di-date]
court n.法庭,法院;宫廷,朝廷;v.献殷勤;追求 [court]
craving n.强烈的愿望 [crav-ing]
cupidity n.贪婪 [cu-pid-i-ty]
devotee n.爱好者 [dev-o-tee]
fantasy n.想象,幻想 [fan-ta-sy]
hankering n.渴望 [han-ker-ing]
inkling n.暗示,迹象;略知,模糊概念 [ink-ling]
longing n.渴望 [long-ing]
lust n.强烈的欲望 [lust]
mania n.癫狂;狂热 [ma-ni-a]
partiality n.偏袒,偏心 [par-ti-al-i-ty]
penchant n.爱好,嗜好 [pen-chant]
predilection n.偏袒,爱好 [pre-di-lec-tion]
prestige n.威信,威望,声望 [pres-tige]
propensity n.嗜好,习性 [pro-pen-si-ty]
rage n.盛怒;v.激怒 [rage]
relish n.味道;喜好;v.喜好,享受 [rel-ish]
solicitude n.关怀,牵挂 [so-lic-i-tude]
supplicant n.乞求者,恳求者 [sup-pli-cant]
temptation n.诱惑,诱惑物 [temp-ta-tion]
voracity n.贪婪 [vo-rac-i-ty]
votary n.崇拜者,热心支持者 [vo-ta-ry]
want n.缺乏,贫困,需要 [want]
whim n.多变,怪念头 [whim]
whimsy n.古怪,异想天开 [whimsy]
covet v.贪求,妄想 [cov-et]
enrage v.激怒,触怒 [en-rage]
list v./n.倾斜 [list]
ogle v.送秋波;n.媚眼 [o-gle]
solicit v.恳求;教唆 [so-lic-it]
stomach v.吃得下;容忍 [stom-ach]
tantalize v.挑惹,挑逗 [tan-ta-lize]
woo v.向(女人)求爱;争取…的支持 [woo]

indifference 866

aloof a.冷淡的,疏远的 [a-loof]
frigid a.寒冷的;死板的 [frig-id]
indifferent a.不感兴趣的,漠不关心的 [in-dif-fer-ent]
insipid a.乏味的,枯燥的 [in-sip-id]
insouciant a.漫不经心的 [in-sou-ci-ant]
lackadaisical a.无精打采的;无兴趣的 [lack-a-dai-si-cal]
listless a.无精打采的 [list-less]
lukewarm a.微温的,不热心的 [luke-warm]
phlegmatic a.冷静的,冷淡的 [phleg-mat-ic]
undesirable a.令人不悦的,讨厌的 [un-de-sir-a-ble]
vain a.自负的;徒劳的 [vain]
anorexia n.厌食症 [an-o-rex-i-a]
disdain n./v.轻视,鄙视 [dis-dain]
nonchalance n.冷漠,缺少关怀;沉着 [non-cha-lance]

dislike 867

abhorrent a.可恨的,讨厌的 [ab-hor-rent]
adverse a.不利的,相反的;敌对 [ad-verse]
fulsome a.虚情假意的;充足的 [ful-some]
offensive a.令人不快的,得罪人的 [of-fen-sive]
repugnant a.令人厌恶的 [re-pug-nant]
animosity n.憎恶,仇恨 [an-i-mos-i-ty]
antipathy n.反感,厌恶 [an-tip-a-thy]
aversion n.嫌恶,憎恨 [a-ver-sion]
disgust n.反感,厌恶 [dis-gust]
nausea n.作呕,恶心 [nau-se-a]
repugnance n.嫌恶,反感 [re-pug-nance]
abhor v.憎恨,嫌恶 [ab-hor]
abominate v.痛恨;厌恶 [a-bom-i-nate]
avoid v.避开,躲避 [a-void]
detest v.深恶,憎恶 [de-test]
eschew v.避开,戒绝 [es-chew]
loathe v.憎恨,厌恶 [loathe]
nauseate v.使作呕,使厌恶 [nau-se-ate]
pall v.令人发腻,失去吸引力 [pall]
repel v.击退,使…反感 [re-pel]
shun v.避免,闪避 [shun]

fastidiousness 868

delicate a.娇嫩的;精致的,优美的 [del-i-cate]
demanding a.苛刻的,过分要求的 [de-mand-ing]
exacting a.苛求的;要求严格的 [ex-act-ing]
fastidious a.难取悦的,挑剔的 [fas-tid-i-ous]
finicky a.苛求的,过分讲究的 [fin-ick-y]
meticulous a.细心的,一丝不苟的 [me-tic-u-lous]
nice a.精密的 [nice]
querulous a.抱怨的,多牢骚的 [quer-u-lous]
dainty n.精美食品;a.娇美的;挑剔的 [dain-ty]
epicure n.美食家 [ep-i-cure]
gourmet n.美食家 [gour-met]
nicety n.准确,精确 [ni-ce-ty]
particular n.事实,细节 [par-tic-u-lar]

satiety 869

satiated a.;厌倦的,生腻的 [sa-ti-at-ed]
gorge n.峡谷 [gorge]
surfeit n.(食物)过量,过度;v.使过量 [sur-feit]
tire n.轮胎(tyre);v.疲劳 [tire]
bore v.钻孔;使厌烦;n.孔;令人厌烦的人 [bore]
glut v./n.过多;供过于求 [glut]
pall v.令人发腻,失去吸引力 [pall]
quench v.熄灭(火);抑制(欲望) [quench]
sate v.使心满意足,使厌腻 [sate]
saturate v.浸透;使充满 [sat-u-rate]
slake v.解渴,消渴 [slake]
spoil v.损坏,破坏;溺爱 [spoil]

4. Contemplative Affections

wonder 870

prodigious a.巨大的 [pro-di-gious]
striking a.引人注目的,明显的 [strik-ing]
awe n./v.敬畏 [awe]
sensation n.知觉;轰动(的事) [sen-sa-tion]
stupor n.昏迷,不醒人事 [stu-por]
admire v.钦佩,赞赏 [ad-mire]
astound v.使震惊 [a-stound]
bewilder v.迷惑,混乱 [be-wil-der]
confound v.使迷惑,搞混 [con-found]
gape v.裂开;目瞪口呆地凝视 [gape]
marvel v.对…感到惊异;n.奇迹 [mar-vel]
petrify v.石化;吓呆 [pet-ri-fy]
startle v.使吃惊 [star-tle]

prodigy 872

miracle n.奇事,奇迹 [mir-a-cle]
prodigy n.奇事;奇才 [prod-i-gy]
marvel v.对…感到惊异;n.奇迹 [mar-vel]

5. Extrinsic Affections

repute 873

august a.威严的,高贵的 [au-gust]
celebrated a.有名的,知名的 [cel-e-brat-ed]
conspicuous a.显著的,显而易见的 [con-spic-u-ous]
distinguished a.著名的,卓越的 [dis-tin-guished]
eminent a.著名的,显著的 [em-i-nent]
full-blown a.(鲜花)盛开的 [full-blown]
imposing a.壮丽的,雄伟的 [im-pos-ing]
majestic a.雄伟的,庄严的 [ma-jes-tic]
notable a.明显的,出众的,重要的 [no-ta-ble]
notorious a.臭名昭著的 [no-to-ri-ous]
peerless a.无可匹敌的 [peer-less]
preeminent a.出类拔萃的 [pre-em-i-nent]
prominent a.显著的;著名的 [prom-i-nent]
sacred a.神圣的,庄严的 [sa-cred]
solemn a.严肃的,庄严的;黑色的 [sol-emn]
sublime a.崇高的 [sub-lime]
transcendent a.超越的,卓越的,出众的 [tran-scend-ent]
approbation n.称赞,认可 [ap-pro-ba-tion]
blazon n.纹章,装饰;v.精确描绘 [bla-zon]
caste n.社会等级,等级 [caste]
celebrity n.名声;知名人士 [ce-leb-ri-ty]
constellation n.星座,星群 [con-stel-la-tion]
credit n.赊购;信任;(电影)片头字幕 [cred-it]
dedication n.对某事业或目的的忠诚 [ded-i-ca-tion]
dignity n.尊严,尊贵 [dig-ni-ty]
distinction n.区别,差别;知名 [dis-tinc-tion]
elite n.精华,中坚 [e-lite]
eminence n.卓越,杰出 [em-i-nence]
exaltation n.(成功带来的)得意,高兴 [ex-al-ta-tion]
galaxy n.(银河)星群;显赫的人群 [gal-ax-y]
grandeur n.壮丽,伟大 [gran-deur]
halo n.(日、月等)晕,神像之光环 [ha-lo]
paragon n.模范,典型 [par-a-gon]
prestige n.威信,威望,声望 [pres-tige]
renown n.名望,声誉 [re-nown]
reputation n.名声 [rep-u-ta-tion]
repute n.名声,名誉 [re-pute]
rival n.竞争者,对手;v.与…匹敌 [ri-val]
solemnity n.庄严,肃穆 [so-lem-ni-ty]
splendor n.壮丽;辉煌 [splen-dor]
status n.身分,地位 [sta-tus]
vogue n.时髦,时尚;a.流行的 [vogue]
aggrandize v.增大,扩张;吹棒 [ag-gran-dize]
deify v.奉为神;崇拜 [de-i-fy]
elevate v.将…举起 [el-e-vate]
emulate v.努力赶上或超越 [em-u-late]
exalt v.(高度)赞扬,歌颂 [ex-alt]
exult v.欢腾,喜悦 [ex-ult]
flaunt v.炫耀;张扬 [flaunt]
flourish v.昌盛,兴旺;活跃而有影响 [flour-ish]
inscribe v.在某物上写,题 [in-scribe]
lionize v.崇拜,看重 [li-on-ize]
outshine v.要求比…更好 [out-shine]
overshadow v.遮蔽,使失色 [o-ver-shad-ow]
surpass v.超过 [sur-pass]

disrepute 874

abject a.极可怜的;卑下的 [ab-ject]
derogatory a.不敬的,诽谤的 [de-rog-a-to-ry]
despicable a.可鄙的,卑劣的 [des-pi-ca-ble]
ignominious a.可耻的;耻辱的 [ig-no-min-i-ous]
mean a.卑贱的,吝啬的 [mean]
notorious a.臭名昭著的 [no-to-ri-ous]
obscure a.难理解的;不清楚的;v.隐藏;使…模糊 [ob-scure]
opprobrious a.辱骂的,恶名声的 [op-pro-bri-ous]
pitiful a.值得同情的,可怜的 [pit-i-ful]
ribald a.下流的,粗鄙的 [rib-ald]
unbecoming a.不合身的;不得体的 [un-be-com-ing]
unnoticed a.不引人注意的 [un-no-ticed]
vile a.恶劣的,卑鄙的 [vile]
blur n.模糊不清的事物;v.使…模糊 [blur]
brand n.商标;烙印;v.在某事物上打烙印 [brand]
degradation n.降低身份,受辱 [deg-ra-da-tion]
disrepute n.名声不好 [dis-re-pute]
ignominy n.羞耻,屈辱 [ig-no-min-y]
obloquy n.大骂,斥责 [ob-lo-quy]
odium n.憎恶,反感 [o-di-um]
reproach n.谴责,责骂 [re-proach]
scandal n.丑闻;恶意诽谤 [scan-dal]
stigma n.耻辱的标志,污点 [stig-ma]
tarnish n./v.失去光泽,晦暗 [tar-nish]
turpitude n.邪恶,卑鄙(行为) [tur-pi-tude]
debase v.贬低,贬损 [de-base]
defile v.弄污,弄脏;n.(山间)小道 [de-file]
discompose v.使失态,慌张 [dis-com-pose]
disconcert v.使…尴尬 [dis-con-cert]
discredit v.怀疑;n.丧失名誉 [dis-cred-it]
expel v.排出;开除 [ex-pel]
low v.牛叫 [low]
outshine v.要求比…更好 [out-shine]
overshadow v.遮蔽,使失色 [o-ver-shad-ow]
reprehend v.谴责,责难 [rep-re-hend]
slur v.含糊不清地讲 [slur]
snub v.冷落,不理睬 [snub]
stain v.玷污;染色 [stain]
stigmatize v.污蔑,玷污 [stig-ma-tize]
vilify v.辱骂,诽谤 [vil-i-fy]

nobility 875

genteel a.上流社会的;装作彬彬有礼的 [gen-teel]
aristocracy n.贵族;贵族政府,贵族统治 [ar-is-toc-ra-cy]
celebrity n.名声;知名人士 [ce-leb-ri-ty]
distinction n.区别,差别;知名 [dis-tinc-tion]
elite n.精华,中坚 [e-lite]
gentry n.绅士,上等人 [gen-try]
magnate n.财主,巨头 [mag-nate]
patrician n.贵族 [pa-tri-cian]
peer n.同等之人,同辈 [peer]
swell v.肿胀,增强 [swell]

commonality 876

barbarous a.野蛮的;残暴的 [bar-ba-rous]
base a.卑鄙的 [base]
bourgeois a.中产阶级的;自私拜物的 [bour-geois]
ignoble a.卑鄙的 [ig-no-ble]
loutish a.粗鲁的 [lout-ish]
mean a.卑贱的,吝啬的 [mean]
obscure a.难理解的;不清楚的;v.隐藏;使…模糊 [ob-scure]
raffish a.粗俗的;俗艳的 [raff-ish]
rustic a.乡村的,乡土气的 [rus-tic]
savage a.凶猛的,野蛮的 [sav-age]
snobbish a.势利眼的;假充绅士的 [snob-bish]
vile a.恶劣的,卑鄙的 [vile]
vulgar a.无教养的 [vul-gar]
boor n.举止粗野的人;乡下人 [boor]
chaff n.谷物的皮壳,米糠 [chaff]
churl n.粗鄙之人 [churl]
clown n.小丑;v.扮小丑 [clown]
cub n.幼兽;年轻无经验的人 [cub]
curmudgeon n.脾气暴躁之人 [cur-mudg-eon]
jade n.疲惫的老马;玉,翡翠 [jade]
loon n.愚人;疯子 [loon]
mushroom n.蘑菇;v.雨后春笋般迅速发展 [mush-room]
obscurity n.费解,不出名 [ob-scu-ri-ty]
rabble n.乌合之众;下等人 [rab-ble]
scrub n.矮树丛;身体矮小的人;v.用力擦洗 [scrub]
underling n.下属,手下 [un-der-ling]
yokel n.乡巴佬 [yo-kel]
low v.牛叫 [low]

title 877

cross a.生气的 [cross]
epaulet n.肩章,肩饰 [ep-au-let]
grace n.优美 [grace]
medal n.奖牌,勋章 [med-al]
reward n.酬报,奖赏;v.酬谢,奖赏 [re-ward]
shield n.盾;v.掩护,遮挡 [shield]
crown v.加冕,使成王,居…之顶 [crown]
worship v./n.崇拜,敬仰 [wor-ship]

pride 878

arrogant a.傲慢的,自大的 [ar-ro-gant]
bumptious a.傲慢的,自夸的 [bump-tious]
consequential a.傲慢的,自以为是的 [con-se-quen-tial]
imperious a.傲慢的,专横的 [im-pe-ri-ous]
magisterial a.有权威的;威风的 [mag-is-te-ri-al]
mighty a.强有力的,强大的 [might-y]
prim a.端庄的,整洁的 [prim]
stiff a.僵直的,呆板的,严厉的 [stiff]
supercilious a.目中无人的 [su-per-cil-i-ous]
arrogance n.傲慢,自大 [ar-ro-gance]
bridle n.马笼头;v.抑制,控制 [bri-dle]
crest n.山顶,浪尖;羽冠 [crest]
dignity n.尊严,尊贵 [dig-ni-ty]
hauteur n.傲慢 [hau-teur]
boast v./n.自夸 [boast]
presume v.假定,认定 [pre-sume]
strut v.趾高气扬地走;n.支柱 [strut]
swagger v.大摇大摆地走 [swag-ger]

humility 879

affable a.易于交谈的;和蔼的 [af-fa-ble]
condescending a.谦逊的,故意屈尊的 [con-de-scend-ing]
crestfallen a.挫败的,失望的 [crest-fall-en]
humble a.卑微的;v.使谦卑 [hum-ble]
meek a.温顺的,顺服的 [meek]
modest a.谦虚的,谨慎的;适度的 [mod-est]
resigned a.逆来顺受的,顺从的 [re-signed]
servile a.奴性的,百依百顺的 [ser-vile]
humility n.谦逊,谦恭 [hu-mil-i-ty]
mortification n.耻辱,屈辱 [mor-ti-fi-ca-tion]
resignation n.听从,顺从;辞职 [res-ig-na-tion]
submission n.恭顺 [sub-mis-sion]
abash v.使害羞,使尴尬 [a-bash]
blush v.因某事物脸红;n.因羞愧等脸上泛出的红晕 [blush]
condescend v.屈尊,俯就 [con-de-scend]
deign v.屈尊,惠允(做某事) [deign]
humiliate v.使屈辱 [hu-mil-i-ate]
mortify v.使屈辱,使痛心 [mor-ti-fy]
snub v.冷落,不理睬 [snub]
submit v.屈服;提交,呈递 [sub-mit]

vanity 880

arrogant a.傲慢的,自大的 [ar-ro-gant]
forward a.过激的,莽撞的 [for-ward]
pretentious a.自抬身价的 [pre-ten-tious]
vain a.自负的;徒劳的 [vain]
conceit n.自负,自大 [con-ceit]
ostentation n.夸示,炫耀 [os-ten-ta-tion]
vanity n.虚荣,自负 [van-i-ty]
boast v./n.自夸 [boast]
inflate v.使充气,使膨胀 [in-flate]

modesty 881

constrained a.束缚的,节制的 [con-strained]
coy a.腼腆的,忸怩的 [coy]
diffident a.缺乏自信的 [dif-fi-dent]
humble a.卑微的;v.使谦卑 [hum-ble]
modest a.谦虚的,谨慎的;适度的 [mod-est]
timid a.胆怯的 [tim-id]
timorous a.胆小的,胆怯的 [tim-or-ous]
unassuming a.不摆架子的,不造作的 [un-as-sum-ing]
unobtrusive a.不引人注目的 [un-ob-tru-sive]
unpretentious a.不炫耀的 [un-pre-ten-tious]
constraint n.强制,强迫;对感情的压抑 [con-straint]
humility n.谦逊,谦恭 [hu-mil-i-ty]
reserve n.储备(物),储藏量;缄默,谨慎;v.保留,储备,预订 [re-serve]
timidity n.胆怯 [ti-mid-i-ty]
blush v.因某事物脸红;n.因羞愧等脸上泛出的红晕 [blush]

ostentation 882

ceremonious a.仪式隆重的 [cer-e-mo-ni-ous]
garish a.俗丽的,过于艳丽的 [gar-ish]
gaudy a.俗丽的 [gaud-y]
jaunty a.愉快的,满足的 [jaun-ty]
magnificent a.壮丽的,宏伟的;高尚的 [mag-nif-i-cent]
majestic a.雄伟的,庄严的 [ma-jes-tic]
palatial a.宫殿般的;宏伟的 [pa-la-tial]
pompous a.自大的 [pomp-ous]
pretentious a.自抬身价的 [pre-ten-tious]
punctilious a.谨小慎微的 [punc-til-i-ous]
solemn a.严肃的,庄严的;黑色的 [sol-emn]
spectacular a.壮观的,引人入胜的 [spec-tac-u-lar]
stiff a.僵直的,呆板的,严厉的 [stiff]
sumptuous a.豪华的,奢侈的 [sump-tu-ous]
turgid a.浮肿的,肿胀的;浮夸的 [tur-gid]
ceremony n.典礼,仪式 [cer-e-mo-ny]
etiquette n.礼仪;礼节 [et-i-quette]
exposition n.阐释;博览会 [ex-po-si-tion]
formality n.遵循的规范;拘泥形式;正式 [for-mal-i-ty]
fuss n.大惊小怪 [fuss]
ostentation n.夸示,炫耀 [os-ten-ta-tion]
pageant n.壮观的游行;露天历史剧 [pag-eant]
pomposity n.自大的行为,傲慢,自命不凡 [pom-pos-i-ty]
procession n.行列;前进 [pro-ces-sion]
ritual n.仪式,例行习惯 [rit-u-al]
solemnity n.庄严,肃穆 [so-lem-ni-ty]
splendor n.壮丽;辉煌 [splen-dor]
splurge n.炫耀,摆阔 [splurge]
array v.部署;n.陈列;大批 [ar-ray]
brandish v.(威胁性地)挥舞 [bran-dish]
flaunt v.炫耀;张扬 [flaunt]
flourish v.昌盛,兴旺;活跃而有影响 [flour-ish]
promenade v./n.散步;开车兜风 [prom-e-nade]
sport v.炫耀,卖弄 [sport]
strut v.趾高气扬地走;n.支柱 [strut]

