linux expect 自动交互脚本用法

检查是否安装tcl,expect

如果没有安装,使用yum安装:
yum install -y tcl
yum install -y expect

expect参数

启用选项

  • -c:执行脚本前先执行的命令,可多次使用。
  • -d:debug模式,可以在运行时输出一些诊断信息,与在脚本开始处使用exp_internal 1相似。
  • -D:启用交换调式器,可设一整数参数。
  • -f:从文件读取命令,仅用于使用#!时。如果文件名为"-",则从stdin读取(使用"./-"从文件名为-的文件读取)。
  • -i:交互式输入命令,使用"exit"或"EOF"退出输入状态。
  • --:标示选项结束(如果你需要传递与expect选项相似的参数给脚本时),可放到#!行:#!/usr/bin/expect --
  • -v:显示expect版本信息。

expect的4个命令

Expect中最关键的四个命令是send,expect,spawn,interact。

命令 说明
send 用于向进程发送字符串
expect 从进程接收字符串
spawn 启动新的进程
interact 允许用户交互

常用命令

`# 命令行参数`

`# $argv,参数数组,使用[lindex $argv n]获取,$argv 0为脚本名字`

`# $argc,参数个数`

`set` `username [lindex $argv 1]` `# 获取第1个参数`

`set` `passwd` `[lindex $argv 2]` `# 获取第2个参数`

`set` `timeout 30` `# 设置超时`

`# spawn是expect内部命令,开启ssh连接`

`spawn` `ssh` `-l username 192.168.1.1`

`# 判断上次输出结果里是否包含“password:”的字符串,如果有则立即返回,否则就等待一段时间(timeout)后返回`

`expect` `"password:"`

`# 发送内容ispass(密码、命令等)`

`send` `"ispass\r"`

`# 发送内容给用户`

`send_user` `"$argv0 [lrange $argv 0 2]\n"`

`send_user` `"It's OK\r"`

`# 执行完成后保持交互状态,控制权交给控制台(手工操作)。否则会完成后会退出。`

`interact`

命令介绍

  • close:关闭当前进程的连接。
  • debug:控制调试器。
  • disconnect:断开进程连接(进程仍在后台运行)。
    • 定时读取密码、执行priv_prog
        `send_user` `"password?\ "`

        `expect_user -re` `"(.*)\n"`

        `for` `{} 1 {} {`

        `if` `{[fork]!=0} {``sleep` `3600;``continue``}`

        `disconnect`

        `spawn priv_prog`

        `expect Password:`

        `send` `"$expect_out(1,string)\r"`

        `. . .`

        `exit`

        `}`
  • exit:退出expect。
  • exp_continue [-continue_timer]:继续执行下面的匹配。
  • exp_internal [-f file] value:

expect范例

1.远程登录并创建文件后退出
#!/usr/bin/expect           ##注意路径,使用 [whereis expect] 查看
set user "hadoop"           ##设定参数,注意",'的区别
set pwd "yangkun"
set host "48.93.36.144"

set timeout -1              ##;号可有可无
spawn ssh -p 2020 $user@$host
expect {                    ##expect后有空格
    "*yes/no" {send "yes\r";exp_continue}
    "*password:" {send "$pwd\r"}
}
expect "]*"                 ## 通配符,使用 ]* 有效, 使用  *# 无效
send "touch /home/hadoop/aa.txt\r"
expect "]*"
send "echo hello world >> /home/hadoop/aa.txt\r"
expect "]*"
[interact]                  ##人为交互
send "exit\r"               ##退出
2.配置免密登录并安装JDK
#!/bin/bash
#!/usr/bin/expect
SERVERS="114.114.114.114"       ##数组以空格分隔,可以为目标ip 或者hostName
PASSWORD="yangkun"

## 实现免密登录配置的函数
auto_ssh_copy_id() {
    expect -c "set timeout -1;
        spawn ssh-copy-id \"-p 2020 $1\";       ## 这里要注意,使用'或\'不可行
        expect {
            *(yes/no)* {send -- yes\r;exp_continue;}
            *password:* {send -- $2\r;exp_continue;}
            eof {exit 0;}
        }";
}