celebration 883

celebrated a.有名的,知名的 [cel-e-brat-ed]
ceremony n.典礼,仪式 [cer-e-mo-ny]
coronation n.加冕 [cor-o-na-tion]
jubilation n.欢快,欢庆 [ju-bi-la-tion]
ovation n.热烈的欢迎、鼓掌 [o-va-tion]
paean n.赞美歌,颂歌 [pae-an]
pledge n.誓言,保证;v.发誓 [pledge]
presentation n.表演,介绍,描述 [pres-en-ta-tion]
revelry n.狂欢 [rev-el-ry]
trophy n.奖品,战利品 [tro-phy]
commemorate v.纪念(伟人、大事件等) [com-mem-o-rate]
hallow v.把…视为神圣,尊敬 [hal-low]
inaugurate v.举行就职典礼;开创 [in-au-gu-rate]
install v.安装,装置;使就职 [in-stall]
rejoice v.喜欢,高兴 [re-joice]
salute v.行举手礼;向…致意;n.敬礼 [sa-lu-te]
triumph v./n.凯旋,胜利,欢欣 [tri-umph]

boasting 884

elated a.得意洋洋的,振奋的 [e-lat-ed]
pretentious a.自抬身价的 [pre-ten-tious]
stilted a.(文章,谈话)不自然的;夸张的 [stilt-ed]
bombast n.高调,夸大之辞 [bom-bast]
braggadocio n.吹牛大王;大吹大擂 [brag-ga-do-ci-o]
braggart n.吹牛者 [brag-gart]
bravado n.故作勇敢,虚张声势 [bra-va-do]
charlatan n.江湖郎中,骗子 [char-la-tan]
crack n.爆裂声;裂缝;v.裂开;破解,破译 [crack]
exaggeration n.夸张 [ex-ag-ger-a-tion]
trumpet n.喇叭,小号 [trum-pet]
vanity n.虚荣,自负 [van-i-ty]
boast v./n.自夸 [boast]
brag v.吹嘘 [brag]
chuckle v.轻声地笑 [chuck-le]
exult v.欢腾,喜悦 [ex-ult]
flourish v.昌盛,兴旺;活跃而有影响 [flour-ish]
strut v.趾高气扬地走;n.支柱 [strut]
swagger v.大摇大摆地走 [swag-ger]
triumph v./n.凯旋,胜利,欢欣 [tri-umph]

insolence 885

cavalier >n.骑士,武士 [cav-a-lier]
arbitrary a.专横的,不理智的 [ar-bi-trar-y]
arrogant a.傲慢的,自大的 [ar-ro-gant]
audacious a.大胆的;愚勇的 [au-da-cious]
blustering a.大吵大闹的 [blustering]
brazen a.厚脸皮的 [bra-zen]
bumptious a.傲慢的,自夸的 [bump-tious]
exact a.精确的;v.强求,强索付款 [ex-act]
flippant a.无礼的;轻率的 [flip-pant]
forward a.过激的,莽撞的 [for-ward]
haughty a.傲慢的,自大的 [haugh-ty]
imperious a.傲慢的,专横的 [im-pe-ri-ous]
impudent a.鲁莽的,无礼的 [im-pu-dent]
insolent a.粗野的,无礼的 [in-so-lent]
jaunty a.愉快的,满足的 [jaun-ty]
magisterial a.有权威的;威风的 [mag-is-te-ri-al]
overbearing a.专横的,独断的 [o-ver-bear-ing]
precocious a.早熟的 [pre-co-cious]
supercilious a.目中无人的 [su-per-cil-i-ous]
arrogance n.傲慢,自大 [ar-ro-gance]
assumption n.设想;夺取 [as-sump-tion]
effrontery n.厚颜无耻 [ef-fron-ter-y]
impertinence n.无礼,粗鲁 [im-per-ti-nence]
insolence n.傲慢,无礼 [in-so-lence]
petulance n.发脾气,性急,暴躁 [pet-u-lance]
presumption n.冒昧,专横;假定 [pre-sump-tion]
tyranny n.暴政,专制统治;暴行 [tyr-an-ny]
arrogate v.冒称具有…权利 [ar-ro-gate]
assume v.假定 [as-sume]
bluster v.(指风)猛刮 [blus-ter]
browbeat v.欺侮;吓唬 [brow-beat]
bully v.以强欺弱,威胁;n.欺负别人者 [bul-ly]
dictate v.口述;命令 [dic-tate]
intimidate v.恐吓;胁迫 [in-tim-i-date]
presume v.假定,认定 [pre-sume]
snub v.冷落,不理睬 [snub]
swagger v.大摇大摆地走 [swag-ger]
swell v.肿胀,增强 [swell]

servility 886

abject a.极可怜的;卑下的 [ab-ject]
base a.卑鄙的 [base]
mean a.卑贱的,吝啬的 [mean]
obsequious a.逢迎的,谄媚的 [ob-se-qui-ous]
pliant a.易受影响的;易弯的 [pli-ant]
prostrate a.俯卧的;沮丧的;v.使下跪鞠躬 [pros-trate]
servile a.奴性的,百依百顺的 [ser-vile]
sneaking a.秘密的,不公开的 [sneak-ing]
supple a.伸屈自如的 [sup-ple]
cringing n./a.谄媚(的),奉承(的) [cring-ing]
fawn n.未满周岁的小鹿;v.巴结,奉承 [fawn]
humility n.谦逊,谦恭 [hu-mil-i-ty]
parasite n.食客;寄生物 [par-a-site]
reptile n.爬行动物;卑鄙的人 [rep-tile]
sycophant n.马屁精 [syc-o-phant]
toady n.谄媚者,马屁精 [toad-y]
beat v.心跳;搅拌 [beat]
cower v.畏缩,蜷缩 [cow-er]
cringe v.畏缩;谄媚 [cringe]
crouch v.蹲伏,弯腰 [crouch]
grovel v.摇尾乞怜,奴颜婢膝 [grov-el]
worship v./n.崇拜,敬仰 [wor-ship]

blusterer 887

braggart n.吹牛者 [brag-gart]
doctrinaire n.空论家;a.教条的,迂腐的 [doc-tri-naire]
pistol n.手枪 [pis-tol]
bully v.以强欺弱,威胁;n.欺负别人者 [bul-ly]

Section III. Sympathetic Affections

1. Social Affections

friendship 888

acquainted a.对某事物熟悉的;对某人认识的 [ac-quaint-ed]
amicable a.友好的 [am-i-ca-ble]
intimate a.亲密的;n.密友;v.暗示 [in-ti-mate]
acquaintance n.熟知;熟人 [ac-quaint-ance]
affection n.爱 [af-fec-tion]
amity n.(人或国之间的)友好关系 [am-i-ty]
familiarity n.精通;亲近;不拘礼仪 [fa-mil-i-ar-i-ty]
harmony n.相符,一致;协调,匀称 [har-mo-ny]
rapprochement n.和好,和睦 [rap-proche-ment]
response n.反应,响应,回答 [re-sponse]
embrace v.拥抱;包含 [em-brace]

enmity 889

estranged a.疏远的,分开的,分离的 [es-tranged]
hostile a.敌对的,敌意的 [hos-tile]
inimical a.敌意的,不友善的 [in-im-i-cal]
irreconcilable a.不能协调的,矛盾的 [ir-rec-on-cil-a-ble]
animosity n.憎恶,仇恨 [an-i-mos-i-ty]
discord n.不和,纷争 [dis-cord]
enmity n.敌意,仇恨 [en-mi-ty]
hostility n.敌对,不友好,憎恨 [hos-til-i-ty]
rancor n.深仇,怨恨 [ran-cor]
alienate v.疏远,离间某人 [al-ien-ate]

friend 890

advocate >v.拥护,支持,鼓吹;n.支持者,拥护者 [ad-vo-cate]
associate a.联合的;n.合伙人;v.将人或事物联系起来 [as-so-ci-ate]
intimate a.亲密的;n.密友;v.暗示 [in-ti-mate]
acquaintance n.熟知;熟人 [ac-quaint-ance]
companion n.同伴,同伙;受雇的陪伴人 [com-pan-ion]
compatriot n.同胞,同国人 [com-pa-tri-ot]
mate n.伙伴;配偶;v.交配 [mate]
partisan n.党派支持者;党徒 [par-ti-san]

enemy 891

opponent n.对手,敌手 [op-po-nent]

sociality 892

acquainted a.对某事物熟悉的;对某人认识的 [ac-quaint-ed]
convivial a.欢乐的,狂欢的 [con-viv-i-al]
festive a.欢乐的 [fes-tive]
gregarious a.群居的;爱社交的 [gre-gar-i-ous]
hospitable a.豁达的 [hos-pi-ta-ble]
jovial a.愉快的 [jo-vi-al]
conviviality n.欢乐;交游 [con-viv-i-al-i-ty]
coterie n.(有共同兴趣的)小团体 [co-te-rie]
familiarity n.精通;亲近;不拘礼仪 [fa-mil-i-ar-i-ty]
levee n.防洪堤;堤岸 [lev-ee]
embrace v.拥抱;包含 [em-brace]

courtesy 894

affable a.易于交谈的;和蔼的 [af-fa-ble]
bland a.(人)情绪平稳的;(食物)无味的 [bland]
civil a.国内的;公民的;文明的 [civ-il]
complacent a.自满的,得意的 [com-pla-cent]
complaisant a.顺从的,讨好的 [com-plai-sant]
conciliatory a.抚慰的,调和的 [con-cil-i-a-to-ry]
cultivated a.耕种的,栽植的;有修养的 [cul-ti-vat-ed]
diplomatic a.外交的;圆滑的 [dip-lo-mat-ic]
gallant a.勇敢的;(向女人)献殷勤的 [gal-lant]
gentle a.温和的,慈祥的 [gen-tle]
gracious a.大方的,和善的;奢华的 [gra-cious]
ingratiating a.讨好的,谄媚的 [in-gra-ti-at-ing]
obliging a.恳切的,热心助人的 [o-blig-ing]
obsequious a.逢迎的,谄媚的 [ob-se-qui-ous]
accolade n.推崇;赞扬 [ac-co-lade]
amenity n.礼仪;使人感到舒适的事物 [a-men-i-ty]
civility n.彬彬有礼,斯文 [ci-vil-i-ty]
comity n.礼让,礼仪 [com-i-ty]
complacency n.满足,安心 [com-pla-cen-cy]
complaisance n.彬彬有礼,殷勤,柔顺 [com-plai-sance]
compliment n./v.恭维,称赞 [com-pli-ment]
hail n.冰雹;v.致敬 [hail]
obeisance n.鞠躬,敬礼 [o-bei-sance]
pledge n.誓言,保证;v.发誓 [pledge]
presentation n.表演,介绍,描述 [pres-en-ta-tion]
valediction n.告别演说 [val-e-dic-tion]
conciliate v.安抚,驯服 [con-cil-i-ate]
embrace v.拥抱;包含 [em-brace]
polish v.把…擦光亮,抛光;n.上光剂;(态度等)优雅 [pol-ish]
salute v.行举手礼;向…致意;n.敬礼 [sa-lu-te]
squeeze v.压,挤;n.压榨,紧握 [squeeze]

discourtesy 895

cavalier >n.骑士,武士 [cav-a-lier]
abusive a.漫骂的;毁谤的;虐待的 [a-bu-sive]
acrimonious a.尖刻的,严厉的 [ac-ri-mo-ni-ous]
artless a.粗俗的;自然的 [art-less]
austere a.朴素的 [aus-tere]
blunt a.钝的;直率的;v.变钝 [blunt]
brusque a.唐突的,鲁莽的 [brusque]
brutal a.残忍的;严酷的 [bru-tal]
caustic a.腐蚀性的;刻薄的;n.腐蚀剂 [caus-tic]
crabbed a.暴躁的 [crab-bed]
forward a.过激的,莽撞的 [for-ward]
grim a.冷酷的,可怕的 [grim]
harsh a.严厉的;粗糙的;刺耳的 [harsh]
impolitic a.不智的,失策的 [im-pol-i-tic]
impudent a.鲁莽的,无礼的 [im-pu-dent]
peevish a.坏脾气的,易怒的 [peev-ish]
precocious a.早熟的 [pre-co-cious]
sarcastic a.讽刺的 [sar-cas-tic]
sullen a.忧郁的 [sul-len]
surly a.脾气暴躁的;阴沉的 [sur-ly]
trenchant a.一针见血的 [trench-ant]
ungainly a.笨拙的 [un-gain-ly]
virulent a.剧毒的;恶毒的 [vir-u-lent]
vulgar a.无教养的 [vul-gar]
acrimony n.尖刻,刻薄 [ac-ri-mo-ny]
asperity n.严酷;粗鲁 [as-per-i-ty]
austerity n.朴素,艰苦 [aus-ter-i-ty]
brute n./a.野兽(的);残忍的(人) [brute]
scowl n.怒容;v.生气地皱眉,怒视 [scowl]
snarl n./v.纠缠,混乱 [snarl]
stern n.船尾 [stern]
glower v.怒目而视 [glow-er]
ogle v.送秋波;n.媚眼 [o-gle]
pout v.噘嘴,板脸 [pout]
rebuff v.断然拒绝 [re-buff]

congratulation 896

compliment n./v.恭维,称赞 [com-pli-ment]
laud v.称赞 [laud]
salute v.行举手礼;向…致意;n.敬礼 [sa-lu-te]

love 897

amiable a.和蔼的,亲切的 [a-mi-a-ble]
ardent a.热心的,热烈的 [ar-dent]
congenial a.意气相投的;性情好的 [con-gen-ial]
devoted a.投入的,热爱的 [de-vot-ed]
enamored a.珍爱的,喜爱的 [enamored]
engaging a.迷人的,美丽动人的 [en-gag-ing]
gallant a.勇敢的;(向女人)献殷勤的 [gal-lant]
passionate a.充满激情的 [pas-sion-ate]
affection n.爱 [af-fec-tion]
charm n.魅力;咒语,咒符 [charm]
fervor n.热诚,热心 [fer-vor]
infatuation n.迷恋 [in-fat-u-a-tion]
adore v.崇拜;热爱 [a-dore]
attach v.将某物系在(另一物)上 [at-ta-ch]
captivate v.迷惑,吸引 [cap-ti-vate]
enrapture v.使狂喜,使高兴 [en-rap-ture]
flirt v.挑逗,调戏 [flirt]
propitiate v.讨好;抚慰 [pro-pi-ti-ate]
revere v.尊敬 [re-vere]
tender v.(希望对方接受的意见等) [ten-der]

hate 898

abhorrent a.可恨的,讨厌的 [ab-hor-rent]
invidious a.惹人反感的,导致伤害和仇恨的,招人嫉妒的 [in-vid-i-ous]
malicious a.恶意的,怨毒的 [ma-li-cious]
obnoxious a.令人不愉快的;可憎的 [ob-nox-ious]
odious a.可憎的,讨厌的 [o-di-ous]
offensive a.令人不快的,得罪人的 [of-fen-sive]
reprehensible a.应受谴责的 [rep-re-hen-si-ble]
acrimony n.尖刻,刻薄 [ac-ri-mo-ny]
animosity n.憎恶,仇恨 [an-i-mos-i-ty]
antipathy n.反感,厌恶 [an-tip-a-thy]
aversion n.嫌恶,憎恨 [a-ver-sion]
enmity n.敌意,仇恨 [en-mi-ty]
incense n.香,香味;v.激怒 [in-cense]
odium n.憎恶,反感 [o-di-um]
pique n./v.(因自尊心受伤害而导致的)不悦,愤怒;v.冒犯 [pique]
repugnance n.嫌恶,反感 [re-pug-nance]
scowl n.怒容;v.生气地皱眉,怒视 [scowl]
umbrage n.不快,愤怒 [um-brage]
abhor v.憎恨,嫌恶 [ab-hor]
abominate v.痛恨;厌恶 [a-bom-i-nate]
alienate v.疏远,离间某人 [al-ien-ate]
detest v.深恶,憎恶 [de-test]
execrate v.憎恶;咒骂 [ex-e-crate]
irritate v.激怒;刺激 [ir-ri-tate]
loathe v.憎恨,厌恶 [loathe]
repel v.击退,使…反感 [re-pel]
rile v.使…恼火,激怒 [rile]
roil v.煽动,搅浑 [roil]

favorite 899

minion n.奴才,低下之人 [min-ion]
cosset v.宠爱,溺爱 [cos-set]

resentment 900

acrimonious a.尖刻的,严厉的 [ac-ri-mo-ni-ous]
cross a.生气的 [cross]
indignant a.愤慨的,愤愤不平的 [in-dig-nant]
irate a.发怒的 [i-rate]
rabid a.患狂犬病的;失去理性的 [rab-id]
relentless a.无情的,残酷的 [re-lent-less]
savage a.凶猛的,野蛮的 [sav-age]
sulky a.生气的 [sulk-y]
taking a.楚楚动人的 [tak-ing]
virulent a.剧毒的;恶毒的 [vir-u-lent]
wrought a.做成的,精炼的 [wrought]
acrimony n.尖刻,刻薄 [ac-ri-mo-ny]
animosity n.憎恶,仇恨 [an-i-mos-i-ty]
asperity n.严酷;粗鲁 [as-per-i-ty]
bile n.胆汁 [bile]
fret n./v.(使)烦躁,焦虑 [fret]
gall n.胆汁;怨恨 [gall]
incense n.香,香味;v.激怒 [in-cense]
indignation n.愤慨 [in-dig-na-tion]
indignity n.侮辱,轻蔑;侮辱性的言行 [in-dig-ni-ty]
ire n.愤怒;v.激怒 [ire]
irritation n.愤怒,急躁,刺激 [ir-ri-ta-tion]
mantle n.披风,斗篷;v.覆盖 [man-tle]
miff n.小争吵 [miff]
nettle n.荨麻;v.烦忧,激恼 [net-tle]
outrage n.暴行 [out-rage]
paroxysm n.(感情等)突发 [par-ox-ysm]
pique n./v.(因自尊心受伤害而导致的)不悦,愤怒;v.冒犯 [pique]
provocation n.挑衅,激怒 [prov-o-ca-tion]
rage n.盛怒;v.激怒 [rage]
resentment n.愤恨,怨恨 [re-sent-ment]
revenge n.报复,报仇 [re-venge]
scowl n.怒容;v.生气地皱眉,怒视 [scowl]
snarl n./v.纠缠,混乱 [snarl]
spleen n.怨怒 [spleen]
tiff n.吵嘴,呕气 [tiff]
umbrage n.不快,愤怒 [um-brage]
affront v.侮辱,冒犯 [af-front]
aggravate v.加重,恶化 [ag-gra-vate]
chafe v.摩擦生热;擦痛;激怒 [chafe]
discompose v.使失态,慌张 [dis-com-pose]
enrage v.激怒,触怒 [en-rage]
exasperate v.激怒,使恼怒 [ex-as-per-ate]
ferment v./n.(使)发酵;骚动 [fer-ment]
fume v./n.愤怒;冒烟 [fume]
inflame v.使燃烧;激怒(某人) [in-flame]
infuriate v.使(人)极为愤怒 [in-fu-ri-ate]
irritate v.激怒;刺激 [ir-ri-tate]
kindle v.着火,点燃 [kin-dle]
offend v.得罪,冒犯 [of-fend]
pout v.噘嘴,板脸 [pout]
pucker v.起皱;n.皱褶 [puck-er]
rankle v.怨恨;激怒 [ran-kle]
resent v.憎恶,愤恨 [re-sent]
rile v.使…恼火,激怒 [rile]
ruffle v.弄皱;激怒;n.皱边(装饰衣服) [ruf-fle]
sting v.刺痛;叮螫;n.螫刺 [sting]

irascibility 901

cantankerous a.脾气坏的,好争吵的 [can-tan-ker-ous]
captious a.吹毛求疵的 [cap-tious]
choleric a.易怒的,暴躁的 [chol-er-ic]
contentious a.好辩的,善争吵的 [con-ten-tious]
cross a.生气的 [cross]
fractious a.(脾气)易怒的,好争吵的 [frac-tious]
hasty a.急急忙忙的 [has-ty]
irascible a.易发怒的 [i-ras-ci-ble]
irritable a.易怒的;易受刺激的 [ir-ri-ta-ble]
passionate a.充满激情的 [pas-sion-ate]
peevish a.坏脾气的,易怒的 [peev-ish]
petulant a.性急的,暴躁的 [pet-u-lant]
pugnacious a.好斗的 [pug-na-cious]
querulous a.抱怨的,多牢骚的 [quer-u-lous]
sulky a.生气的 [sulk-y]
susceptible a.易受影响的,脆弱的 [sus-cep-ti-ble]
testy a.性急的,暴躁的 [tes-ty]
touchy a.敏感的,易发脾气的 [touch-y]
vindictive a.报复性的 [vin-dic-tive]
asperity n.严酷;粗鲁 [as-per-i-ty]
excitability n.易兴奋性,易激动性 [ex-cit-a-bil-i-ty]
petulance n.发脾气,性急,暴躁 [pet-u-lance]
porcupine n.豪猪,箭猪 [por-cu-pine]
susceptibility n.易感性 [sus-cep-ti-bil-i-ty]
temper v.锤炼;缓和;n.脾气 [tem-per]

sullenness 901.a

cantankerous a.脾气坏的,好争吵的 [can-tan-ker-ous]
crabbed a.暴躁的 [crab-bed]
cross a.生气的 [cross]
dogged a.顽强的 [dog-ged]
grim a.冷酷的,可怕的 [grim]
intractable a.倔强的;难管的 [in-trac-ta-ble]
morose a.阴郁的 [mo-rose]
peevish a.坏脾气的,易怒的 [peev-ish]
restive a.不安静的,不安宁的 [res-tive]
sulky a.生气的 [sulk-y]
sullen a.忧郁的 [sul-len]
surly a.脾气暴躁的;阴沉的 [sur-ly]
doldrums n.赤道无风带;情绪低落 [dol-drums]
grouch n.牢骚,不满 [grouch]
obstinacy n.固执,倔强,顽固 [ob-sti-na-cy]
scowl n.怒容;v.生气地皱眉,怒视 [scowl]
spleen n.怨怒 [spleen]
glower v.怒目而视 [glow-er]
pout v.噘嘴,板脸 [pout]

endearment 902

blandishment n.奉承,甘言劝诱 [blan-dish-ment]
caress n.爱抚,抚摸;v.爱抚或抚摸某人 [ca-ress]
clasp n.钩子,扣子;紧握 [clasp]
court n.法庭,法院;宫廷,朝廷;v.献殷勤;追求 [court]
coax v.哄诱,巧言诱哄 [co-ax]
coddle v.溺爱;悉心照料 [cod-dle]
cosset v.宠爱,溺爱 [cos-set]
dally v.闲荡,嬉戏 [dal-ly]
embrace v.拥抱;包含 [em-brace]
flirt v.挑逗,调戏 [flirt]
foster v.培养,鼓励;领养 [fos-ter]
ogle v.送秋波;n.媚眼 [o-gle]
salute v.行举手礼;向…致意;n.敬礼 [sa-lu-te]
toy v.不认真考虑,玩弄 [toy]
wheedle v.(用花言巧语)哄骗 [whee-dle]
woo v.向(女人)求爱;争取…的支持 [woo]

marriage 903

engaged a.忙碌的,使用中的 [en-gaged]
marital a.婚姻的 [mar-i-tal]
nubile a.(女孩)到婚嫁年龄的;吸引人的 [nu-bile]
mate n.伙伴;配偶;v.交配 [mate]
monogamy n.一夫一妻制 [mo-nog-a-my]
rib n.肋骨;伞骨 [rib]
betroth v.许配,和…订婚 [be-troth]
espouse v.支持,拥护 [es-pouse]
husband v.妥善而又节约地管理;做…的丈夫 [hus-band]

divorce 905

separate v.使分开;a.不同的;独自的 [sep-a-rate]

2. Diffusive Sympathetic Affections

benevolence 906

accommodating a.乐于助人的 [ac-com-mo-dat-ing]
amiable a.和蔼的,亲切的 [a-mi-a-ble]
benevolent a.善心的,仁心的 [be-nev-o-lent]
charitable a.仁慈的;宽厚的 [char-i-ta-ble]
complacent a.自满的,得意的 [com-pla-cent]
complaisant a.顺从的,讨好的 [com-plai-sant]
gracious a.大方的,和善的;奢华的 [gra-cious]
humane a.人道的,慈悲的 [hu-mane]
maternal a.母性的 [ma-ter-nal]
obliging a.恳切的,热心助人的 [o-blig-ing]
charity n.仁慈;施舍 [char-i-ty]
generosity n.慷慨,大方 [gen-er-os-i-ty]

malevolence 907

acrimonious a.尖刻的,严厉的 [ac-ri-mo-ni-ous]
atrocious a.残忍的,凶恶的 [a-tro-cious]
barbarous a.野蛮的;残暴的 [bar-ba-rous]
brutal a.残忍的;严酷的 [bru-tal]
caustic a.腐蚀性的;刻薄的;n.腐蚀剂 [caus-tic]
cold-blooded a.[生]冷血的;残酷的 [cold-blood-ed]
diabolical a.恶毒的,狠毒的 [di-a-bol-i-cal]
harsh a.严厉的;粗糙的;刺耳的 [harsh]
incendiary a.放火的,纵火的 [in-cen-di-ar-y]
invidious a.惹人反感的,导致伤害和仇恨的,招人嫉妒的 [in-vid-i-ous]
malevolent a.有恶意的,恶毒的 [ma-lev-o-lent]
malicious a.恶意的,怨毒的 [ma-li-cious]
relentless a.无情的,残酷的 [re-lent-less]
savage a.凶猛的,野蛮的 [sav-age]
sullen a.忧郁的 [sul-len]
surly a.脾气暴躁的;阴沉的 [sur-ly]
truculent a.残暴的,凶狠的 [truc-u-lent]
virulent a.剧毒的;恶毒的 [vir-u-lent]
atrocity n.残暴,暴行 [a-troc-i-ty]
bait n.诱饵;v.逗弄;激怒 [bait]
enmity n.敌意,仇恨 [en-mi-ty]
fell n.兽皮;v.砍伐;a.凶猛的,可怕的 [fell]
gall n.胆汁;怨恨 [gall]
grind n.枯燥乏味的工作;v.磨碎,碾碎 [grind]
outrage n.暴行 [out-rage]
rancor n.深仇,怨恨 [ran-cor]
resentment n.愤恨,怨恨 [re-sent-ment]
spite n.怨恨,恶意 [spite]
venom n.毒液;恶毒,痛恨 [ven-om]
affront v.侮辱,冒犯 [af-front]
annoy v.惹恼;打搅,骚扰 [an-noy]
harass v.侵扰,烦忧 [har-ass]
harry v.掠夺,袭扰,折磨 [har-ry]
haunt v.常去;鬼魂出没;(事情)萦绕心头;n.常去的地方 [haunt]
malign v.诽谤,中伤;a.邪恶的 [ma-lign]
oppress v.压迫,压制 [op-press]
persecute v.迫害 [per-se-cute]
tease v.逗乐,戏弄;强求;n.揶揄,戏弄,取笑 [tease]

malediction 908

anathema n.被诅咒的人;宗教意义的诅咒 [a-nath-e-ma]
aspersion n.诽谤,中伤 [as-per-sion]
ban n.禁令 [ban]
denunciation n.谴责,斥责 [de-nun-ci-a-tion]
invective n.猛烈抨击,痛骂 [in-vec-tive]
oath n.誓言;咒骂 [oath]
threat n.威胁,恐吓;凶兆 [threat]
abuse v./n.辱骂; 滥用 [a-buse]
denounce v.指责 [de-nounce]
execrate v.憎恶;咒骂 [ex-e-crate]
fulminate v.猛烈抨击,严厉谴责 [ful-mi-nate]
proscribe v.禁止 [pro-scribe]

threat 909

abusive a.漫骂的;毁谤的;虐待的 [a-bu-sive]
minatory a.威胁的,恫吓的 [min-a-to-ry]
ominous a.预兆的,不祥的 [om-i-nous]
defiance n.挑战,违抗,反抗 [de-fi-ance]
denunciation n.谴责,斥责 [de-nun-ci-a-tion]
snarl n./v.纠缠,混乱 [snarl]
threat n.威胁,恐吓;凶兆 [threat]
abuse v./n.辱骂; 滥用 [a-buse]
bark v./n.狗吠;n.树皮 [bark]
bluster v.(指风)猛刮 [blus-ter]
bully v.以强欺弱,威胁;n.欺负别人者 [bul-ly]
defy v.违抗,藐视 [de-fy]
fulminate v.猛烈抨击,严厉谴责 [ful-mi-nate]
intimidate v.恐吓;胁迫 [in-tim-i-date]
menace v./n.威胁,危险 [men-ace]
mutter v.咕哝,嘀咕 [mut-ter]

philanthropy 910

humane a.人道的,慈悲的 [hu-mane]
philanthropic a.博爱的 [phil-an-throp-ic]
utilitarian a.功利的,实利的 [u-til-i-tar-i-an]
cosmopolitan n.世界主义者,四海为家的人 [cos-mo-pol-i-tan]
generosity n.慷慨,大方 [gen-er-os-i-ty]
patriot n.爱国者,爱国主义者 [pa-tri-ot]
patriotism n.爱国主义,爱国心 [pa-tri-ot-ism]

misanthropy 911

morose a.阴郁的 [mo-rose]
cynic n.犬儒主义者,愤世嫉俗者 [cyn-ic]
egotist n.自私自利者 [e-go-tist]
misanthrope n.愤世嫉俗者 [mis-an-thrope]

benefactor 912

auxiliary a.辅助的,协助的 [aux-il-ia-ry]
benefactor n.行善者,捐助者 [ben-e-fac-tor]

evil 913

incendiary a.放火的,纵火的 [in-cen-di-ar-y]
savage a.凶猛的,野蛮的 [sav-age]
anarchist n.无政府主义者 [an-ar-chist]
bane n.祸根 [bane]
brute n./a.野兽(的);残忍的(人) [brute]
cougar n.美洲豹 [cou-gar]
gorilla n.大猩猩 [go-ril-la]
mosquito n.蚊子 [mos-qui-to]
ruffian n.恶棍,歹徒;a.残暴的 [ruf-fi-an]
scorpion n.蝎子 [scor-pi-on]
siren n.汽笛,警报器 [si-ren]
tyrant n.暴君 [ty-rant]
vulture n.秃鹫 [vul-ture]
bully v.以强欺弱,威胁;n.欺负别人者 [bul-ly]

3. Special Sympathetic Affections

pity 914

advocate >v.拥护,支持,鼓吹;n.支持者,拥护者 [ad-vo-cate]
clement a.仁慈的;温和的 [clem-ent]
compassionate a.有同情心的 [com-pas-sion-ate]
humane a.人道的,慈悲的 [hu-mane]
lenient a.宽大的;仁慈的 [le-ni-ent]
pitiful a.值得同情的,可怜的 [pit-i-ful]
charity n.仁慈;施舍 [char-i-ty]
clemency n.温和;仁慈,宽厚 [clem-en-cy]
compassion n.同情,怜悯 [com-pas-sion]
forbearance n.自制,忍耐 [for-bear-ance]
grace n.优美 [grace]
leniency n.温和,宽容 [le-ni-en-cy]
partisan n.党派支持者;党徒 [par-ti-san]
deprecate v.反对,轻视 [dep-re-cate]
disarm v.使…解除武器;使…缓和 [dis-arm]
propitiate v.讨好;抚慰 [pro-pi-ti-ate]
relent v.动怜悯心;减弱 [re-lent]
supplicate v.恳求,乞求 [sup-pli-cate]
tender v.(希望对方接受的意见等) [ten-der]
thaw v.解冻,溶化 [thaw]

pitilessness 914.a

harsh a.严厉的;粗糙的;刺耳的 [harsh]
inclement a.(天气)严酷的;严厉的 [in-clem-ent]
inexorable a.不为所动的;坚决不变的 [in-ex-o-ra-ble]

condolence 915

console v.安慰,抚慰 [con-sole]

4. Retrospective Sympathetic Affections

gratitude 916

grateful a.感激的 [grate-ful]
benediction n.祝福;祈祷 [ben-e-dic-tion]
grace n.优美 [grace]
gratitude n.感激 [grat-i-tude]
paean n.赞美歌,颂歌 [pae-an]
acknowledge v.承认;致谢 [ac-knowl-edge]
requite v.报答;报复 [re-quite]

ingratitude 917

unrequited a.无报答的 [un-re-quit-ed]
ingrate n.忘恩负义的人 [in-grate]

forgiveness 918

conciliatory a.抚慰的,调和的 [con-cil-i-a-to-ry]
amnesty n.大赦,特赦 [am-nes-ty]
forbearance n.自制,忍耐 [for-bear-ance]
grace n.优美 [grace]
indemnity n.赔偿;保证 [in-dem-ni-ty]
absolve v.赦免,免除 [ab-solve]
acquit v.宣告无罪;脱卸义务和责任;还清(债务) [ac-quit]
conciliate v.安抚,驯服 [con-cil-i-ate]
condone v.宽恕,原谅 [con-done]
overlook v.忽视;俯视 [o-ver-look]
placate v.抚慰,平息(愤怒) [pla-cate]
propitiate v.讨好;抚慰 [pro-pi-ti-ate]
release v.释放,放出;n.释放 [re-lease]
reprieve v.缓刑,暂时解救;n.缓刑,暂时解救 [re-prieve]

revenge 919

inexorable a.不为所动的;坚决不变的 [in-ex-o-ra-ble]
relentless a.无情的,残酷的 [re-lent-less]
vengeful a.报复的,复仇心理的 [venge-ful]
vindictive a.报复性的 [vin-dic-tive]
rancor n.深仇,怨恨 [ran-cor]
revenge n.报复,报仇 [re-venge]
ruthlessness n.无情,残忍 [ruth-less-ness]
vendetta n.世仇,宿怨 [ven-det-ta]
vengeance n.报仇,报复 [venge-ance]
avenge v.为…复仇,为…报仇 [a-venge]
rankle v.怨恨;激怒 [ran-kle]
vindicate v.为…平反;证明…正确 [vin-di-cate]

jealousy 920

jaundiced a.有偏见的 [jaun-diced]
jealousy n.猜忌,嫉妒 [jeal-ous-y]
suspicion n.怀疑,觉察,嫌疑 [sus-pi-cion]

envy 921

invidious a.惹人反感的,导致伤害和仇恨的,招人嫉妒的 [in-vid-i-ous]
rivalry n.竞争,对抗 [ri-val-ry]
spite n.怨恨,恶意 [spite]
covet v.贪求,妄想 [cov-et]

Section IV. Moral Affections

1. Moral Obligations

right 922

equable a.稳定的,不变的;(脾气)温和的 [eq-ua-ble]
evenhanded a.公平的,不偏不倚的 [evenhanded]
justifiable a.有理由的,无可非议的 [jus-ti-fi-a-ble]
legitimate a.合法的;正当的 [le-git-i-mate]
equity n.公平,公正 [eq-ui-ty]
propriety n.礼节;适当 [pro-pri-e-ty]
recompense v.报酬,赔偿 [rec-om-pense]

wrong 923

illegal a.违法的 [il-le-gal]
iniquitous a.邪恶的,不公正的 [in-iq-ui-tous]
injurious a.有害的 [in-ju-ri-ous]
partial a.局部的;偏袒的 [par-tial]
unjustified a.未被证明为正当的,无法解释的 [un-jus-ti-fied]
grievance n.委屈,抱怨 [griev-ance]
iniquity n.邪恶,不公正 [in-iq-ui-ty]
nepotism n.裙带关系 [nep-o-tism]
partiality n.偏袒,偏心 [par-ti-al-i-ty]

dueness 924

absolute a.绝对的,完全的; 无(条件)限制的 [ab-so-lute]
constitutional a.章程的,法规的;素质上的,本质的 [con-sti-tu-tion-al]
exact a.精确的;v.强求,强索付款 [ex-act]
inalienable a.不可剥夺的 [in-al-ien-a-ble]
inviolable a.不可侵犯的;不可亵渎的 [in-vi-o-la-ble]
legitimate a.合法的;正当的 [le-git-i-mate]
meet a.合适的 [meet]
merited a.该得的,理所当然的 [mer-i-ted]
seemly a.得体的,适宜的 [seem-ly]
unexceptionable a.无可非议的 [un-ex-cep-tion-a-ble]
unimpeachable a.无可指摘的,无可置疑的 [un-im-peach-a-ble]
warranted a.保证的;凭正当理由的 [warranted]
charter n.(公司)执照;宪章;v.包租车船 [char-ter]
constitution n.宪法;体质 [con-sti-tu-tion]
immunity n.免疫;豁免 [im-mu-ni-ty]
liberty n.随意,冒失 [lib-er-ty]
license n.放肆,自由;许可证,执照 [li-cense]
plaintiff n.原告 [plain-tiff]
prerogative n.特权 [pre-rog-a-tive]
prescription n.处方(上的药) [pre-scrip-tion]
pretension n.自命不凡,夸耀 [pre-ten-sion]
privilege n.特权,特别利益 [priv-i-lege]
sanction n./v.批准,认可 [sanc-tion]
tenure n.任期;终身职位 [ten-ure]
warrant n.正当理由;许可证 [war-rant]
warranty n.保证;辩解;有正当理由;批准 [war-ran-ty]
arrogate v.冒称具有…权利 [ar-ro-gate]
assert v.断言,主张 [as-sert]
assume v.假定 [as-sume]
claim v.要求或索; 要n.声称拥有的权力 [claim]
demand v.要求,苛求 [de-mand]
entitle v.使有权(做某事) [en-ti-tle]
merit v.值得 [mer-it]
ordain v.任命(神职);颁发命令 [or-dain]
prescribe v.开处方;规定 [pre-scribe]
reclaim v.纠正;开垦(土地) [re-claim]
sanctify v.使神圣 [sanc-ti-fy]
square v.一致,符合;结清 [square]
substantiate v.证实,确证 [sub-stan-ti-ate]

undueness 925

exact a.精确的;v.强求,强索付款 [ex-act]
illegitimate a.不合法的;私生的 [il-le-git-i-mate]
illicit a.违法的 [il-lic-it]
preposterous a.荒谬的 [pre-pos-ter-ous]
pretentious a.自抬身价的 [pre-ten-tious]
spurious a.假的;伪造的 [spu-ri-ous]
unbecoming a.不合身的;不得体的 [un-be-com-ing]
undeserved a.不应得的 [un-de-served]
unjustified a.未被证明为正当的,无法解释的 [un-jus-ti-fied]
unqualified a.无资格的;无限制的,绝对的 [un-qual-i-fied]
unseemly a.不适当的,不宜的 [un-seem-ly]
unwarranted a.没有根据的 [un-war-rant-ed]
assumption n.设想;夺取 [as-sump-tion]
breach n.裂缝,缺口;v.打破,裂开;违背 [breach]
presumption n.冒昧,专横;假定 [pre-sump-tion]
arrogate v.冒称具有…权利 [ar-ro-gate]
encroach v.侵占,蚕食 [en-croach]
infringe v.违反,侵害 [in-fringe]
stretch v.变长;伸展 [stretch]
usurp v.篡夺,霸占 [u-surp]
violate v.违反,触犯 [vi-o-late]

duty 926

amenable a.愿服从的,通情达理的 [a-me-na-ble]
conscientious a.尽责的;小心谨慎的 [con-sci-en-tious]
exact a.精确的;v.强求,强索付款 [ex-act]
imperative a.急需的 [im-per-a-tive]
meet a.合适的 [meet]
obligatory a.强制性的,义务的 [ob-lig-a-to-ry]
peremptory a.不容反抗的;专横的 [per-emp-to-ry]
stringent a.(规定)严格的,苛刻的;缺钱的 [strin-gent]
accountability n.负有责任 [ac-count-a-bil-i-ty]
acquittal n.宣告无罪,开释 [ac-quit-tal]
allegiance n.忠诚,拥护 [al-le-giance]
conscience n.良心,是非感 [con-science]
decorum n.礼节,礼貌 [de-co-rum]
ethics n.伦理学;道德规范 [eth-ics]
liability n.责任;债务 [li-a-bil-i-ty]
propriety n.礼节;适当 [pro-pri-e-ty]
behoove v.理应,有义务 [be-hoove]
discharge v.流出;释放;解雇;履行义务 [dis-charge]
enjoin v.命令,吩咐 [en-join]
oblige v.束缚;恩惠于… [o-blige]
prescribe v.开处方;规定 [pre-scribe]

dereliction of duty 927

slight a.微小的;n./v.轻蔑 [slight]
evasion n.躲避,借口 [e-va-sion]
fault n.错误;(地质学)断层 [fault]
infraction n.违法 [in-frac-tion]
relaxation n.松弛,消遣 [re-lax-a-tion]
transgression n.违法,罪过 [trans-gres-sion]
evade v.逃避;规避 [e-vade]
infringe v.违反,侵害 [in-fringe]
renounce v.(正式)放弃 [re-nounce]
repudiate v.拒绝,抛弃 [re-pu-di-ate]
transgress v.冒犯,违背 [trans-gress]
violate v.违反,触犯 [vi-o-late]

exemption 927.a

exempt a.被免除的;v.使免除 [ex-empt]
immune a.免疫的;免除的 [im-mune]
immunity n.免疫;豁免 [im-mu-ni-ty]
liberty n.随意,冒失 [lib-er-ty]
license n.放肆,自由;许可证,执照 [li-cense]
absolve v.赦免,免除 [ab-solve]
acquit v.宣告无罪;脱卸义务和责任;还清(债务) [ac-quit]
discharge v.流出;释放;解雇;履行义务 [dis-charge]
exonerate v.免除责任;确定无罪 [ex-on-er-ate]
release v.释放,放出;n.释放 [re-lease]