## 循环执行,配置主机到从节点所有免密
ssh_copy_id_to_all() {
    for SERVER in $SERVERS              ## 取值需要加$
    do
        auto_ssh_copy_id $SERVER $PASSWORD
    done    
}

## 调用循环配置函数
ssh_copy_id_to_all


## 批量部署
for SERVER in $SERVERS
do
    scp install.sh root@$SERVER:/root
    ssh root@$SERVER /root/install.sh
done
  • 读取文件中的host配置
让脚本自动读取slaves文件中的机器名来批量安装
cat slaves | while read host
do
echo $host
expect -c "set timeout -f
spawn ssh-copy-id $host"
done

3.批量配置JDK,install.sh

#!/bin/bash
BASE_SERVER=master
BASE_PATH=/home/hadoop/soft
TARGET_PATH=/usr/local
JAVA_PATH=$TARGET_PATH/java
## 1.判断是否存在文件夹,不存在则创建soft文件夹
#if [ ! -d "$BASE_PATH" ]; then
#   mkdir "$BASE_PATH"
#fi

## 2.从指定host拷贝jdk到目标机器上(已经拷贝文件夹)
scp -r $BASE_SERVER:$BASE_PATH $BASE_PATH

## 2.解压jdk到指定目录
if [ ! -d "$JAVA_PATH" ]; then
    sudo -S mkdir -p "$JAVA_PATH"
fi

## 赋予权限
sudo -S chmod -R hadoop:hadoop $JAVA_PATH

tar -zxvf $BASE_PATH/jdk1.8.0_121.tar.gz -C $JAVA_PATH

#### 3.配置环境变量
sudo -S cat>>/etc/profile<<EOF
export JAVA_HOME=$JAVA_PATH/jdk1.8.0_121
export PATH=\$PATH:\$JAVA_HOME/bin
EOF
  • 自动telnet会话
 #!/usr/bin/expect -f
set ip [lindex $argv 0 ]         # 接收第1个参数,作为IP
set userid [lindex $argv 1 ]     # 接收第2个参数,作为userid
set mypassword [lindex $argv 2 ] # 接收第3个参数,作为密码
set mycommand [lindex $argv 3 ]  # 接收第4个参数,作为命令
set timeout 10                   # 设置超时时间
 
# 向远程服务器请求打开一个telnet会话,并等待服务器询问用户名
spawn telnet $ip
    expect "username:"
    # 输入用户名,并等待服务器询问密码
    send "$userid\r"
    expect "password:"
    # 输入密码,并等待键入需要运行的命令
    send "$mypassword\r"
    expect "%"
    # 输入预先定好的密码,等待运行结果
    send "$mycommand\r"
    expect "%"
    # 将运行结果存入到变量中,显示出来或者写到磁盘中
    set results $expect_out(buffer)
    # 退出telnet会话,等待服务器的退出提示EOF
    send "exit\r"
    expect eof

4.自动建立FTP会话

   #!/usr/bin/expect -f
set ip [lindex $argv 0 ]         # 接收第1个参数,作为IP
set userid [lindex $argv 1 ]     # 接收第2个参数,作为Userid
set mypassword [lindex $argv 2 ] # 接收第3个参数,作为密码
set timeout 10                   # 设置超时时间
 