2. Moral Sentiments

respect 928

ceremonious a.仪式隆重的 [cer-e-mo-ni-ous]
deferential a.顺从的,恭顺的 [def-er-en-tial]
obsequious a.逢迎的,谄媚的 [ob-se-qui-ous]
prostrate a.俯卧的;沮丧的;v.使下跪鞠躬 [pros-trate]
approbation n.称赞,认可 [ap-pro-ba-tion]
awe n./v.敬畏 [awe]
deference n.敬意,尊重 [def-er-ence]
hail n.冰雹;v.致敬 [hail]
homage n.效忠,崇敬 [hom-age]
obeisance n.鞠躬,敬礼 [o-bei-sance]
hallow v.把…视为神圣,尊敬 [hal-low]
impose v.征税;强加 [im-pose]
revere v.尊敬 [re-vere]
salute v.行举手礼;向…致意;n.敬礼 [sa-lu-te]
venerate v.崇敬,敬仰 [ven-er-ate]
worship v./n.崇拜,敬仰 [wor-ship]

disrespect 929

contemptuous a.鄙视的,表示轻蔑的 [con-temp-tu-ous]
sarcastic a.讽刺的 [sar-cas-tic]
scurrilous a.下流的 [scur-ril-ous]
slight a.微小的;n./v.轻蔑 [slight]
supercilious a.目中无人的 [su-per-cil-i-ous]
burlesque n.讽刺或滑稽的戏剧 [bur-lesque]
gibe n./v.嘲弄,讥笑 [gibe]
indignity n.侮辱,轻蔑;侮辱性的言行 [in-dig-ni-ty]
irony n.反话 [i-ro-ny]
outrage n.暴行 [out-rage]
ridicule n.奚落;v.嘲笑 [rid-i-cule]
affront v.侮辱,冒犯 [af-front]
browbeat v.欺侮;吓唬 [brow-beat]
deride v.嘲弄,愚弄 [de-ride]
desecrate v.玷辱,亵渎 [des-e-crate]
disparage v.贬抑,轻蔑 [dis-par-age]
disregard v./n.疏忽,漠视 [dis-re-gard]
flout v.蔑视,违抗 [flout]
hiss v.作嘘声;(蛇等)发出嘶嘶声 [hiss]
jeer v.嘲笑 [jeer]
mock v.嘲笑;模仿地嘲弄 [mock]
overlook v.忽视;俯视 [o-ver-look]
scoff v.嘲笑;狼吞虎咽;n.嘲笑,笑柄 [scoff]
sneer v.嘲笑,鄙视 [sneer]
vilify v.辱骂,诽谤 [vil-i-fy]

contempt 930

cavalier >n.骑士,武士 [cav-a-lier]
contempt 轻视,鄙视 [con-tempt]
bumptious a.傲慢的,自夸的 [bump-tious]
contemptible a.令人轻视的 [con-tempt-i-ble]
contemptuous a.鄙视的,表示轻蔑的 [con-temp-tu-ous]
despicable a.可鄙的,卑劣的 [des-pi-ca-ble]
haughty a.傲慢的,自大的 [haugh-ty]
pitiful a.值得同情的,可怜的 [pit-i-ful]
slight a.微小的;n./v.轻蔑 [slight]
supercilious a.目中无人的 [su-per-cil-i-ous]
disdain n./v.轻视,鄙视 [dis-dain]
scorn n.轻蔑;v.轻蔑,瞧不起 [scorn]
despise v.鄙视,藐视 [de-spise]
disregard v./n.疏忽,漠视 [dis-re-gard]
flout v.蔑视,违抗 [flout]
hiss v.作嘘声;(蛇等)发出嘶嘶声 [hiss]
sneer v.嘲笑,鄙视 [sneer]

approbation 931

estimable a.值得尊敬的;可估计的 [es-ti-ma-ble]
eulogistic a.颂扬的,歌功颂德的 [eu-lo-gis-tic]
meritorious a.值得赞赏的 [mer-i-to-ri-ous]
plausible a.似是而非的,似乎合理的;嘴巧的 [plau-si-ble]
unimpeachable a.无可指摘的,无可置疑的 [un-im-peach-a-ble]
advocacy n.拥护,支持 [ad-vo-ca-cy]
applause n.鼓掌,喝彩 [ap-plause]
approbation n.称赞,认可 [ap-pro-ba-tion]
benediction n.祝福;祈祷 [ben-e-dic-tion]
benison n.祝福,赐福 [ben-i-son]
compliment n./v.恭维,称赞 [com-pli-ment]
credit n.赊购;信任;(电影)片头字幕 [cred-it]
encomium n.赞颂,颂辞 [en-co-mi-um]
eulogy n.颂词,颂文 [eu-lo-gy]
hail n.冰雹;v.致敬 [hail]
homage n.效忠,崇敬 [hom-age]
kudos n.荣誉 [ku-dos]
paean n.赞美歌,颂歌 [pae-an]
panegyric n.颂词,颂扬 [pan-e-gyr-ic]
repute n.名声,名誉 [re-pute]
sanction n./v.批准,认可 [sanc-tion]
acclaim v.欢呼,称赞 [ac-claim]
admire v.钦佩,赞赏 [ad-mire]
applaud v.鼓掌表示欢迎或赞赏 [ap-plaud]
appreciate v.欣赏;感激 [ap-pre-ci-ate]
countenance v.支持,赞成;容忍;n.表情 [coun-te-nance]
eulogize v.称赞,颂扬 [eu-lo-gize]
exalt v.(高度)赞扬,歌颂 [ex-alt]
extol v.赞美 [ex-tol]
flatter v.恭维,奉承 [flat-ter]
laud v.称赞 [laud]
magnify v.放大;赞美 [mag-ni-fy]
plaudit v.喝彩,赞扬 [plau-dit]
swell v.肿胀,增强 [swell]
uphold v.维护,支持 [up-hold]

disapprobation 932

abusive a.漫骂的;毁谤的;虐待的 [a-bu-sive]
captious a.吹毛求疵的 [cap-tious]
critical a.挑毛病的;关键的,危急的 [crit-i-cal]
fastidious a.难取悦的,挑剔的 [fas-tid-i-ous]
reprehensible a.应受谴责的 [rep-re-hen-si-ble]
sarcastic a.讽刺的 [sar-cas-tic]
severe a.严格的;凶猛的 [se-vere]
trenchant a.一针见血的 [trench-ant]
vicious a.残酷的,危险的 [vi-cious]
vituperative a.辱骂的 [vituperative]
brand n.商标;烙印;v.在某事物上打烙印 [brand]
castigation n.惩罚,苛评 [cas-ti-ga-tion]
denunciation n.谴责,斥责 [de-nun-ci-a-tion]
detraction n.贬低,诽谤 [de-trac-tion]
diatribe n.(口头或书面猛烈的)抨击 [di-a-tribe]
innuendo n.含沙射影,暗讽 [in-nu-en-do]
invective n.猛烈抨击,痛骂 [in-vec-tive]
lampoon n.讽刺文章;v.讽刺 [lam-poon]
lash n.鞭子;v.鞭打;捆住 [lash]
objection n.厌恶,反对 [ob-jec-tion]
obloquy n.大骂,斥责 [ob-lo-quy]
odium n.憎恶,反感 [o-di-um]
ostracism n.放逐,排斥 [os-tra-cism]
rail n.栏杆;铁轨;v.咒骂,猛烈指责 [rail]
reprimand n.训诫,谴责;v.训诫,谴责 [rep-ri-mand]
reproach n.谴责,责骂 [re-proach]
reproof n.责斥,责备 [re-proof]
satire n.讽刺(作品) [sat-ire]
scowl n.怒容;v.生气地皱眉,怒视 [scowl]
stricture n.严厉谴责;束缚 [stric-ture]
tirade n.长篇的攻击性讲话 [ti-rade]
abuse v./n.辱骂; 滥用 [a-buse]
accuse v.谴责,指责 [ac-cuse]
admonish v.训诫;警告 [ad-mon-ish]
berate v.猛烈责骂 [be-rate]
castigate v.惩治,严责 [cas-ti-gate]
cavil v.挑毛病,吹毛求疵 [cav-il]
chastise v.严厉惩罚;谴责 [chas-tise]
chide v.叱责,指责 [chide]
clamor v./n.吵闹,喧哗 [clam-or]
condemn v.极力谴责;判刑 [con-demn]
decry v.责难;贬低(价值) [de-cry]
denounce v.指责 [de-nounce]
deprecate v.反对,轻视 [dep-re-cate]
depreciate v.轻视;贬值 [de-pre-ci-ate]
disparage v.贬抑,轻蔑 [dis-par-age]
execrate v.憎恶;咒骂 [ex-e-crate]
expostulate v.(对人或行为进行)抗议,告诫 [ex-pos-tu-late]
hiss v.作嘘声;(蛇等)发出嘶嘶声 [hiss]
impeach v.指责;弹劾 [im-peach]
impugn v.指责,对…表示怀疑 [im-pugn]
insinuate v.暗指,暗示 [in-sin-u-ate]
lament v./n.悲伤;哀悼 [la-ment]
ostracize v.放逐,排斥 [os-tra-cize]
overhaul v.彻底检查;大修 [o-ver-haul]
rebuff v.断然拒绝 [re-buff]
rebuke v.指责,谴责 [re-buke]
reprehend v.谴责,责难 [rep-re-hend]
reprobate v.谴责,指责;adj./n.堕落的(人) [rep-ro-bate]
reprove v.责骂,申斥 [re-prove]
revile v.辱骂,恶言相向 [re-vile]
revolt v.叛乱,造反;反感 [re-volt]
satirize v.讽刺 [sat-i-rize]
sneer v.嘲笑,鄙视 [sneer]
snub v.冷落,不理睬 [snub]
stigmatize v.污蔑,玷污 [stig-ma-tize]
trim v.修剪;a.井井有条的 [trim]
upbraid v.斥责,责骂 [up-braid]
vilify v.辱骂,诽谤 [vil-i-fy]
vituperate v.痛斥,辱骂 [vi-tu-per-ate]

flattery 933

fulsome a.虚情假意的;充足的 [ful-some]
plausible a.似是而非的,似乎合理的;嘴巧的 [plau-si-ble]
servile a.奴性的,百依百顺的 [ser-vile]
smooth a.光滑的;平稳的;v.弄平,使光滑;消除 [smooth]
specious a.似是而非的;华而不实的 [spe-cious]
unctuous a.油质的;油腔滑调的 [unc-tu-ous]
blandishment n.奉承,甘言劝诱 [blan-dish-ment]
court n.法庭,法院;宫廷,朝廷;v.献殷勤;追求 [court]
euphemism n.婉言,委婉的说法 [eu-phe-mism]
incense n.香,香味;v.激怒 [in-cense]
placebo n.安慰剂 [pla-ce-bo]
cajole v.(以甜言蜜语)哄骗 [ca-jole]
coax v.哄诱,巧言诱哄 [co-ax]
exaggerate v.夸张;夸大 [ex-ag-ger-ate]
flatter v.恭维,奉承 [flat-ter]
humor v.纵容,迁就 [hu-mor]
soothe v.抚慰;减轻 [soothe]
wheedle v.(用花言巧语)哄骗 [whee-dle]

detraction 934

abusive a.漫骂的;毁谤的;虐待的 [a-bu-sive]
critical a.挑毛病的;关键的,危急的 [crit-i-cal]
derogatory a.不敬的,诽谤的 [de-rog-a-to-ry]
sarcastic a.讽刺的 [sar-cas-tic]
scurrilous a.下流的 [scur-ril-ous]
slanderous a.诽谤的 [slanderous]
aspersion n.诽谤,中伤 [as-per-sion]
brand n.商标;烙印;v.在某事物上打烙印 [brand]
calumny n.诽谤,中伤 [cal-um-ny]
detraction n.贬低,诽谤 [de-trac-tion]
invective n.猛烈抨击,痛骂 [in-vec-tive]
lampoon n.讽刺文章;v.讽刺 [lam-poon]
obloquy n.大骂,斥责 [ob-lo-quy]
scandal n.丑闻;恶意诽谤 [scan-dal]
skit n.幽默讽刺短剧 [skit]
accuse v.谴责,指责 [ac-cuse]
assail v.抨击;猛攻 [as-sail]
belittle v.轻视,贬抑 [be-lit-tle]
calumniate v.诽谤,中伤 [ca-lum-ni-ate]
decry v.责难;贬低(价值) [de-cry]
denounce v.指责 [de-nounce]
deprecate v.反对,轻视 [dep-re-cate]
depreciate v.轻视;贬值 [de-pre-ci-ate]
derogate v.贬低,诽谤 [der-o-gate]
disparage v.贬抑,轻蔑 [dis-par-age]
impugn v.指责,对…表示怀疑 [im-pugn]
libel v./n.(文字)诽谤,中伤 [li-bel]
malign v.诽谤,中伤;a.邪恶的 [ma-lign]
oppose v.反对 [op-pose]
slander v./n.诽谤,诋毁 [slan-der]
vilify v.辱骂,诽谤 [vil-i-fy]

flatterer 935

encomiast n.赞美者 [en-co-mi-ast]
optimist n.乐观主义者 [op-ti-mist]
parasite n.食客;寄生物 [par-a-site]
sycophant n.马屁精 [syc-o-phant]
toady n.谄媚者,马屁精 [toad-y]

detractor 936

abusive a.漫骂的;毁谤的;虐待的 [a-bu-sive]
critic n.批评者 [crit-ic]
cynic n.犬儒主义者,愤世嫉俗者 [cyn-ic]
censor v.审查,检查(书报) [cen-sor]

vindication 937

advocate >v.拥护,支持,鼓吹;n.支持者,拥护者 [ad-vo-cate]
justifiable a.有理由的,无可非议的 [jus-ti-fi-a-ble]
plausible a.似是而非的,似乎合理的;嘴巧的 [plau-si-ble]
specious a.似是而非的;华而不实的 [spe-cious]
venial a.(错误等)轻微的,可原谅的 [ve-ni-al]
acquittal n.宣告无罪,开释 [ac-quit-tal]
allowance n.津贴,补助;承认,允许 [al-low-ance]
defendant n.被告 [de-fend-ant]
defense n.防御,防护 [de-fense]
gloss n.光泽;注解 [gloss]
justification n.正当理由,好的(正义的)原因;辨护 [jus-ti-fi-ca-tion]
palliative n.缓释剂;a.减轻的,缓和的 [pal-li-a-tive]
varnish n.清漆;v.涂上清漆 [var-nish]
warrant n.正当理由;许可证 [war-rant]
acquit v.宣告无罪;脱卸义务和责任;还清(债务) [ac-quit]
apologize v.道歉;辩解 [a-pol-o-gize]
exculpate v.开脱,申明无罪 [ex-cul-pate]
exonerate v.免除责任;确定无罪 [ex-on-er-ate]
extenuate v.掩饰(罪行),减轻罪过 [ex-ten-u-ate]
justify v.证明…是正当的 [jus-ti-fy]
mince v.切碎;小步走路 [mince]
palliate v.减轻(痛苦);掩饰(罪行) [pal-li-ate]
plead v.恳求,提出…为理由 [plead]
slur v.含糊不清地讲 [slur]
vindicate v.为…平反;证明…正确 [vin-di-cate]

accusation 938

vicious a.残酷的,危险的 [vi-cious]
defendant n.被告 [de-fend-ant]
denunciation n.谴责,斥责 [de-nun-ci-a-tion]
invective n.猛烈抨击,痛骂 [in-vec-tive]
litigant n.诉讼当事人 [lit-i-gant]
panel n.专门小组;仪表板 [pan-el]
plaintiff n.原告 [plain-tiff]
reproach n.谴责,责骂 [re-proach]
respondent n.被告 [re-spond-ent]
scandal n.丑闻;恶意诽谤 [scan-dal]
accuse v.谴责,指责 [ac-cuse]
cite v.引用,引述 [cite]
denounce v.指责 [de-nounce]
impeach v.指责;弹劾 [im-peach]
implicate v.牵连(于罪行中) [im-pli-cate]
incriminate v.连累,牵连 [in-crim-i-nate]
inculpate v.连累;控告;归咎于 [in-cul-pate]
indict v.控诉,起诉 [in-dict]
libel v./n.(文字)诽谤,中伤 [li-bel]
prosecute v.告发,检举 [pros-e-cute]
slur v.含糊不清地讲 [slur]
stigmatize v.污蔑,玷污 [stig-ma-tize]

3. Moral Conditions

probity 939

candid a.率直的 [can-did]
chivalrous a.武士精神的;对女人彬彬有礼的 [chiv-al-rous]
conscientious a.尽责的;小心谨慎的 [con-sci-en-tious]
constant a.稳定的,不变的; n.常数 [con-stant]
evenhanded a.公平的,不偏不倚的 [evenhanded]
impartial a.公平的,无私的 [im-par-tial]
incorruptible a.(道德上)不受腐蚀的 [in-cor-rupt-i-ble]
inviolable a.不可侵犯的;不可亵渎的 [in-vi-o-la-ble]
loyal a.忠诚的,忠贞的,忠心的 [loy-al]
nice a.精密的 [nice]
punctilious a.谨小慎微的 [punc-til-i-ous]
straightforward a.正直的;易懂的;直截了当的 [straight-for-ward]
trustworthy a.值得信赖的,可靠的 [trust-wor-thy]
unworldly a.非世俗的;精神上的 [un-world-ly]
upright a.垂直的;正直的 [up-right]
veracious a.诚实的,说真话的 [ve-ra-cious]
virtuous a.有美德的;自命清高的 [vir-tu-ous]
candor n.坦白,率直 [can-dor]
delicacy n.细嫩;精致,优雅 [del-i-ca-cy]
dignity n.尊严,尊贵 [dig-ni-ty]
equity n.公平,公正 [eq-ui-ty]
grace n.优美 [grace]
integrity n.正直,诚实;完整 [in-teg-ri-ty]
nicety n.准确,精确 [ni-ce-ty]
principle n.原则,原理;道德准则 [prin-ci-ple]
probity n.刚直,正直 [pro-bi-ty]
purity n.纯洁,纯净;纯度 [pu-ri-ty]
rectitude n.诚实,正直 [rec-ti-tude]
scruple n.顾忌,迟疑;v.顾忌 [scru-ple]
veracity n.真实性,诚实 [ve-rac-i-ty]
square v.一致,符合;结清 [square]

improbity 940

abject a.极可怜的;卑下的 [ab-ject]
base a.卑鄙的 [base]
contemptible a.令人轻视的 [con-tempt-i-ble]
corrupt a.堕落的,腐败的;文体有错误的 [cor-rupt]
derogatory a.不敬的,诽谤的 [de-rog-a-to-ry]
foul a.恶臭的;邪恶的;v.弄脏;n.(体育等)犯规 [foul]
fraudulent a.欺骗的,不诚实的 [fraud-u-lent]
ignominious a.可耻的;耻辱的 [ig-no-min-i-ous]
insidious a.隐藏诡计的 [in-sid-i-ous]
mean a.卑贱的,吝啬的 [mean]
paltry a.无价值的,微不足道的 [pal-try]
perfidious a.不忠的,背信弃义的 [per-fid-i-ous]
scurvy a.卑鄙的,可鄙的 [scurvy]
slippery a.滑的;狡猾的 [slip-per-y]
sneaking a.秘密的,不公开的 [sneak-ing]
tortuous a.弯弯曲曲的 [tor-tu-ous]
treacherous a.背叛的,叛逆的,奸诈的 [treach-er-ous]
unbecoming a.不合身的;不得体的 [un-be-com-ing]
unscrupulous a.肆无忌惮的 [un-scru-pu-lous]
venal a.惟利是图的,贪赃枉法的 [ve-nal]
vile a.恶劣的,卑鄙的 [vile]
wicked a.极坏的;淘气的 [wick-ed]
apostasy n.背教,脱党 [a-pos-ta-sy]
fraud n.欺诈,欺骗;骗子 [fraud]
mongrel n.杂种动物;混血儿 [mon-grel]
nepotism n.裙带关系 [nep-o-tism]
perfidy n.不忠,背叛 [per-fi-dy]
treason n.叛国罪 [trea-son]
turpitude n.邪恶,卑鄙(行为) [tur-pi-tude]
betray v.背叛;暴露 [be-tray]
derogate v.贬低,诽谤 [der-o-gate]
graft v./n.嫁接;贪污 [graft]
grovel v.摇尾乞怜,奴颜婢膝 [grov-el]

knave 941

knave n.流氓,恶棍 [knave]
renegade n.叛教者,叛徒 [ren-e-gade]
reptile n.爬行动物;卑鄙的人 [rep-tile]
sycophant n.马屁精 [syc-o-phant]
traitor n.卖国贼,叛徒 [trai-tor]

disinterestedness 942

chivalrous a.武士精神的;对女人彬彬有礼的 [chiv-al-rous]
disinterested a.公正的,客观的 [dis-in-ter-est-ed]
lofty a.崇高的,高尚的 [loft-y]
magnanimous a.宽宏大量的,慷慨的 [mag-nan-i-mous]
sublime a.崇高的 [sub-lime]
altruism n.利他主义;无私 [al-tru-ism]
exaltation n.(成功带来的)得意,高兴 [ex-al-ta-tion]
generosity n.慷慨,大方 [gen-er-os-i-ty]
liberality n.慷慨;心胸开阔 [lib-er-al-i-ty]
magnanimity n.慷慨 [mag-na-nim-i-ty]

selfishness 943

earthly a.现世的,尘世的 [earth-ly]
mean a.卑贱的,吝啬的 [mean]
mercenary a.惟利是图的;n.雇佣兵 [mer-ce-nar-y]
mundane a.现世的,世俗的 [mun-dane]
venal a.惟利是图的,贪赃枉法的 [ve-nal]
egotist n.自私自利者 [e-go-tist]
nepotism n.裙带关系 [nep-o-tism]

virtue 944

dutiful a.恭敬顺从的,尽职的 [du-ti-ful]
exemplary a.可作楷模的 [ex-em-pla-ry]
meritorious a.值得赞赏的 [mer-i-to-ri-ous]
peerless a.无可匹敌的 [peer-less]
saintly a.圣徒似的,极为圣洁的 [saint-ly]
seraphic a.如天使般的,美丽的 [se-raph-ic]
virtuous a.有美德的;自命清高的 [vir-tu-ous]
credit n.赊购;信任;(电影)片头字幕 [cred-it]
ethics n.伦理学;道德规范 [eth-ics]
innocence n.无辜,清白 [in-no-cence]
integrity n.正直,诚实;完整 [in-teg-ri-ty]
desert v.放弃,离弃 [de-sert]
merit v.值得 [mer-it]

vice 945

atrocious a.残忍的,凶恶的 [a-tro-cious]
base a.卑鄙的 [base]
corrupt a.堕落的,腐败的;文体有错误的 [cor-rupt]
culpable a.有罪的,该受谴责的 [cul-pa-ble]
depraved a.堕落的,腐化的 [de-praved]
dissolute a.放荡的,无节制的 [dis-so-lute]
flagrant a.臭的,恶名昭彰的 [fla-grant]
foul a.恶臭的;邪恶的;v.弄脏;n.(体育等)犯规 [foul]
frail a.脆弱的;不坚实的 [frail]
grave a.严峻的;n.墓穴 [gra-ve]
gross a.总的;粗野的;n.整个,全部 [gross]
heinous a.十恶不赦的 [hei-nous]
incarnate a.具有肉体的;化身的 [in-car-nate]
incorrigible a.积习难改的,不可救药的 [in-cor-ri-gi-ble]
infirm a.虚弱的 [in-firm]
iniquitous a.邪恶的,不公正的 [in-iq-ui-tous]
malevolent a.有恶意的,恶毒的 [ma-lev-o-lent]
nefarious a.违法的,邪恶的 [ne-far-i-ous]
obdurate a.固执的,顽固的 [ob-du-rate]
profligate a.挥金如土的;n.挥霍者 [prof-li-gate]
reprehensible a.应受谴责的 [rep-re-hen-si-ble]
scurvy a.卑鄙的,可鄙的 [scurvy]
stygian a.阴暗的,阴森森的 [stygian]
unconscionable a.无节制的,过度的 [un-con-scion-a-ble]
unprincipled a.肆无忌惮的 [un-prin-ci-pled]
unseemly a.不适当的,不宜的 [un-seem-ly]
vicious a.残酷的,危险的 [vi-cious]
vile a.恶劣的,卑鄙的 [vile]
wicked a.极坏的;淘气的 [wick-ed]
atrocity n.残暴,暴行 [a-troc-i-ty]
defect n.缺点,瑕疵;v.变节,脱党 [de-fect]
deficiency n.缺陷;不足 [de-fi-cien-cy]
depravity n.堕落,恶习 [de-prav-i-ty]
fault n.错误;(地质学)断层 [fault]
foible n.小缺点,小毛病 [foi-ble]
iniquity n.邪恶,不公正 [in-iq-ui-ty]
lapse n.失误;(时间等)流逝 [lapse]
scandal n.丑闻;恶意诽谤 [scan-dal]
demoralize v.使士气低落 [de-mor-al-ize]
err v.犯错误,出错 [err]
offend v.得罪,冒犯 [of-fend]
reprobate v.谴责,指责;adj./n.堕落的(人) [rep-ro-bate]
transgress v.冒犯,违背 [trans-gress]
trespass v.侵犯,闯入私人领地 [tres-pass]

innocence 946

immaculate a.洁净的,无瑕的 [im-mac-u-late]
innocuous a.(行为,言论等)无害的 [in-noc-u-ous]
unexceptionable a.无可非议的 [un-ex-cep-tion-a-ble]
unimpeachable a.无可指摘的,无可置疑的 [un-im-peach-a-ble]
unspotted a.清白的,无污点的 [un-spot-ted]
venial a.(错误等)轻微的,可原谅的 [ve-ni-al]
virtuous a.有美德的;自命清高的 [vir-tu-ous]
innocence n.无辜,清白 [in-no-cence]
acquit v.宣告无罪;脱卸义务和责任;还清(债务) [ac-quit]
exculpate v.开脱,申明无罪 [ex-cul-pate]

guilt 947

culpable a.有罪的,该受谴责的 [cul-pa-ble]
guilty a.有罪的 [guilt-y]
reprehensible a.应受谴责的 [rep-re-hen-si-ble]
atrocity n.残暴,暴行 [a-troc-i-ty]
delinquency n.失职,过失 [de-lin-quen-cy]
dereliction n.遗弃,弃置 [der-e-lic-tion]
enormity n.极恶;暴行;巨大 [e-nor-mi-ty]
fault n.错误;(地质学)断层 [fault]
felony n.重罪 [fel-o-ny]
flaw n.瑕疵;v.生裂缝;有瑕疵 [flaw]
guilt n.罪行;内疚 [guilt]
lapse n.失误;(时间等)流逝 [lapse]
malfeasance n.不法行为,渎职 [mal-fea-sance]
malpractice n.玩忽职守,渎职 [mal-prac-tice]
outrage n.暴行 [out-rage]
peccadillo n.小过失 [pec-ca-dil-lo]
transgression n.违法,罪过 [trans-gres-sion]
trespass v.侵犯,闯入私人领地 [tres-pass]

948. good man

949. bad man

penitence 950

contrite a.悔罪的,痛悔的 [con-trite]
penitent a.后悔的,忏悔的 [pen-i-tent]
compunction n.懊悔,良心不安 [com-punc-tion]
contrition n.悔罪,痛悔 [con-tri-tion]
penance n.自我惩罚 [pen-ance]
recantation n.改变宗教信仰 [recantation]
remorse n.懊悔,悔恨 [re-morse]
rue n.后悔,遗憾 [rue]
acknowledge v.承认;致谢 [ac-knowl-edge]
confess v.承认,供认 [con-fess]
recant v.改变,放弃(以前的信仰) [re-cant]
reclaim v.纠正;开垦(土地) [re-claim]

impenitence 951

impenitent a.不悔悟的 [im-pen-i-tent]
incorrigible a.积习难改的,不可救药的 [in-cor-ri-gi-ble]
obdurate a.固执的,顽固的 [ob-du-rate]
relentless a.无情的,残酷的 [re-lent-less]
unregenerate a.不知悔改的 [un-re-gen-er-ate]
unrepentant a.不悔悟的,不后悔的 [un-re-pent-ant]

atonement 952

penance n.自我惩罚 [pen-ance]
purgatory n.炼狱;受苦受难的地方 [pur-ga-to-ry]
ransom n.赎金;赎身;v.赎回 [ran-som]
redress n.改正,修正 [re-dress]
reparation n.赔偿,补偿 [rep-a-ra-tion]
sacrifice n.牺牲;v.宰牲祭神 [sac-ri-fice]
absolve v.赦免,免除 [ab-solve]
apologize v.道歉;辩解 [a-pol-o-gize]
compromise v.妥协;危害 [com-pro-mise]
expiate v.赎罪,补偿 [ex-pi-ate]
propitiate v.讨好;抚慰 [pro-pi-ti-ate]
purge v.清洗,洗涤 [purge]
reclaim v.纠正;开垦(土地) [re-claim]
redeem v.赎罪 [re-deem]

4. Moral Practice

temperance 953

abstemious a.有节制的,节俭的 [ab-ste-mi-ous]
frugal a.节约的,节俭的 [fru-gal]
measured a.精确的;慎重的 [meas-ured]
sober a.清醒的;庄重的 [so-ber]
sparing a.节俭的 [spar-ing]
forbearance n.自制,忍耐 [for-bear-ance]
sobriety n.节制,庄重 [so-bri-e-ty]
abstain v.禁绝,放弃 [ab-stain]
refrain v.抑制;n.歌曲的反复句,叠句 [re-frain]

intemperance 954

dissolute a.放荡的,无节制的 [dis-so-lute]
licentious a.纵欲的;放肆的 [li-cen-tious]
luxurious a.奢侈的,豪华的 [lux-u-ri-ous]
rakish a.潇洒的;放荡的 [rak-ish]
voluptuous a.撩人的;沉溺于酒色的 [vo-lup-tu-ous]
excess n.过分,过度 [ex-cess]
fast n.绝食,斋戒;adv.很快地,紧紧地 [fast]
luxury n.奢侈(品) [lux-u-ry]
revelry n.狂欢 [rev-el-ry]
exceed v.超过;超出 [ex-ceed]
indulge v.放纵;满足 [in-dulge]
swill v.冲洗;痛饮 [swill]

sensualist 954.a

epicure n.美食家 [ep-i-cure]
gourmand n.嗜食者 [gour-mand]
gourmet n.美食家 [gour-met]
hedonist n.享乐主义者 [he-don-ist]
libertine n.性行为放纵者,浪荡的人 [lib-er-tine]

asceticism 955

acerbic a.苦涩的;刻薄的 [a-cer-bic]
ascetic a.禁欲的;n.苦行者 [as-cet-ic]
austere a.朴素的 [aus-tere]
austerity n.朴素,艰苦 [aus-ter-i-ty]
cynic n.犬儒主义者,愤世嫉俗者 [cyn-ic]
hermit n.隐士,修道者 [her-mit]
martyr n.烈士,殉道者 [mar-tyr]
mortification n.耻辱,屈辱 [mor-ti-fi-ca-tion]
penance n.自我惩罚 [pen-ance]

fasting 956

fast n.绝食,斋戒;adv.很快地,紧紧地 [fast]
famish v.使饥饿 [fam-ish]

gluttony 957

avaricious a.贪婪的,贪心的 [av-a-ri-cious]
gluttonous a.贪吃的,贪嘴的 [glut-ton-ous]
avarice n.贪财,贪婪 [av-a-rice]
epicure n.美食家 [ep-i-cure]
gorge n.峡谷 [gorge]
gourmand n.嗜食者 [gour-mand]
gourmet n.美食家 [gour-met]
voracity n.贪婪 [vo-rac-i-ty]
bolt v.急逃(to dash out; dart);螺栓,门栓 [bolt]
cram v.填塞,塞满;临时抱佛脚,为考试而学习 [cram]
devour v.吞食;贪婪地享受 [de-vour]
gulp v.吞食,咽下 [gulp]
guzzle v.大吃大喝 [guz-zle]

sobriety 958

sober a.清醒的;庄重的 [so-ber]
sobriety n.节制,庄重 [so-bri-e-ty]

drunkenness 959

flustered a.慌张的 [flustered]
lush a.繁茂的,茂盛的 [lush]
maudlin a.感情脆弱的,爱哭的 [maud-lin]
carouse n.狂饮寻乐 [ca-rouse]
flush n./v.脸红;奔流;冲洗 [flush]
potation n.畅饮;饮料 [po-ta-tion]
guzzle v.大吃大喝 [guz-zle]
punch v.以拳猛击;打洞 [punch]
soak v.浸泡,渗透 [soak]
swill v.冲洗;痛饮 [swill]

purity 960

chaste a.贞洁的;朴实的 [chaste]
continent a.自制的;n.大陆 [con-ti-nent]
decent a.适当的,可接受的;得体的 [de-cent]
delicate a.娇嫩的;精致的,优美的 [del-i-cate]
modest a.谦虚的,谨慎的;适度的 [mod-est]
virtuous a.有美德的;自命清高的 [vir-tu-ous]
decency n.正派,端庄 [de-cen-cy]
decorum n.礼节,礼貌 [de-co-rum]
delicacy n.细嫩;精致,优雅 [del-i-ca-cy]
prude n.过分守礼的人 [prude]
purity n.纯洁,纯净;纯度 [pu-ri-ty]

impurity 961

bawdy a.淫猥的,好色的 [bawd-y]
bestial a.野兽的,残忍的 [bes-ti-al]
coarse a.粗糙的;低劣的;粗俗的 [coarse]
dissolute a.放荡的,无节制的 [dis-so-lute]
frail a.脆弱的;不坚实的 [frail]
fulsome a.虚情假意的;充足的 [ful-some]
gallant a.勇敢的;(向女人)献殷勤的 [gal-lant]
gross a.总的;粗野的;n.整个,全部 [gross]
licentious a.纵欲的;放肆的 [li-cen-tious]
meretricious a.华而不实的,俗艳的 [mer-e-tri-cious]
rakish a.潇洒的;放荡的 [rak-ish]
rampant a.蔓生的,猖獗的 [ram-pant]
ribald a.下流的,粗鄙的 [rib-ald]
voluptuous a.撩人的;沉溺于酒色的 [vo-lup-tu-ous]
liaison n.联系;暧昧关系 [li-ai-son]
lust n.强烈的欲望 [lust]
abuse v./n.辱骂; 滥用 [a-buse]
defile v.弄污,弄脏;n.(山间)小道 [de-file]
intrigue v.密谋;引起…极大兴趣 [in-trigue]
violate v.违反,触犯 [vi-o-late]

libertine 962

drab a.枯黄色的;无聊的 [drab]
gallant a.勇敢的;(向女人)献殷勤的 [gal-lant]
harridan n.凶恶的老妇,老巫婆 [har-ri-dan]
jade n.疲惫的老马;玉,翡翠 [jade]
libertine n.性行为放纵者,浪荡的人 [lib-er-tine]
skit n.幽默讽刺短剧 [skit]
pander v.怂恿,迎合(不良欲望) [pan-der]
rig v.欺骗,舞弊,伪造 [rig]

5. Moral Institutions

legality 963

constitutional a.章程的,法规的;素质上的,本质的 [con-sti-tu-tion-al]
legitimate a.合法的;正当的 [le-git-i-mate]
statutory a.法定的;受法令所约束的 [stat-u-to-ry]
attorney n.律师 [at-tor-ney]
canon n.经典,真作 [ca-non]
charter n.(公司)执照;宪章;v.包租车船 [char-ter]
code n.密码;法典;v.将某事物编写成密码 [code]
constitution n.宪法;体质 [con-sti-tu-tion]
court n.法庭,法院;宫廷,朝廷;v.献殷勤;追求 [court]
equity n.公平,公正 [eq-ui-ty]
formality n.遵循的规范;拘泥形式;正式 [for-mal-i-ty]
formula n.分子式;公式;套语,惯用语 [for-mu-la]
institution n.公共机构,协会;制度 [in-sti-tu-tion]
legislation n.法律,法规,立法 [leg-is-la-tion]
legislature n.立法机关,立法团体 [leg-is-la-ture]
ordinance n.法令,条例 [or-di-nance]
rite n.(宗教的)仪式 [rite]
statute n.法规,法令 [stat-ute]
tribunal n.法庭,裁判所 [tri-bu-nal]
codify v.将法律、规则等编成法典 [cod-i-fy]
enact v.制定(法律);扮演(角色) [en-act]
legislate v.制定法律 [leg-is-late]
ordain v.任命(神职);颁发命令 [or-dain]
regulate v.管制;调整 [reg-u-late]

illegality 964

arbitrary a.专横的,不理智的 [ar-bi-trar-y]
corrupt a.堕落的,腐败的;文体有错误的 [cor-rupt]
despotic a.专横的,暴虐的 [des-pot-ic]
illegal a.违法的 [il-le-gal]
illegitimate a.不合法的;私生的 [il-le-git-i-mate]
illicit a.违法的 [il-lic-it]
unregulated a.未受管理的,未受约束的 [un-reg-u-lat-ed]
unwarranted a.没有根据的 [un-war-rant-ed]
contraband n.违禁品,走私货 [con-tra-band]
despotism n.专制,暴政 [des-pot-ism]
summary n.摘要,概要;a.摘要的,简略的 [sum-ma-ry]
smuggle v.走私,私运 [smug-gle]

jurisdiction 965

judicial a.法庭的,法官的 [ju-di-cial]
jurisdiction n.司法权,审判权,裁判权 [ju-ris-dic-tion]
municipality n.市;市政当局(指城市行政区及管理者) [mu-nic-i-pal-i-ty]
sheriff n.警长,县治安官 [sher-iff]
tribunal n.法庭,裁判所 [tri-bu-nal]

tribunal 966

judicial a.法庭的,法官的 [ju-di-cial]
bench n.法官席;长凳 [bench]
court n.法庭,法院;宫廷,朝廷;v.献殷勤;追求 [court]
forum n.辩论的场所,讲坛 [fo-rum]
tribunal n.法庭,裁判所 [tri-bu-nal]

judge 967

judicial a.法庭的,法官的 [ju-di-cial]
arbiter n.权威人士,泰斗 [ar-bi-ter]
chancellor n.大臣,总理,首席法官,大学校长 [chan-cel-lor]
court n.法庭,法院;宫廷,朝廷;v.献殷勤;追求 [court]
litigant n.诉讼当事人 [lit-i-gant]
referee n.裁判员;仲裁者 [ref-er-ee]
umpire n.裁判;v.对…进行仲裁 [um-pire]
censor v.审查,检查(书报) [cen-sor]

lawyer 968

advocate >v.拥护,支持,鼓吹;n.支持者,拥护者 [ad-vo-cate]
attorney n.律师 [at-tor-ney]
civilian n.平民 [ci-vil-ian]
proctor n.代理人,学监 [proc-tor]
pundit n.权威人士,专家 [pun-dit]
bar v.禁止,阻挡;n.条,棒 [ba-r]
plead v.恳求,提出…为理由 [plead]

lawsuit 969

affidavit n.宣誓书 [af-fi-da-vit]
defendant n.被告 [de-fend-ant]
litigant n.诉讼当事人 [lit-i-gant]
litigation n.诉讼 [lit-i-ga-tion]
plaintiff n.原告 [plain-tiff]
prosecution n.起诉;实行,经营 [pros-e-cu-tion]
subpoena n.(法律)传票;v.传讯 [sub-poe-na]
verdict n.判决,决定 [ver-dict]
writ n.命令状,书面命令 [writ]
accuse v.谴责,指责 [ac-cuse]
appeal v.恳求;吸引;上诉 [ap-peal]
apprehend v.逮捕;恐惧 [ap-pre-hend]
arrest v.依法逮捕;阻止,抑制 [ar-rest]
attach v.将某物系在(另一物)上 [at-ta-ch]
cite v.引用,引述 [cite]
claim v.要求或索; 要n.声称拥有的权力 [claim]
commit v.托付;承诺;犯罪 [com-mit]
dispute v.争论 [dis-pute]
impeach v.指责;弹劾 [im-peach]
indict v.控诉,起诉 [in-dict]
prosecute v.告发,检举 [pros-e-cute]
summon v.召见;召集 [sum-mon]

acquittal 970

acquittal n.宣告无罪,开释 [ac-quit-tal]
immunity n.免疫;豁免 [im-mu-ni-ty]
impunity n.免除惩罚 [im-pu-ni-ty]
respite n.休息;暂缓 [res-pite]
absolve v.赦免,免除 [ab-solve]
acquit v.宣告无罪;脱卸义务和责任;还清(债务) [ac-quit]
discharge v.流出;释放;解雇;履行义务 [dis-charge]
exculpate v.开脱,申明无罪 [ex-cul-pate]
exonerate v.免除责任;确定无罪 [ex-on-er-ate]
liberate v.释放,解放 [lib-er-ate]
release v.释放,放出;n.释放 [re-lease]
reprieve v.缓刑,暂时解救;n.缓刑,暂时解救 [re-prieve]

condemnation 971

guilty a.有罪的 [guilt-y]
cast n.演员阵容;剧团;v.扔;铸造 [cast]
conviction n.判罪;坚信 [con-vic-tion]
penalty n.刑罚,处罚 [pen-al-ty]
accuse v.谴责,指责 [ac-cuse]
condemn v.极力谴责;判刑 [con-demn]
confiscate v.没收;充公 [con-fis-cate]
convict v.定罪;n.罪犯 [con-vict]
proscribe v.禁止 [pro-scribe]