# 向远程服务器请求打开一个FTP会话,并等待服务器询问用户名
spawn ftp $ip
    expect "username:"
    # 输入用户名,并等待服务器询问密码
    send "$userid\r"
    expect "password:"
    # 输入密码,并等待FTP提示符的出现
    send "$mypassword\r"
    expect "ftp>"
    # 切换到二进制模式,并等待FTP提示符的出现
    send "bin\r"
    expect "ftp>"
    # 关闭ftp的提示符
    send "prompt\r"
    expect "ftp>"
    # 下载所有文件
    send "mget *\r"
    expect "ftp>"
    # 退出此次ftp会话,并等待服务器的退出提示EOF
    send "bye\r"
    expect eof
  • 自动登录ssh执行命令
#!/usr/bin/expect
set IP     [lindex $argv 0]
set USER   [lindex $argv 1]
set PASSWD [lindex $argv 2]
set CMD    [lindex $argv 3]
 
spawn ssh $USER@$IP $CMD
expect {
    "(yes/no)?" {
        send "yes\r"
        expect "password:"
        send "$PASSWD\r"
        }
    "password:" {send "$PASSWD\r"}
    "* to host" {exit 1}
    }
expect eof

5.自动登录ssh

#!/usr/bin/expect -f  
set ip [lindex $argv 0 ]         # 接收第1个参数,作为IP
set username [lindex $argv 1 ]   # 接收第2个参数,作为username
set mypassword [lindex $argv 2 ] # 接收第3个参数,作为密码
set timeout 10                   # 设置超时时间 
 
spawn ssh $username@$ip       # 发送ssh请求
expect {                      # 返回信息匹配 
"*yes/no" { send "yes\r"; exp_continue}  # 第一次ssh连接会提示yes/no,继续  
"*password:" { send "$mypassword\r" }    # 出现密码提示,发送密码  
} 
interact        # 交互模式,用户会停留在远程服务器上面

6.批量登录ssh服务器执行操作范例,设定增量的for循环

 #!/usr/bin/expect
for {set i 10} {$i <= 12} {incr i} {
  set timeout 30
  set ssh_user [lindex $argv 0]
  spawn ssh -i .ssh/$ssh_user abc$i.com

  expect_before "no)?" {
  send "yes\r" }
  sleep 1
  expect "password*"
  send "hello\r"
  expect "*#"
  send "echo hello expect! > /tmp/expect.txt\r"
  expect "*#"
  send "echo\r"
}
exit

7.批量登录ssh并执行命令,foreach语法

#!/usr/bin/expect
if {$argc!=2} {
    send_user "usage: ./expect ssh_user password\n"
    exit
}
foreach i {11 12} {
    set timeout 30
    set ssh_user [lindex $argv 0]
    set password [lindex $argv 1]
    spawn ssh -i .ssh/$ssh_user root@xxx.yy.com
    expect_before "no)?" {
    send "yes\r" }
    sleep 1
 
    expect "Enter passphrase for key*"
    send "password\r"
    expect "*#"
    send "echo hello expect! > /tmp/expect.txt\r"
    expect "*#"
    send "echo\r"
}
exit

8.另一自动ssh范例,从命令行获取服务器IP,foreach语法,expect嵌套

    #!/usr/bin/expect
# 使用方法: script_name ip1 ip2 ip3 ...
 
set timeout 20
if {$argc < 1} {
  puts "Usage: script IPs"
  exit 1
}
# 替换你自己的用户名
set user "username"
#替换你自己的登录密码
set password "yourpassword"
 
foreach IP $argv {
spawn ssh $user@$IP
 
expect \
  "(yes/no)?" {
    send "yes\r"
    expect "password:?" {
      send "$password\r"
    }
  } "password:?" {
    send "$password\r"
}
 
expect "\$?"
# 替换你要执行的命令
send "last\r"
expect "\$?"
sleep 10
send "exit\r"
expect eof
}