punishment 972

cane n.拐杖 [cane]
castigation n.惩罚,苛评 [cas-ti-ga-tion]
cob n.玉米棒子;雄天鹅 [cob]
guillotine n.断头台 [guil-lo-tine]
lace n.鞋带,系带;网眼花边,透孔织品 [lace]
lash n.鞭子;v.鞭打;捆住 [lash]
ostracism n.放逐,排斥 [os-tra-cism]
penalty n.刑罚,处罚 [pen-al-ty]
retribution n.报应,惩罚 [ret-ri-bu-tion]
scaffold n.脚手架(造房时搭的架子) [scaf-fold]
scourge n.鞭笞;磨难;v.鞭笞,磨难 [scourge]
shoot n.嫩芽,新芽 [shoot]
banish v.放逐某人 [ban-ish]
baste v.倒油脂于(烤肉上,以防烤干) [baste]
beat v.心跳;搅拌 [beat]
belabor v.过分冗长地做或说;痛打 [be-la-bor]
castigate v.惩治,严责 [cas-ti-gate]
chastise v.严厉惩罚;谴责 [chas-tise]
decimate v.毁掉大部分;大量杀死 [dec-i-mate]
disbar v.取消律师资格 [dis-bar]
discipline v.训练,训导;n.纪律;惩罚,处分 [dis-ci-pline]
douse v.把…浸入水中;熄灭 [douse]
execute v.执行,履行;将某人处死 [ex-e-cute]
expel v.排出;开除 [ex-pel]
impale v.刺入,刺中 [im-pale]
lambaste v.痛打;痛骂 [lam-baste]
ostracize v.放逐,排斥 [os-tra-cize]
spank v.打,拍打(在屁股上) [spank]
swing v.摇摆;旋转;n.秋千 [swing]
transport v.运输;n.狂喜 [trans-port]
trim v.修剪;a.井井有条的 [trim]

reward 973

compensatory a.补偿性的,报酬的 [com-pen-sa-to-ry]
remunerative a.报酬高的,有利润的 [re-mu-ner-a-tive]
rewarding a.有益的,值得做的 [re-ward-ing]
allowance n.津贴,补助;承认,允许 [al-low-ance]
honorarium n.酬劳金,谢礼 [hon-o-rar-i-um]
indemnity n.赔偿;保证 [in-dem-ni-ty]
perquisite n.固定津贴,利益 [per-qui-site]
premium n.保险费;奖金 [pre-mi-um]
redress n.改正,修正 [re-dress]
reparation n.赔偿,补偿 [rep-a-ra-tion]
retribution n.报应,惩罚 [ret-ri-bu-tion]
reward n.酬报,奖赏;v.酬谢,奖赏 [re-ward]
salvage n./v.(从灾难中)抢救,海上救助 [sal-vage]
sop n.泡过的食品;安慰品 [sop]
tribute n.赞辞;贡物 [trib-ute]
acknowledge v.承认;致谢 [ac-knowl-edge]
bribe v.贿赂 [bribe]
compensate v.补偿,赔偿 [com-pen-sate]
crown v.加冕,使成王,居…之顶 [crown]
indemnify v.赔偿,偿付 [in-dem-ni-fy]
recompense v.报酬,赔偿 [rec-om-pense]
requite v.报答;报复 [re-quite]

penalty 974

penalty n.刑罚,处罚 [pen-al-ty]
penance n.自我惩罚 [pen-ance]
retribution n.报应,惩罚 [ret-ri-bu-tion]
confiscate v.没收;充公 [con-fis-cate]
forfeit v.丧失,被罚没收;n.丧失物 [for-feit]
sequester v.(使)隐退;使隔离 [se-ques-ter]

scourge 975

cross a.生气的 [cross]
cane n.拐杖 [cane]
guillotine n.断头台 [guil-lo-tine]
lash n.鞭子;v.鞭打;捆住 [lash]
pillory n.颈手枷;示众,嘲弄 [pil-lo-ry]
scaffold n.脚手架(造房时搭的架子) [scaf-fold]
scourge n.鞭笞;磨难;v.鞭笞,磨难 [scourge]
stake n.柱桩;赌注 [stake]

Section V. Religious Affections

1. Superhuman Beings and Regions

deity 976

celestial a.天体的,天上的 [ce-les-ti-al]
hallowed a.神圣的 [hal-lowed]
omniscient a.无所不知的,博识的 [om-nis-ci-ent]
sacred a.神圣的,庄严的 [sa-cred]
spiritual a.精神的 [spir-it-u-al]
unearthly a.奇异的 [un-earth-ly]
infinity n.无限的时间或空间 [in-fin-i-ty]
inspiration n.启示,灵感 [in-spi-ra-tion]
sovereignty n.主权,统治权 [sov-er-eign-ty]
theocracy n.神权政治 [the-oc-ra-cy]
divine v.推测,预言 [di-vine]
justify v.证明…是正当的 [jus-ti-fy]
mediate v.调停 [me-di-ate]
ordain v.任命(神职);颁发命令 [or-dain]
propitiate v.讨好;抚慰 [pro-pi-ti-ate]
redeem v.赎罪 [re-deem]
sanctify v.使神圣 [sanc-ti-fy]
uphold v.维护,支持 [up-hold]

angel 977

cherubic a.(尤指孩子)胖乎乎而天真无邪的 [che-ru-bic]
saintly a.圣徒似的,极为圣洁的 [saint-ly]
seraphic a.如天使般的,美丽的 [se-raph-ic]

Jupiter 979

folklore n.民间传说;民俗学 [folk-lore]
sibyl n.女预言家,女先知 [sib-yl]

demon 980

possessed a.着迷的;疯狂的 [pos-sessed]
spectral a.幽灵的 [spec-tral]
uncanny a.神秘的,不可思议的 [un-can-ny]
unearthly a.奇异的 [un-earth-ly]
apparition n.幽灵,神奇的现象 [ap-pa-ri-tion]
dwarf n.侏儒;矮小的植物;v.使变矮小 [dwarf]
imp n.小鬼;顽童 [imp]
incubus n.恶梦;梦魇般的精神压力,负担 [in-cu-bus]
siren n.汽笛,警报器 [si-ren]
specter n.鬼魂,幽灵;恐惧 [spec-ter]

heaven 981

celestial a.天体的,天上的 [ce-les-ti-al]
unearthly a.奇异的 [un-earth-ly]

hell 982

stygian a.阴暗的,阴森森的 [stygian]
inferno n.火海,地狱般的场所 [in-fer-no]
purgatory n.炼狱;受苦受难的地方 [pur-ga-to-ry]

2. Religious Doctrines

theology 983

religion n.宗教,信仰 [re-li-gion]
divine v.推测,预言 [di-vine]

orthodoxy 983.a

catholic a.普遍的;广泛的;(人)宽厚的 [cath-o-lic]
orthodox a.正统的 [or-tho-dox]
divine v.推测,预言 [di-vine]

heterodoxy 984

nonconformist adj./n.不遵照传统生活的(人) [non-con-form-ist]
apocryphal a.假冒的,虚假的 [a-poc-ry-phal]
catholic a.普遍的;广泛的;(人)宽厚的 [cath-o-lic]
ethnic a.种族的 [eth-nic]
heretical a.异端邪说的 [he-ret-i-cal]
heterodox a.异端的,非正统的 [het-er-o-dox]
iconoclastic a.对传统观念(或惯例)进行攻击的 [i-con-o-clas-tic]
secular a.世俗的,尘世的 [sec-u-lar]
visionary a.有远见的;幻想的;n.空想家 [vi-sion-ar-y]
apostasy n.背教,脱党 [a-pos-ta-sy]
apostate n.背教者;变节者 [a-pos-tate]
bigot n.(宗教、政治等的)盲信者;心胸狭窄者 [big-ot]
dissident n.唱反调者 [dis-si-dent]
fanatic n.狂热者 [fa-nat-ic]
heresy n.异端邪说 [her-e-sy]
heretic n.异教徒 [her-e-tic]
iconoclast n.攻击传统观念或风俗的人 [i-con-o-clast]
pagan n.没有宗教信仰的人;异教徒 [pa-gan]
schism n.组织分裂 [schism]
dissent v.不同意,持异议 [dis-sent]

Judeo-christian revelation 985

apocalyptic a.预示世界末日的;启示的 [a-poc-a-lyp-tic]
canonical a.符合规定的;经典的 [ca-non-i-cal]
inspired a.有创见的,有灵感的 [in-spired]
prophetic a.先知的,预言的,预示的 [pro-phet-ic]
sacred a.神圣的,庄严的 [sa-cred]
disciple n.信徒,弟子 [dis-ci-ple]
gospel n.教义,信条 [gos-pel]
inspiration n.启示,灵感 [in-spi-ra-tion]
prophet n.先知,预言家 [proph-et]
revelation n.显示;泄露的事实 [rev-e-la-tion]
scripture n.经文,圣典 [scrip-ture]

3. Religious Sentiments

piety 987

catholic a.普遍的;广泛的;(人)宽厚的 [cath-o-lic]
devoted a.投入的,热爱的 [de-vot-ed]
devout a.虔敬的;忠诚的,忠心的 [de-vout]
humble a.卑微的;v.使谦卑 [hum-ble]
inspired a.有创见的,有灵感的 [in-spired]
pious a.虔诚的,尽责的 [pi-ous]
sacred a.神圣的,庄严的 [sa-cred]
saintly a.圣徒似的,极为圣洁的 [saint-ly]
seraphic a.如天使般的,美丽的 [se-raph-ic]
solemn a.严肃的,庄严的;黑色的 [sol-emn]
spiritual a.精神的 [spir-it-u-al]
unearthly a.奇异的 [un-earth-ly]
devotee n.爱好者 [dev-o-tee]
grace n.优美 [grace]
humility n.谦逊,谦恭 [hu-mil-i-ty]
inspiration n.启示,灵感 [in-spi-ra-tion]
justification n.正当理由,好的(正义的)原因;辨护 [jus-ti-fi-ca-tion]
religion n.宗教,信仰 [re-li-gion]
convert v.使改变(信仰等);n.改变信仰的人 [con-vert]
edify v.陶冶,启发 [ed-i-fy]
revere v.尊敬 [re-vere]
sanctify v.使神圣 [sanc-ti-fy]

impiety 988

hypocritical a.虚伪的 [hyp-o-crit-i-cal]
sacrilegious a.亵渎神圣的 [sac-ri-le-gious]
sanctimonious a.假装神圣的 [sanc-ti-mo-ni-ous]
unctuous a.油质的;油腔滑调的 [unc-tu-ous]
austerity n.朴素,艰苦 [aus-ter-i-ty]
bigot n.(宗教、政治等的)盲信者;心胸狭窄者 [big-ot]
blasphemy n.亵渎,渎神 [blas-phe-my]
cant n.斜坡,斜面;隐语,术语,黑话;v.使倾斜 [cant]
devotee n.爱好者 [dev-o-tee]
fanatic n.狂热者 [fa-nat-ic]
hypocrite n.伪善者,伪君子 [hyp-o-crite]
sacrilege n.亵渎,冒犯神灵 [sac-ri-lege]
desecrate v.玷辱,亵渎 [des-e-crate]
profane v.亵渎,玷污 [pro-fane]
reprobate v.谴责,指责;adj./n.堕落的(人) [rep-ro-bate]
revile v.辱骂,恶言相向 [re-vile]
scoff v.嘲笑;狼吞虎咽;n.嘲笑,笑柄 [scoff]

irreligion 989

agnostic a.不可知论的 [ag-nos-tic]
earthly a.现世的,尘世的 [earth-ly]
mundane a.现世的,世俗的 [mun-dane]
bout n.一回合,一阵 [bout]
incredulity n.怀疑,不相信 [in-cre-du-li-ty]

4. Acts Of Religion

worship 990

devotional a.献身的,崇拜的 [de-vo-tion-al]
devout a.虔敬的;忠诚的,忠心的 [de-vout]
fervid a.炽热的,热情的 [fer-vid]
solemn a.严肃的,庄严的;黑色的 [sol-emn]
anthem n.圣歌;赞美歌,国歌 [an-them]
aspiration n.抱负,热望 [as-pi-ra-tion]
benediction n.祝福;祈祷 [ben-e-dic-tion]
chant n.圣歌;v.歌唱或背诵 [chant]
cult n.宗派;崇拜 [cult]
fast n.绝食,斋戒;adv.很快地,紧紧地 [fast]
grace n.优美 [grace]
homage n.效忠,崇敬 [hom-age]
hymn n.赞美诗 [hymn]
incense n.香,香味;v.激怒 [in-cense]
paean n.赞美歌,颂歌 [pae-an]
petition n.请愿;请愿书 [pe-ti-tion]
response n.反应,响应,回答 [re-sponse]
sacrifice n.牺牲;v.宰牲祭神 [sac-ri-fice]
adore v.崇拜;热爱 [a-dore]
aspire v.向往,有志于 [as-pire]
communicate v.传送信息,沟通 [com-mu-ni-cate]
discipline v.训练,训导;n.纪律;惩罚,处分 [dis-ci-pline]
invoke v.祈求;恳求;(法律的)实施生效 [in-voke]
laud v.称赞 [laud]
magnify v.放大;赞美 [mag-ni-fy]
revere v.尊敬 [re-vere]
supplicate v.恳求,乞求 [sup-pli-cate]
worship v./n.崇拜,敬仰 [wor-ship]

idolatry 991

deify v.奉为神;崇拜 [de-i-fy]

sorcery 992

mystic a.神秘的,不可思议的;n.神秘主义者 [mys-tic]
taboo a.讳忌的;n.禁忌 [ta-boo]
charm n.魅力;咒语,咒符 [charm]
clairvoyance n.超人的洞察力 [clair-voy-ance]
ordeal n.严峻考验,痛苦经验 [or-deal]
sorcery n.巫术,魔法 [sor-cer-y]
conjure v.恳求,祈求;变魔术,变戏法 [con-jure]
enchant v.使迷醉;施魔法于 [en-chant]
entrance v.使出神,使入迷 [en-trance]
exorcise v.驱魔;去除(坏念头等) [ex-or-cise]

spell 993

amulet n.护身符 [am-u-let]
charm n.魅力;咒语,咒符 [charm]
incantation n.咒语 [in-can-ta-tion]
spell n.连续的一段时间 [spell]
talisman n.避邪物,护身符 [tal-is-man]

sorcerer 994

medium n.媒介;(细菌等的)生存环境 [me-di-um]
siren n.汽笛,警报器 [si-ren]

5. Religious Institutions

churchdom 995

canonical a.符合规定的;经典的 [ca-non-i-cal]
pastoral a.田园生活的;宁静的 [pas-to-ral]
pontifical a.自以为是的;武断的 [pon-tif-i-cal]
conclave n.秘密会议 [con-clave]
induction n.就职,入伍仪式;归纳 [in-duc-tion]
institution n.公共机构,协会;制度 [in-sti-tu-tion]
presentation n.表演,介绍,描述 [pres-en-ta-tion]
theocracy n.神权政治 [the-oc-ra-cy]
induct v.使就职;使入伍 [in-duct]
ordain v.任命(神职);颁发命令 [or-dain]
pontificate v.自大武断地做或说 [pon-tif-i-cate]
stall v.使停止,使延迟 [stall]

clergy 996

cardinal a.最重要的;n.红衣主教 [car-di-nal]
mendicant a.行乞的;n.乞丐 [men-di-cant]
metropolitan a.大都市的,首都的 [met-ro-pol-i-tan]
acolyte n.(教士的)助手,侍僧 [ac-o-lyte]
canon n.经典,真作 [ca-non]
choir n.(教堂的)歌唱队 [choir]
eminence n.卓越,杰出 [em-i-nence]
guru n.古鲁(印度的宗教领袖);(受尊敬的)教师或权威 [gu-ru]
incumbent n.在职者,现任者;a.义不容辞的 [in-cum-bent]
novice n.生手,新手 [nov-ice]
pilgrim n.朝圣客,香客 [pil-grim]
primate n.灵长类(动物) [pri-mate]
prophet n.先知,预言家 [proph-et]
vicar n.教区牧师 [vic-ar]
divine v.推测,预言 [di-vine]

laity 997

civil a.国内的;公民的;文明的 [civ-il]
secular a.世俗的,尘世的 [sec-u-lar]
temporal a.时间的;世俗的 [tem-po-ral]
civilian n.平民 [ci-vil-ian]
flock n.羊群;鸟群 [flock]
fold n.羊栏,畜栏;v.折叠 [fold]
laity n.俗信徒,俗人阶级;外行 [la-i-ty]
profane v.亵渎,玷污 [pro-fane]

rite 998

cross a.生气的 [cross]
pastoral a.田园生活的;宁静的 [pas-to-ral]
advent n.到来,来临 [ad-vent]
aspersion n.诽谤,中伤 [as-per-sion]
burial n.埋葬,埋藏 [bur-i-al]
ceremony n.典礼,仪式 [cer-e-mo-ny]
discourse n.演讲,论述 [dis-course]
fast n.绝食,斋戒;adv.很快地,紧紧地 [fast]
incantation n.咒语 [in-can-ta-tion]
incense n.香,香味;v.激怒 [in-cense]
ordinance n.法令,条例 [or-di-nance]
penance n.自我惩罚 [pen-ance]
rite n.(宗教的)仪式 [rite]
ritual n.仪式,例行习惯 [rit-u-al]
sermon n.布道;说教,训诫 [ser-mon]
solemnity n.庄严,肃穆 [so-lem-ni-ty]
communicate v.传送信息,沟通 [com-mu-ni-cate]
confess v.承认,供认 [con-fess]
confirm v.证实,证明 [con-firm]
preach v.传教,讲道 [preach]

canonicals 999

apron n.围裙 [a-pron]
costume n.服装;剧装 [cos-tume]
robe n.长袍,礼服 [robe]
scarf n.围巾,披肩 [scarf]
pall v.令人发腻,失去吸引力 [pall]

temple 1000

cathedral n.总教堂,主教堂 [ca-the-dral]
chapel n.(附属于教堂或监狱等的)小教堂 [chap-el]
choir n.(教堂的)歌唱队 [choir]
cloister n.修道院 [clois-ter]
credence n.相信,信任 [cre-dence]
lectern n.教堂里的读经台 [lec-tern]
mosque n.清真寺(伊斯兰教的寺庙) [mosque]
oratory n.演讲术 [or-a-to-ry]
shrine n.神龛,圣地 [shrine]
stall v.使停止,使延迟 [stall]