9.批量ssh执行命令,用shell调用tclsh方式、多进程同时执行

*   tclsh - Simple shell containing Tcl interpreter
 #!/bin/sh
# -*- tcl -*- \
exec tclsh $0 "$@"
package require Expect
set username [lindex $argv 0]
set password [lindex $argv 1]
set argv [lrange $argv 2 end]
set prompt "(%|#|\\$) $"
foreach ip $argv {
    spawn ssh -t $username@$ip sh
    lappend ids $spawn_id
}
expect_before -i ids eof {
    set index [lsearch $ids $expect_out(spawn_id)]
    set ids [lreplace $ids $index $index]
    if [llength $ids] exp_continue
}
expect -i ids "(yes/no)\\?" {
    send -i $expect_out(spawn_id) yes\r
    exp_continue
} -i ids "Enter passphrase for key" {
    send -i $expect_out(spawn_id) \r
    exp_continue
} -i ids "assword:" {
    send -i $expect_out(spawn_id) $password\r
    exp_continue
} -i ids -re $prompt {
    set spawn_id $expect_out(spawn_id)
    send "echo hello; exit\r"
    exp_continue
} timeout {
    exit 1
}

10.ssh登录过程常规提示文字

The authenticity of host '192.168.17.35 (192.168.17.35)' can't be established.
RSA key fingerprint is 25:e8:4c:89:a3:b2:06:ee:de:66:c7:7e:1b:fa:1c:c5.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)?


Warning: Permanently added '192.168.17.35' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
Enter passphrase for key '/data/key/my_dsa':


Last login: Sun Jan 26 13:39:37 2014 from 192.168.11.143
[root@master003 ~]#


root@192.168.16.90's password:


Last login: Thu Jan 23 17:50:43 2014 from 192.168.11.102
[root@lvsmaster ~]#

11.ssh自动登录expect脚本:ssh.expect

    #!/usr/bin/expect -f
# Auther:YuanXing
# Update:2014-02-08
if {$argc < 4} {
    send_user "Usage:\n  $argv0 IPaddr User Passwd Port Passphrase\n"
    puts stderr "argv error!\n"
    sleep 1
    exit 1
}
 
set ip         [lindex $argv 0 ]
set user       [lindex $argv 1 ]
set passwd     [lindex $argv 2 ]
set port       [lindex $argv 3 ]
set passphrase [lindex $argv 4 ]
set timeout 6
if {$port == ""} {
    set port 22
}
#send_user "IP:$ip,User:$user,Passwd:$passwd,Port:$port,Passphrase:$passphrase"
spawn ssh -p $port $user@$ip
 
expect_before "(yes/no)\\?" {
    send "yes\r"}
 
expect \
"Enter passphrase for key*" {
    send "$passphrase\r"
    exp_continue
} " password:?" {
    send "$passwd\r"
    exp_continue
} "*\[#\\\$]" {
    interact
} "* to host" {
    send_user "Connect faild!"
    exit 2
} timeout {
    send_user "Connect timeout!"
    exit 2
} eof {
    send_user "Lost connect!"
    exit
}

12.Mikrotik backup script using ssh and expect

#!/bin/bash
# TAG: mikrotik, ssh, expect, lftp
 
BACKUP_DIR="/var/backups"
HOSTNAME="192.168.88.1"
PORT="22"
USER="admin"
PASS="123456"
TMP=$(mktemp)
TODAY=$(date +%F)
FILENAME="$HOSTNAME-$TODAY"
PATH="/usr/local/sbin:/usr/sbin:/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin"
 
# create expect script
cat > $TMP << EOF 
#exp_internal 1 # Uncomment for debug
set timeout -1
spawn ssh -p$PORT $USER@$HOSTNAME
match_max 100000
expect -exact "password:"
send -- "$PASS\r"
sleep 1
expect " > "
send -- "/export file=$FILENAME\r"
expect " > "
send -- "/system backup save name=$FILENAME\r"
expect " > "
send -- "quit\r"
expect eof
EOF
 
# run expect script
#cat $TMP # Uncomment for debug
expect -f $TMP
 
# remove expect script
rm $TMP
 
# download and remove backup files
# "xfer:clobber on" means overwrite existing files
cd ${BACKUP_DIR}
echo "
  set xfer:clobber on
  get ${FILENAME}.rsc
  rm ${FILENAME}.rsc 
  get ${FILENAME}.backup
  rm ${FILENAME}.backup" | 
lftp -u $USER,$PASS $HOSTNAME

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