abnegate v.否认,放弃 [ab-ne-gate]
abrasive a.磨损的;生硬粗暴的 [a-bra-sive]
abstentious a.节制的 [ab-sten-tious]
abut v.接界,毗连 [a-but]
acclimate v.使服水土; 使适应 [ac-cli-mate]
accrete v.逐渐增长;添加生长;连生 [ac-crete]
acorn n.橡子,橡果 [a-corn]
acrophobia n.恐高症 [ac-ro-pho-bi-a]
addict v./n.沉溺;上瘾(者) [ad-dict]
adulate v.谄媚,奉承 [ad-u-late]
aerate v.充气,让空气进入 [aer-ate]
aesthete n.审美家 [aes-thete]
affiliate v.加入;联合 [af-fil-i-ate]
affordable a.能够支付的 [af-ford-a-ble]
agenda n.议程 [a-gen-da]
airborne a.空气传播的;空运的 [air-borne]
airtight a.密闭的,不透气的 [air-tight]
align v.将某物排列在一条直线上;与某人结盟 [a-lign]
allergic a.过敏的;对…讨厌的 [al-ler-gic]
allergy n.过敏症;厌恶 [al-ler-gy]
allude v.间接提到,暗指 [al-lude]
altruistic a.无私的,为他人着想的 [al-tru-is-tic]
aluminium n.铝 [al-u-min-i-um]
amateurish a.业余爱好的,不熟练的 [am-a-teur-ish]
ambivalence n.矛盾心理 [am-biv-a-lence]
ambivalent a.(对人或物)有矛盾看法的 [am-biv-a-lent]
amortize v.分期偿还 [a-mor-tize]
anachronistic a.年代出错的 [a-nach-ro-nis-tic]
anaerobic a.厌氧的 [an-aer-o-bic]
analgesia n.无痛觉,痛觉丧失 [an-al-ge-si-a]
anemia n.贫血,贫血症 [a-ne-mi-a]
anesthetic n.麻醉剂;a.麻醉的 [an-es-thet-ic]
anonymity n.无名,匿名 [an-o-nym-i-ty]
Antarctic a.南极的 [Ant-arc-tic]
anthropologist n.人类学家 [an-thro-pol-o-gist]
antibody n.抗体(身体中的抗病物质) [an-ti-bod-y]
antihistamine n.(治疗过敏的)抗组胺剂 [an-ti-his-ta-mine]
apocrypha n.伪经,伪书 [a-poc-ry-pha]
apogee n.远地点 [ap-o-gee]
apoplectic a.中风的;愤怒的 [ap-o-plec-tic]
appellation n.名称,称呼 [ap-pel-la-tion]
apropos a./adv.适宜的(地);有关 [ap-ro-pos]
aquifer n.含水土层 [aq-ui-fer]
arboreal a.树木的 [ar-bo-re-al]
arcane a.神秘的,秘密的 [ar-cane]
arresting a.显著的,引人注意的 [ar-rest-ing]
arrhythmic a.无节奏的;不规则的 [arrhyth-mic]
arthritis n.关节炎 [ar-thri-tis]
artifact n.人工制品 [ar-ti-fact]
artifacts n.史前古器物 [artifacts]
artistry n.艺术技巧 [art-ist-ry]
ascribe v.归功于;归咎于 [as-cribe]
aseptic a.洁净的;无菌的 [a-sep-tic]
asparagus [植]芦笋,龙须菜(可作蔬菜) [as-par-a-gus]
aspen n.白杨 [as-pen]
assertive a.过分自信的;有进取心的 [as-ser-tive]
assertiveness n.过分自信 [as-ser-tive-ness]
asteroid n.小行星 [as-ter-oid]
asthma n.哮喘症 [asth-ma]
astronomical a.庞大的 [as-tro-nom-i-cal]
atonal a.(音乐)无调的 [a-ton-al]
attic n.阁楼,顶楼 [at-tic]
authoritarian n.独裁主义者;极权主义者 [au-thor-i-tar-i-an]
backdrop n.(事情的)背景,背景幕布 [back-drop]
ballerina n.芭蕾舞女演员 [bal-le-ri-na]
banal a.陈腐的 [ba-nal]
barrage n.弹幕 [bar-rage]
bathetic a.假作悲伤的;陈腐的 [ba-thet-ic]
bauxite n.铝土岩(产铝的矿土、石) [baux-ite]
bedlam n.混乱,骚乱 [bed-lam]
befuddlement n.迷惑不解 [be-fud-dle-ment]
belligerence n.交战;好战性,斗争性 [bel-lig-er-ence]
besmirch v.诽谤 [be-smirch]
bewildering a.令人迷惑的;费解的 [bewildering]
billowy a.如波浪般翻滚的 [bil-low-y]
blockage n.障碍物 [block-age]
blowhard n.自吹自擂者 [blow-hard]
blueprint n.蓝图;方案 [blue-print]
blurb n.简介;印在书籍封套上的推荐广告 [blurb]
blurt v.脱口而出 [blurt]
boost v.往上推;增加,提高 [boost]
brassy a.厚脸皮的,无礼的 [brass-y]
bromide n.平庸的人或话 [bro-mide]
burgeon v.迅速成长,发展 [bur-geon]
byline n.(列作者名字的)报刊文章首行 [byline]
byproduct n.副产品;副作用 [byproduct]
Byzantine a.像迷宫似的;难变更的 [Byz-an-tine]
calcium n.钙 [cal-ci-um]
canyon n.峡谷 [can-yon]
carafe n.玻璃瓶 [ca-rafe]
carbohydrate n.碳水化合物 [car-bo-hy-drate]
carcinogen n.致癌物 [car-cin-o-gen]
cardiologist n.心脏病专家 [car-di-ol-o-gist]
carp n.鲤鱼;v.吹毛求疵 [carp]
cartographer n.绘制地图者 [car-tog-ra-pher]
catalyst n.催化剂;促使事情发展的因素 [cat-a-lyst]
catharsis n.宣泄,净化 [ca-thar-sis]
cavort v.腾越,欢跃 [ca-vort]
cello n.大提琴 [cel-lo]
centigrade a.百分度的,摄氏温度计的 [cen-ti-grade]
certification n.证明 [cer-ti-fi-ca-tion]
characterization n.描绘,刻画 [char-ac-ter-i-za-tion]
charisma n.(大众爱戴的)领袖气质;魅力 [cha-ris-ma]
chauvinistic a.沙文主义的,过分爱国主义的 [chau-vin-is-tic]
chef n.厨师 [chef]
chord n.和弦,和音 [chord]
choreography n.舞蹈;舞蹈编排 [cho-re-og-ra-phy]
chrysanthemum n.菊,菊花 [chry-san-the-mum]
clannish a.排他的,门户之见的 [clan-nish]
clinical a.临床的;冷静客观的 [clin-i-cal]
clout n.用手猛击;权力,影响力 [clout]
cloying a.甜得发腻的 [cloy-ing]
coagulant n.凝结剂;凝血剂 [co-ag-u-lant]
coarsen v.使某物变粗糙 [coars-en]
coda n.乐曲的尾声 [co-da]
cognizant a.知道的,认识的 [cog-ni-zant]
cohabit v.共栖 [co-hab-it]
collaborate v.合作,协作;通敌 [col-lab-o-rate]
collage n.拼贴画 [col-lage]
colloquium n.学术讨论会 [col-lo-qui-um]
coltish a.似小马的;不受拘束的 [colt-ish]
comedienne n.说笑话、演滑稽剧等的女演员 [co-me-di-enne]
commonsense a.具有常识的 [com-mon-sense]
communal a.全体共用的,共享的 [com-mu-nal]
compete v.竞争,对抗 [com-pete]
comprehensible a.能充分理解的 [com-pre-hen-si-ble]
concatenate v.连结;连锁 [con-cat-e-nate]
conflate v.合并 [con-flate]
conformist n.尊奉者,英国国教徒 [con-form-ist]
congest v.使拥挤;充血 [con-gest]
congruent a.全等的,一致的 [con-gru-ent]
conifer n.针叶树 [co-ni-fer]
connive v.默许;纵容 [con-nive]
connotation n.言外之意,含蓄义 [con-no-ta-tion]
convalesce v.(病)康复,复原 [con-va-lesce]
corrugated a.起皱纹的 [cor-ru-gat-ed]
cosmopolitanism n.世界性,世界主义 [cos-mo-pol-i-tan-ism]
coterminous a.毗连的,有共同边界的 [co-ter-mi-nous]
counterproductive a.事与愿违的 [coun-ter-pro-duc-tive]
crayon >n.彩色腊笔、粉笔或其绘画 [cray-on]
criteria n.评判标准 [cri-te-ri-a]
crochet n.钩针织物;v.用钩针编织 [cro-chet]
cronyism n.任人唯亲;对好朋友的偏袒 [cro-ny-ism]
cryogenic a.低温的,制冷的;低温学的 [cry-o-gen-ic]
cytology n.[生]细胞学 [cy-tol-o-gy]
damped a.减震的,压低(声音)的 [damped]
dampen v.(使)潮湿;使沮丧,泼凉水 [damp-en]
deadpan a./n.无表情的(脸) [dead-pan]
debrief v.向…询问情况,听取汇报 [de-brief]
debunk v.揭穿真相,暴露 [de-bunk]
decibel n.分贝(音量的单位) [dec-i-bel]
decode v.译解(密码) [de-code]
deductive a.推理的,演绎的 [de-duc-tive]
defeatist n.失败主义者 [de-feat-ist]
deflated a.灰心丧气的 [de-flat-ed]
defoliator n.落叶剂 [de-fo-li-a-tor]
deforestation n.采伐森林 [de-for-est-a-tion]
defuse v.从(爆破装置)中卸除引信;缓和紧张状态或危急局面 [de-fuse]
dejected a.沮丧的,失望的 [de-ject-ed]
delimit v.定界,划界 [de-lim-it]
demean v.贬抑,降低 [de-mean]
demography n.人口统计,人口学 [de-mog-ra-phy]
demote v.降级,降职 [de-mote]
demotic a.民众的,通俗的 [de-mot-ic]
demystify v.弄清楚 [de-mys-ti-fy]
denim n.粗斜纹棉布 [den-im]
denture n.假牙 [den-ture]
deplete v.倒空;耗尽 [de-plete]
deracinate v.根除,杜绝 [de-rac-in-ate]
despondent a.失望的,意气消沉的 [de-spond-ent]
determinant n.决定因素;a.决定性的 [de-ter-mi-nant]
deviant a.越出常规的 [de-vi-ant]
diabetes n.糖尿病 [di-a-be-tes]
diagnose v.判断,诊断 [di-ag-nose]
diagonal a.对角的;n.对角线 [di-ag-o-nal]
diehard n.顽固分子 [die-hard]
differentiate v.辨别,区别 [dif-fer-en-ti-ate]
disaffect v.使不满;使不忠 [dis-af-fect]
discography n.唱片分类目录;录音音乐研究 [dis-cog-ra-phy]
discombobulated a.扰乱的,打乱的 [dis-com-bob-u-lat-ed]
discomfited a.困惑的,尴尬的 [discomfited]
discriminatory a.歧视的,差别待遇的 [dis-crim-i-na-to-ry]
disgruntle v.使不满意 [dis-grun-tle]
disposable a.一次性使用的;可动用的 [dis-pos-a-ble]
disrupt v.弄乱,扰乱 [dis-rupt]
disruptive a.制造混乱的 [dis-rup-tive]
diva n.歌剧中的首席女主角 [di-va]
divestiture n.脱衣,卸下装饰;剥夺财产;取消称号 [di-vest-i-ture]
donate v.捐赠,赠送 [do-nate]
dormancy n.休眠状态 [dor-man-cy]
dossier n.卷宗,档案 [dos-si-er]
downplay v.贬低,不予重视 [downplay]
down-to-earth n.脚踏实地的,实际的 [down-to-earth]
draconian a.严厉的,严酷的 [draconian]
draftsmanship n.起草术,制图术 [drafts-man-ship]
drizzly a.毛毛细雨的 [driz-zly]
duckling n.雏鸭,小鸭 [duck-ling]
duplicitous a.搞两面派的,奸诈的 [duplicitous]
dynamo n.发电机 [dy-na-mo]
dysfunctional a.功能失调的 [dysfunctional]
dyslexia n.阅读障碍 [dys-lex-i-a]
earplug n.耳塞 [ear-plug]
earsplitting a.震耳欲聋的 [ear-split-ting]
eavesdrop v.偷听,窃听 [eaves-drop]
ebullience n.兴冲冲,亢奋 [e-bul-lience]
ecologist n.生态学家,生态学者 [e-col-o-gist]
effluvia n.气味,恶臭;废料 [ef-flu-vi-a]
egalitarian a.主张人人平等的 [e-gal-i-tar-i-an]
egocentric a.利己的 [e-go-cen-tric]
elm n.榆树 [elm]
emaciate v.使…瘦弱;消瘦 [e-ma-ci-ate]
emend v.订正,校订 [e-mend]
emote v.激动地表达感情 [e-mote]
empyreal a.天空的 [em-pyr-e-al]
emulsify v.使乳化 [e-mul-si-fy]
encapsulate v.装入胶囊;压缩 [en-cap-su-late]
enclosure n.圈地,围占 [en-clo-sure]
endearing a.讨人喜欢的 [endearing]
enfetter v.给…上脚镣;束缚,使受制于 [en-fet-ter]
enflame v.使愤怒或激动 [en-flame]
enlightening a.有启迪作用的;使人领悟的 [enlightening]
enthralling a.迷人的,吸引人的 [en-thral-ling]
entrée n.正餐前的开胃菜;获准进入的权利 [en-trée]
enzyme n.酵素,酶 [en-zyme]
erstwhile a.从前的,过去的 [erst-while]
escalation n.逐步上升,逐步增强 [es-ca-la-tion]
escapism n.逃避现实(的习气) [es-cap-ism]
esophagus n.食道,食管 [e-soph-a-gus]
espousal n.拥护,支持 [es-pous-al]
ethos n.(个人、团体或民族)道德风貌,思潮,信仰 [e-thos]
eucalyptus n.桉树 [eu-ca-lyp-tus]
evaluation n.评价,评估 [e-val-u-a-tion]
evocative a.唤起的,激起的 [e-voc-a-tive]
existential a.有关存在的,存在主义的 [ex-is-ten-tial]
explicate v.详细解说 [ex-pli-cate]
exponentially adv.指数地;迅速增长地 [ex-po-nen-tial-ly]
expressly adv.清楚地;特意地 [ex-press-ly]
externalize v.使…表面化 [ex-ter-nal-ize]
extremist n.极端主义者 [ex-trem-ist]
extrovert n.性格外向者 [ex-tro-vert]
facilities n.(使事情便利的)设备、工具 [facilities]
factorable a.能分解成因子的 [fac-tor-a-ble]
factual a.真实的,事实的 [fac-tu-al]
far-reaching a.影响深远的 [far-reach-ing]
faucet n.水龙头 [fau-cet]
faultfinder n.喜欢挑剔的人 [fault-find-er]
feckless a.无目标无计划的 [feck-less]
feedback n.(信息的)反馈 [feed-back]
feral a.凶猛的,野的 [fe-ral]
ferret n.雪貂;v.用雪貂猎取;搜寻 [fer-ret]
ferrous a.含铁的 [fer-rous]
fertilizer n.肥料,化肥 [fer-ti-liz-er]
fetus n.胎儿 [fe-tus]
firearm n.(便携式)枪支 [fire-arm]
fixate v.使固定,使不变;注视,凝视 [fix-ate]
flaggy a.枯萎的;松软无力的 [flag-gy]
flak n.高射炮;指责 [flak]
flamboyant a.艳丽的,炫耀的 [flam-boy-ant]
flammable a.易燃的 [flam-ma-ble]
flatcar n.平台型铁路货车 [flat-car]
flaunty a.炫耀的,张扬的 [flaunt-y]
flax n.亚麻 [flax]
fledgling n.正在学习飞行的幼鸟;无经验的人 [fledg-ling]
folder n.文件夹,纸夹 [fold-er]
foodstuff n.食料,食品 [food-stuff]
foolproof a.容易懂的,简易而不会误用的 [fool-proof]
forager n.强征(粮食)者,抢劫者;粮草征发员;成散开横队的骑兵 [for-ag-er]
forestry n.森林学;林产;林地 [for-est-ry]
forgo v.放弃,抛弃 [for-go]
forthright a.直率的 [forth-right]
four-poster n.有四柱的床 [four-post-er]
foyer n.门厅,休息室 [foy-er]
freelancer n.自由职业者 [free-lanc-er]
frond n.羊齿、棕榈等的叶子 [frond]
fulfil v.履行;满足,符合 [ful-fil]
full-bodied a.(味道等)浓郁而强烈的 [full-bod-ied]
full-fledged a.羽毛丰满的;成熟的 [full-fledged]
fungi n.菌类,蘑菇 [fun-gi]
fungicide n.杀真菌剂 [fun-gi-cide]
gadfly n.虻,牛虻;讨厌的人 [gad-fly]
gadget n.小工具,小机械 [gadg-et]
gaffe n.(社交上令人不快的)失言,失态 [gaffe]
gallon n.加仑 [gal-lon]
gardenia n.栀子花 [gar-de-ni-a]
gargantuan a.巨大的,庞大的 [gar-gan-tu-an]
gene n.基因 [gene]
genome n.基因组,染色体组 [ge-nome]
geometrician n.几何学家 [ge-om-e-tri-cian]
germicide n.杀菌剂 [ger-mi-cide]
gerontocracy n.老人统治的政府 [ger-on-toc-ra-cy]
gerontology n.老人病学 [ger-on-tol-o-gy]
gimmick n.吸引人的花招,噱头 [gim-mick]
glitch n.小故障 [glitch]
graduated a.按等级(高度,困难等)分的 [grad-u-a-ted]
grandstand n.大看台;v.哗众取宠 [grand-stand]
graphite n.石墨 [graph-ite]
gravitational a.万有引力的 [grav-i-ta-tion-al]
gregariousness n.群居;合群 [gre-gar-i-ous-ness]
gripping a.紧紧抓住注意力的 [grip-ping]
grueling a.繁重而累人的 [gru-el-ing]
gusher n.滔滔不绝的说话者;喷油井 [gush-er]
halfhearted a.不认真的,不热心的 [half-heart-ed]
hallmark n.(在金银上的)纯度印记;特征 [hall-mark]
hangdog a.忧愁的;低贱的 [hang-dog]
harshly adv.严酷地,无情地 [harsh-ly]
hearken v.倾听 [heark-en]
hearten v.鼓励,激励 [heart-en]
heartrending a.令人心碎的 [heart-rend-ing]
heavy-handedness n.笨拙,粗劣 [heav-y-hand-ed-ness]
hector v.凌辱,威吓 [hec-tor]
hegemony n.霸权,领导权 [he-gem-o-ny]
hemophilia n.血友病,出血不止 [he-mo-phil-i-a]
hemostat n.止血器;止血剂 [he-mo-stat]
herbicide n.除草剂 [herb-i-cide]
hermetic a.密封的;深奥的 [her-met-ic]
herpetologist n.爬行动物学家 [her-pe-tol-o-gist]
hierarchy n.阶层;等级制度 [hi-er-ar-chy]
hieroglyph n.象形文字,图画文字 [hi-er-o-glyph]
highbrow n.自以为文化修养很高的人 [high-brow]
hike v.高涨,上升;n.徒步旅行 [hike]
holster n.手枪皮套 [hol-ster]
homeostasis n.体内平衡 [ho-me-o-sta-sis]
homiletics n.讲道术,说教术 [hom-i-let-ics]
hormone n.荷尔蒙,激素 [hor-mone]
hubris n.过分自傲,目中无人 [hu-bris]
hydrate n.水化物;v.水化 [hy-drate]
hyperactivity n.活动过强,极度亢奋 [hy-per-ac-tiv-i-ty]
hypertension n.高血压 [hy-per-ten-sion]
hypotenuse n.(直角三角形的)斜边 [hy-pot-e-nuse]
idolater n.神像(偶像)崇拜者 [i-dol-a-ter]
idyll n.田园生活;田园诗 [i-dyll]
immunize v.使免疫 [im-mu-nize]
impasse n.僵局;死路 [im-passe]
implausible a.难以置信的 [im-plau-si-ble]
implode v.内爆;剧减 [im-plode]
impostor n.冒充者,骗子 [im-pos-tor]
imprecise a.不精确的,不严密的 [im-pre-cise]
impressed a.被打动的;被感动的 [impressed]
incogitant a.无思想的,考虑不周的 [in-cog-i-tant]
incorrigibility n.无可救药 [in-cor-ri-gi-bil-i-ty]
incubate v.孵化 [in-cu-bate]
incubator n.孵卵器;早产婴儿保育箱 [in-cu-ba-tor]
indices n.指数 [in-di-ces]
inequity n.不公正,不公平 [in-eq-ui-ty]
inflamed a.发炎的 [in-flamed]
ingénue n.天真无邪的少女 [in-gé-nue]
ingratiate v.逢迎,讨好 [in-gra-ti-ate]
inhibitor n.抑制剂 [in-hib-i-tor]
inhumane a.不近人情的 [in-hu-mane]
innovative a.革新的 [in-no-va-tive]
insecticide n.杀虫剂 [in-sec-ti-cide]
insentient a.无知觉的,无生命的 [in-sen-ti-ent]
insider n.局内人,圈内人 [in-sid-er]
inspection n.检查,细看 [in-spec-tion]
instate v.任命,安置 [in-state]
institutionalized a.制度化的,有组织的 [in-sti-tu-tion-al-ized]
insulin n.胰岛素 [in-su-lin]
intangibility n.无形,不可接触 [in-tan-gi-bil-i-ty]
interlock v.连锁,连串 [in-ter-lock]
interlocking a.连锁的 [interlocking]
interplay v./n.相互影响 [in-ter-play]
intransigent a.不妥协的 [in-tran-si-gent]
inveigh v.痛骂,抨击 [in-veigh]
invertebrate adj./n.无脊椎的(动物) [in-ver-te-brate]
iodine n.碘;碘酒 [i-o-dine]
irradicable a.不能根除的 [irradicable]
isotope n.同位素 [i-so-tope]
jaded a.疲惫的;厌倦的;(胶卷)暴光过分的 [jad-ed]
jazz n.爵士乐;喧闹 [jazz]
jigsaw n.拼图游戏 [jig-saw]
jingoism n.沙文主义;侵略主义 [jin-go-ism]
judiciousness n.明智 [ju-di-cious-ness]
juggernaut n.摧毁一切的强大力量 [jug-ger-naut]
ken n.视野范围;知识范围 [ken]
kinetic a.运动的 [ki-net-ic]
know-how n.专业技能,知识 [know-how]
labile a.不稳定的 [la-bile]
lactic a.乳汁的 [lac-tic]
landfill n.垃圾堆 [landfill]
largesse n.慷慨援助;施舍 [lar-gesse]
leisureliness n.悠然,从容 [lei-sure-li-ness]
levelheaded a.头脑冷静的,稳健的 [levelheaded]
liken v.把…比作… [lik-en]
limerick n.五行打油诗 [lim-er-ick]
limestone n.石灰岩 [lime-stone]
limn v.描写;画 [limn]
lissome a.姿态优雅的,柔软的 [lis-some]
literate a.有读写能力的;有文化修养的 [lit-er-ate]
locus n.地点,所在地 [lo-cus]
lope n.轻快的步伐;v.使大步慢跑;跳跃 [lope]
lubricant n.润滑剂 [lu-bri-cant]
lumberjack n.伐木工 [lum-ber-jack]
lumen n.流明(光通量单位) [lu-men]
macabre a.骇人的,可怖的 [ma-ca-bre]
maculated a.有斑点的 [mac-u-lat-ed]
maelstrom n.大漩涡;大混乱 [mael-strom]
maize n.玉米 [maize]
malfunction v.发生故障;n.故障,障碍 [mal-func-tion]
mandatory a.命令的,强迫的 [man-da-to-ry]
manipulative a.操纵别人的,老于世故的 [ma-nip-u-la-tive]
maple n.枫树(枫树是加拿大的国树) [ma-ple]
margarine n.人造黄油 [mar-ga-rine]
marred a.受伤的;毁坏变形的 [marred]
mast n.船桅,旗杆 [mast]
maven n.专家,内行 [ma-ven]
maverick n.想法与众不同的人 [mav-er-ick]
maximize v.使增至最大限度 [max-i-mize]
measly a.患麻疹的;小得可怜的 [mea-sly]
mechanics n.力学 [me-chan-ics]
meld v.(使)混合,(使)合并 [meld]
melon n.甜瓜 [mel-on]
menthol n.薄荷醇 [men-thol]
microorganism n.微生物,细菌 [mi-cro-or-gan-ism]
minutes n.会议记录 [min-utes]
minutia n.细枝末节,细节 [mi-nu-ti-a]
misperceive v.误解 [mis-per-ceive]
monochromatic a.单色的 [mon-o-chro-mat-ic]
monolithic a.巨石的,巨大的 [mon-o-lith-ic]
montage n.蒙太奇;拼集画 [mon-tage]
morale n.士气,精神力量 [mo-rale]
moralistic a.道学气的 [mor-al-is-tic]
mores n.风俗习惯,道德观念 [mo-res]
motif n.(作品)主题,主旨 [mo-tif]
motility n.运动性 [mo-til-i-ty]
mural a.墙壁的;n.壁画 [mu-ral]
muse v.沉思,冥想 [muse]
musicologist n.音乐学者 [mu-si-col-o-gist]
mutate v.变异 [mu-tate]
muted a.(声音)减弱的,变得轻柔的 [mut-ed]
narcissism n.自恋,自爱 [nar-cis-sism]
narcissist n.自负的人,自恋者 [nar-cis-sist]
naysay v.拒绝,说不 [naysay]
needlework n.缝纫,刺绣 [nee-dle-work]
negate v.取消;否认 [ne-gate]
neolithic a.新石器时代的 [neolithic]
neutron n.中子 [neu-tron]
nexus n.(看法等的)联系,连结 [nex-us]
noncommittal a.态度暖味的;不承担义务的 [non-com-mit-tal]
nonradioactive a.非放射性的 [non-ra-di-o-ac-tive]
nonthreatening a.不威胁的 [non-threat-en-ing]
nonviable a.无法生存的 [non-vi-a-ble]
nova n.新星 [no-va]
nucleate v.使成核 [nu-cle-ate]
nutrient n.滋养物质 [nu-tri-ent]
oafishness n.痴呆 [oafishness]
obsess v.迷住;使…困窘,使…烦扰 [ob-sess]
obsessed a.心神不宁的 [obsessed]
obsession n.入迷;固执的念头 [ob-ses-sion]
obsolescent a.即将过时的 [ob-so-les-cent]
odyssey n.长途的冒险旅行 [odyssey]
offbeat a.不规则的,不平常的 [off-beat]
offence(offense) n.得罪;错事 [offence(offense)]
offish a.冷淡的 [of-fish]
off-key a.走调的,不和谐的 [off-key]
optimum a.最好的,最有利的 [op-ti-mum]
ornithologist n.鸟类学家,鸟类学者 [or-ni-thol-o-gist]
orthodontics n.畸齿矫正学 [or-tho-don-tics]
osmosis n.渗透;潜移默化 [os-mo-sis]
other-directed a.受人支配的 [oth-er-di-rect-ed]
otter n.水獭 [ot-ter]
outmoded a.不再流行的 [out-mod-ed]
overexposure n.过分暴露,(照相)暴光过度 [o-ver-ex-po-sure]
overriding a.最主要的,优先的 [o-ver-rid-ing]
oversee v.监督 [o-ver-see]
oxidize v.氧化,生锈 [ox-i-dize]
pacifist n.和平主义者,反战主义者 [pac-i-fist]
packed a.充满人的,拥挤的 [packed]
painkiller n.止痛药 [pain-kil-ler]
pancreas n.胰腺 [pan-cre-as]
pandemonium n.喧嚣,大混乱 [pan-de-mo-ni-um]
parameter n.参量,变量 [pa-ram-e-ter]
paranoid a.偏执狂的,过分怀疑的 [par-a-noid]
pariah n.贱民,被社会遗弃者 [pa-ri-ah]
parka n.派克大衣(毛皮风雪大衣) [par-ka]
pastiche n.混合拼凑的作品 [pas-tiche]
pathogen n.病原体 [path-o-gen]
pathological a.病态的;病理的 [path-o-log-i-cal]
patina n.绿锈;光亮的外表 [pat-i-na]
paunchy a.大肚子的 [paunch-y]
pecan n.山核桃 [pe-can]
pedagogy n.教育学,教学法 [ped-a-go-gy]
peeve v.使气恼,怨恨 [peeve]
pejorative a.带有轻蔑意义的,贬低的 [pe-jo-ra-tive]
pell-mell adv.混乱地 [pell-mell]
penalize v.置(某人)于不利地位;处罚 [pe-nal-ize]
penicillin n.盘尼西林,青霉素 [pen-i-cil-lin]
percussionist n.敲击乐器的乐师 [per-cus-sion-ist]
perfervid a.非常热心的 [per-fer-vid]
perfunctorily adv.敷衍地,潦草地,表面地 [per-func-to-ri-ly]
peripheral a.不重要的,外围的 [pe-riph-er-al]
perjure v.作伪证,发假誓 [per-jure]
perky a.神气的;活泼的 [perk-y]
pertain v.属于;关于 [per-tain]
pesticide n.杀虫剂 [pes-ti-cide]
pestle n.杵,乳钵槌 [pes-tle]
petal n.花瓣 [pet-al]
petroglyph n.岩石雕刻 [pet-ro-glyph]
petrology n.岩石学 [pe-trol-o-gy]
phenomena n.(复数)现象;科学研究的现象 [phe-nom-e-na]
phenomenal a.显著的,非凡的 [phe-nom-e-nal]
philatelist n.集邮家 [phi-lat-e-list]
philately n.集邮 [phi-lat-e-ly]
philistine n.庸人,市侩 [philistine]
photosynthesis n.光合作用 [pho-to-syn-the-sis]
physiological a.生理的;生理学上的 [phys-i-o-log-i-cal]
pinpoint v.精确地找出或描述;a.非常精确的 [pin-point]
plangent a.轰鸣的;悲哀的 [plan-gent]
plankton n.浮游生物 [plank-ton]
plaque n.匾;血小板 [plaque]
platonic a.理论的;纯精神上的,没有感官欲望的 [platonic]
ploy n.花招,策略 [ploy]
plumber n.管子工,铅管工 [plumb-er]
plutocracy n.财阀统治 [plu-toc-ra-cy]
podium n.讲坛,指挥台 [po-di-um]
polarize v.使…两极分化 [po-lar-ize]
pollen n.花粉 [pol-len]
pollinate v.给…授粉 [pol-li-nate]
pollster n.民意测验家 [poll-ster]
populace n.民众,老百姓 [pop-u-lace]
poseur n.装模作样的人 [po-seur]
posit v.断定,认为 [pos-it]
potentiate v.加强(力量,效果) [po-ten-ti-ate]
pragmatic a.实际的,实用主义的 [prag-mat-ic]
précis n.摘要,大纲 [pré-cis]
predator n.食肉动物 [pred-a-tor]
preempt v.以先买权取得);取代 [pre-empt]
preen v.整理羽毛;(人)打扮修饰 [preen]
preliterate a.文字出现以前的 [pre-lit-er-ate]
premiere n./v.首次公演 [pre-miere]
preposition n.介词,前置词 [prep-o-si-tion]
presenter n.主持人 [presenter]
preview v./n.预演,预展 [pre-view]
primp v.(妇女)刻意打扮 [primp]
profiteer n.奸商,牟取暴利者 [prof-i-teer]
proliferate v.繁殖;激增 [pro-lif-er-ate]
proselytize v.使…皈依 [pros-e-lyt-ize]
provenance n.(艺术等的)出处,起源 [prov-e-nance]
publicize v.宣传,引人注意 [pub-li-cize]
purlieu n.(常作复数)邻近地区 [pur-lieu]
purported a.谣传的,声张的,号称的 [purported]
pusillanimous a.胆小的 [pu-sil-lan-i-mous]
pylon n.高压电线架;桥塔 [py-lon]
qualms n.疑虑(尤指有关良心问题的) [qualms]
quixotic a.不切实际的,空想的 [quix-ot-ic]
ragtime n.拉格泰姆音乐;a.使人发笑的,滑稽的 [rag-time]
raisin n.葡萄干 [rai-sin]
ram n.公羊;撞锤,猛击;填塞 [ram]
rambunctious a.骚乱的;(兴奋)控制不了的 [ram-bunc-tious]
rapport n.和睦,意见一致 [rap-port]
raspy a.(声音)刺耳的;恼人的 [rasp-y]
ratiocination n.推理;推论 [ra-ti-oc-i-na-tion]
reactant n.反应物 [re-ac-tant]
realign v.重新组合(排列) [re-a-lign]
reaper n.收割者 [reap-er]
rebellious a.反抗的,难控制的 [re-bel-lious]
rebuttal n.反驳,反证 [re-but-tal]
receptive a.善于接受的;从善如流的 [re-cep-tive]
recessive a.隐性遗传的;后退的 [re-ces-sive]
recuperate v.恢复(健康),复原 [re-cu-per-ate]
redemptive a.赎回的,救赎的,救世的 [redemptive]
redirect v.改寄(信件);改变方向 [re-di-rect]
redistribution n.重新分配 [re-dis-tri-bu-tion]
relenting a.减弱的,怜悯的 [relenting]
relevance n.相关 [rel-e-vance]
relieved a.宽慰的,如释重负的 [re-lieved]
reminisce v.追忆,怀旧 [rem-i-nisce]
renege v.背信,违约 [re-nege]
reparable a.能补救的,可挽回的 [rep-a-ra-ble]
repatriate v.(自异国)遣返 [re-pa-tri-ate]
reportorial a.记者的;记实的 [re-por-to-ri-al]
reptilian a.爬虫类的;卑下的 [rep-til-i-an]
resourceful a.机智的 [re-source-ful]
responsiveness n.应答,响应 [re-spon-sive-ness]
restiveness n.倔强;难以驾御 [res-tive-ness]
resurgence n.再起,复活,再现 [re-sur-gence]
resurrect v.使复活;复兴 [res-ur-rect]
revealing a.暴露的,裸露的;揭露性的 [revealing]
revitalize v.使重新充满活力 [re-vi-tal-ize]
revue n.时事讽刺剧 [re-vue]
rhinestone n.水晶石,莱茵石 [rhine-stone]
rhythmic a.有节奏的 [rhyth-mic]
riven a.撕裂的,分裂的 [riv-en]
rookie n.新兵,新手 [rook-ie]
ruminant a.(动物)反刍的;沉思的 [ru-mi-nant]
runic a.北欧古代文字的;神秘的 [ru-nic]
saboteur n.从事破坏活动者 [sab-o-teur]
salmon n.大麻哈鱼;鲜肉色 [salm-on]
sampler n.刺绣花样;取样员 [sam-pler]
scad n.许多,大量 [scad]
scalding a.滚烫的 [scalding]
scathing a.苛刻的,严厉的 [scath-ing]
scenario n.剧情说明书;剧本 [sce-nar-i-o]
schematize v.扼要表示 [sche-ma-tize]
scissor n.剪刀 [scis-sor]
scrappy a.碎片的;好斗的;坚毅的 [scrap-py]
scrutable a.可以理解的 [scru-ta-ble]
scuff v.拖着脚走 [scuff]
sculpt v.雕刻 [sculpt]
scurry v.急跑,疾行 [scur-ry]
seamy a.肮脏的,恶劣的 [seam-y]
seep v.(液体等)渗漏 [seep]
seine n.拉网,大捕鱼网 [seine]
seismic a.地震的 [seis-mic]
sensitivity n.敏感,灵敏性 [sen-si-tiv-i-ty]
sensitization n.敏化 [sen-si-ti-za-tion]
sequential a.连续的,一连串的 [se-quen-tial]
sere a.干枯的,凋萎的 [sere]
serrate a.锯齿状的 [ser-rate]
setback n.挫折 [setback]
shale n.页岩(一种由似泥土细粒的沉淀物层组成的易分裂的岩石) [shale]
shard n.(陶器等)碎片 [shard]
shavings n.刨花 [shavings]
shiftiness n.奸诈 [shift-i-ness]
shoplift v.在商店里偷窃货品 [shoplift]
shopworn a.在商店中陈列旧了的 [shop-worn]
shuck n.(植物的)壳,夹;无用之物 [shuck]
sideshow n.杂耍,穿插表演 [side-show]
silversmith n.银匠 [sil-ver-smith]
skew a.不直的,歪斜的 [skew]
skimp v.节省花费 [skimp]
slew v.(使)旋转;n.大量 [slew]
slippage n.滑动,下降 [slip-page]
slither v.(蛇)滑动,扭动前进 [slith-er]
slurp v.大声地啜喝 [slurp]
smarmy a.虚情假意的 [smarm-y]
sopping a.浑身湿透的 [sop-ping]
spackle n.填泥料(用以填塞裂缝和洞穴) [spack-le]
spartan a.简朴的;刻苦的 [spartan]
spate n.大批,大量;(水)泛滥 [spate]
spatial a.有关空间的,在空间的 [spa-tial]
specialized a.专门的 [spe-cial-ized]
specifics n.细小问题,细节 [specifics]
spindly a.细长的,纤弱的 [spin-dly]
spineless a.没骨气的,懦弱的 [spine-less]
sprawling a.植物蔓生的,(城市)无计划地扩展的 [sprawling]
stance n.站姿;立场 [stance]
starchy a.含淀粉的;刻板的 [starch-y]
stasis n.停滞 [sta-sis]
stodgy a.乏味的 [stodg-y]
stoic n.坚忍克己之人 [sto-ic]
stoke v.给…添加燃料 [stoke]
stonewall v.拖延议事,设置障碍 [stone-wall]
stratify v.(使)层化 [strat-i-fy]
striate v.在…加上条纹 [stri-ate]
strident a.尖声的,刺耳的 [stri-dent]
stunning a.极富魅力的 [stun-ning]
stymie v.妨碍,阻挠 [sty-mie]
subsume v.包含,包容 [sub-sume]
suitcase n.手提箱,箱子 [suit-case]
superficiality n.浅薄 [superficiality]
supernova n.超新星 [su-per-no-va]
surrealism n.超现实主义 [sur-re-al-ism]
svelte a.(女人)体态苗条的 [svelte]
swirl v.旋转;n.漩 [swirl]
sybarite n.奢侈逸乐的人 [syb-a-rite]
sybaritic a.放纵的 [sybaritic]
symbiosis n.共生(关系) [sym-bi-o-sis]
syndrome n.综合症状 [syn-drome]
synergic a.协同作用的 [synergic]
tackiness n.胶粘性 [tack-i-ness]
tactic n.(达到目的的)手段;战术 [tac-tic]
talon n.猛禽的锐爪 [tal-on]
tamp v.捣实,砸实 [tamp]
tamper v.损害,窜改 [tam-per]
tangy a.强烈的,扑鼻的 [tang-y]
tantrum n.发脾气,发怒 [tan-trum]
tare n.莠草,杂草 [tare]
tatty a.简陋的,不整洁的 [tat-ty]
tauten v.拉紧,绷紧 [taut-en]
taxing a.繁重的 [taxing]
taxonomist n.分类学家 [tax-on-o-mist]
technocrat n.技术管理人员 [tech-no-crat]
teeter v.摇摆,踌躇 [tee-ter]
temp v.做临时工作 [temp]
tempo n.(动作、生活的)步调,速度 [tem-po]
tendentious a.有偏见的 [ten-den-tious]
terminology n.术语,术语学 [ter-mi-nol-o-gy]
terrain n.地势,地形 [ter-rain]
testator n.立遗嘱的人 [tes-ta-tor]
testiness n.易怒 [testiness]
thematic a.主题的 [the-mat-ic]
throwback n.返祖现象,复旧 [throw-back]
tickler n.棘手的问题,难题 [tick-ler]
tightfisted a.吝啬的 [tight-fist-ed]
tined a.尖端的 [tined]
tombstone n.墓碑,墓石 [tomb-stone]
tonsorial a.理发师的,理发的 [ton-so-ri-al]
torrential a.奔流的,洪流的 [tor-ren-tial]
totalitarian a.极权主义的 [to-tal-i-tar-i-an]
traceable a.可追踪的 [trace-a-ble]
tractability n.温顺 [tractability]
trample v.踩坏,践踏 [tram-ple]
trapeze n.空中秋千 [tra-peze]
trilogy n.三部曲 [tril-o-gy]
truancy n.逃学,旷课 [tru-an-cy]
tuber n.块茎,球根 [tu-ber]
turncoat n.背叛者,变节者 [turn-coat]
tuxedo n.礼服,无尾礼服 [tux-e-do]
typo n.排印错误 [ty-po]
uncommitted a.不受约束的,不承担责任的 [un-com-mit-ted]
underbid v.要价过低 [un-der-bid]
undercut v.削价与(竞争者)抢生意 [un-der-cut]
underdog n.受欺负者,弱者 [un-der-dog]
underestimated a.低估的 [underestimated]
undergird v.加强 [un-der-gird]
underhanded a.不光明的,卑鄙的 [un-der-hand-ed]
underlying a.在下面的,根本的 [un-der-ly-ing]
underplay v.淡化…的重要性;表演(角色)不充分 [un-der-play]
understate v.掩饰地说,轻描淡写地说 [un-der-state]
understated a.不完全陈述的,轻描淡写的 [un-der-stat-ed]
understatement n.轻描淡写的陈述,不充分的陈述 [un-der-state-ment]
understudy n.预备演员,替角;v.充当…的替角 [un-der-stud-y]
underutilized a.未充分利用的 [underutilized]
unfasten v.解开 [un-fas-ten]
unflappable a.不惊慌的,镇定的 [un-flap-pa-ble]
unidimensional a.一方面的;一维的 [unidimensional]
unify v.统一,使成一体;使相同 [u-ni-fy]
univocal a.意思明确的 [u-ni-vo-cal]
unjustly adv.不义地,不法地 [un-just-ly]
unprovoked a.(生气等)无缘无故的 [un-pro-voked]
unscented a.无气味的<e无气味的>(without scent) [un-scent-ed]
unscrupulousness n.狂妄,肆无忌惮 [un-scru-pu-lous-ness]
unsettling a.令人不安的,扰乱的,使窘困的 [unsettling]
unspoiled a.未损坏的,未宠坏的 [un-spoiled]
unsubstantiated a.未经证实的,无事实根据的 [un-sub-stan-ti-at-ed]
untapped a.未开发的,未利用的 [un-tapped]
upgrade v.提升,给…升级 [up-grade]
upstage a.骄傲的,高傲的 [up-stage]
upswing n.上升,增长 [up-swing]
utopia n.理想国,理想的完美境界 [utopia]
vaccinate v.给…接种疫苗 [vac-ci-nate]
validate v.使…生效 [val-i-date]
vandalism n.(对公物等)恶意破坏 [van-dal-ism]
vandalize v.肆意破坏 [van-dal-ize]
vantage n.优势,有利地位 [van-tage]
vaunting a.吹嘘的 [vaunt-ing]
verisimilar a.好像真实的;可能的 [ver-i-sim-i-lar]
veterinary a.兽医的 [vet-er-i-nar-y]
vibrancy n.生机勃勃,活泼 [vi-bran-cy]
vicissitudinous a.有变化的,变迁的 [vicissitudinous]
viral a.病毒性的 [vi-ral]
virtuosity n.精湛技巧,高超 [vir-tu-os-i-ty]
vitriolic a.刻薄的,强烈的 [vit-ri-ol-ic]
vying a.竞争的 [vy-ing]
wage v.开始,进行(战争,运动) [wage]
walrus n.海象 [wal-rus]
warmonger n.好战者,战争贩子 [war-mong-er]
watershed n.分水岭,转折点 [wa-ter-shed]
weasel n.黄鼠狼,鼬;v.逃避 [wea-sel]
willowy a.苗条的 [wil-low-y]
wilt v.使…凋谢,枯萎 [wilt]
windbag n.饶舌之人 [wind-bag]
wobble v.动摇;犹豫 [wob-ble]
xenophobe n.惧外者;排外者 [xen-o-phobe]
xerophyte n.旱生植物 [xe-ro-phyte]

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